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COLLECTIVE COMPOUNDS (DWIGU). 155. A numeral is often compounded with a substantive to form a collective noun of the neuter gender; thus, aggi, “the four ages" (for चत्वारि युगानि); चतुर्दिशं, “ the four quarters"; त्रिदिनं, " three days" (cf. the Latin triduum); TVi, “three nights" (o being substituted for ufa); “ three years" (cf. triennium).
a. Sometimes the final vowel of the substantive is changed to $; as, fapient, “the three worlds."
RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (BAHUVRĪHI).
156. The greater number of compounds in the preceding four divisions are terminated by substantives, the sense of each being in that case absolute and complete in itself. All such compounds may be used relatively, that is, as epithets of other words, the final substantive becoming susceptible of three genders, like an adjective (p. 32. t. p. 34. t.): and it cannot be too forcibly impressed upon the student that the terms Relative and Bahuvrīhi have reference to the adjective use of those compounds only which have a substantive in the last member. This is not to be regarded, therefore, as a distinct division of the subject of compound words, so much as a distinct view of the same subject, the object of which is to show that all compounds, which are in themselves absolute and complete in sense, and are terminated by substantives, may be used adjectively, and in the relation of an epithet to some other word in the sentence. We have given the name relative to compounds when thus used, not only for the obvious reason of their being relatively and not absolutely employed, but also because they usually involve a relative pronoun, and are sometimes translated into English by the aid of this pronoun, and are, moreover, resolved by native commentators into their equivalent uncompounded words by the aid of the genitive case of the relative (ur.). Thus, He is a Descriptive compound, meaning, “great wealth": and may be used adjectively in relation to पुरुषः; as, महाधनः पुरुषः,
man who has great wealth": or to rent; as, HENGIT hai, “a woman who has great wealth," and would be resolved by commentators into यस्य or यस्याः महद् धनं. In English we have similar compounds; as, “high-minded," "left-handed," and the like, where
the substantive terminating the compound is converted into an adjective.
Relative Form of Dependent Compounds. 157. Many Dependent compounds (especially those that are instrumentally dependent) are already in their own nature relative, and cannot be used except in connection with some other word in the sentence. But, on the other hand, many others, and especially those which are genitively dependent, constituting by far the largest number of this class of compounds, are in their nature absolute, and yield a sense complete in itself. These may be made relative by declining the final substantive after the manner of an adjective. The following are instances : gafai, -fii, -fat,
moon-shaped ” (p. 34. f.), from the absolute compound refai, " the shape of the moon "; 29.09:, -ut, -* “whose form is godlike"; सूर्य प्रभावः, -वा, -वं, “splendid as the sun"; हस्ति.पादः, -दा, -दं,' * elephant-footed "; Airpori, --i, -*i, * “ ending at the sea "; Atupi, -ना, -तं, “ terminated by death "; कर्ण पुरोगमः, -मा, -मं, or कर्ण .मुखः, - 91,-€,* "headed by Karņa"; facugnat.aAT, -HT, -H,“ named Vişhņusharma” (p. 42. note t.); getala:, -#1, -1, "lotus-eyed” (r. 154. 6.); नारायणाख्यः, -ख्या, -ख्यं, “called Narayana"; घनमूलः, -ला, -लं, “ founded on wealth "; Jarreta (agreeing with raifa), “money to the amount of a lac "; TGV.EttiF, I, “having a club in the hand "; aufur:, -fu:, -fu, “having arms in the hand "; gofauu:, -21, -4,“ on the subject of flowers,” “ relating to flowers." These examples are not distinguishable from absolute dependent compounds, except by declension in three genders.
a. Many of them, however, are not found, except as relatives ; and if used absolutely would yield a different sense ; thus, mürge means “the face of Karņa," but when used relatively to Tita:,
the kings headed by Karņa.” So also creg: signifies “the eye of the spy,” but when used relatively to UAT, “a king who sees by means of his spies,” the nom. case masc. being then yra.
b. The substantive wife, "a beginning," when it occurs in
* See p. 32. 1. पाद् may be substituted for पाद in compounds like हस्तिपाद.
the last member of a compound of this nature, is always used relatively to some word expressed or understood, and yields a sense equivalent to et cetera. It is necessarily found either in the plural or neuter singular; as, sag!ga:, “Indra and the others (agreeing with the nom. case yra: expressed or understood,“ the gods commencing with Indra "); WRIGIGI, "of Agni and the others" (agreeing with gaat understood,“ of those abovenamed things of which Agni was the first ");
चक्षुरादीनि, “ the eyes, &c." (agreeing with fulfu, “the senses commencing with the eyes "). When used in the neut. sing. it either agrees with JETE, “the aforesaid,” understood, or with a number of things taken collectively, and the adverb iti* may be prefixed; as, aalfarrata, “ the word devān, &c.” (agreeing with gara understood, " the aforesaid sentence of which devān is the first word "); Grafcat, “ by liberality, &c." (agreeing with some class of things understood,“ by that class of things of which liberality is the first "). Sometimes wifça is used for wife; as, çtaifa, “ gifts, &c. "; and sometimes we; as, š!at: Yu., “the gods of whom Indra is the first "; or sometimes the substantive fat; as, इन्द्रप्रभृतयः सुराः :.
Relative Form of Aggregative Compounds. 158. Aggregative compounds are sometimes used relatively; as, Acuraufgroti, -a, -api," that which is liable to sorrow, sickness, and death "; especially in the case of adjectives or participles; as, gamymi, -* , -, “ black and white "; Emaigfon:, -HT, -5, “ bathed and anointed"; पौरजानपदः, -दा, -दं, "city and country"; कृतापकृतः, -11, -, “done and done badly "; TTA:, -HT, -1, "good and evil (r. 153. 6.). Examples are still more common under the head of complex compounds.
Relative Form of Descriptive Compounds. 159. A greater number of compound words may be referred to this head than to any other. Every style of writing abounds
* Sometimes evam
is prefixed; as, panicia uraifa,
with them. The following may serve as examples: 29.gifeti, -क्तिः, -क्ति, “whose strength is small" (p. 34. +.); महाबलः, -ला, -लं, “whose strength is great” (r. 154. a. p. 32. f.); HET.NET:, - FT:, -5:,
whose glory is great” (r. 68. 69.); HEỊNHT, -, -, “high-minded (p. 41, 42.); उदारचरितः, -ता, -तं, “of noble demeanour"; पण्डित बुद्धिः, -fa:, -fa, "of wise intellect” (p. 34. f.); fuqattz:, -, -,“ having a dear wife ";* wan:, -a, -, “not to be reconciled.”
a. Although a passive participle is not often prefixed to a noun in an absolute sense, this kind of combination prevails most extensively in the formation of relative compounds; as, FISIC: , -JT, -,“ whose time has arrived"; fafc 4., -, -1, "whose passions are subdued "; maat:, -AT:, -ti, “whose mind is composed "; भग्नाशः, -शा, -शं, “whose hopes are broken"; हतराज्यः, -ज्या, -ज्यं, “whose kingdom is taken away"; waarna:, -T:, -8:, “whose glory is boundless "; fata:, -HT, -#, “whose desire is accomplished,” i.e. “successful "; wafungai, per, I, “by whom the shāstras have not been read "; fra.gcu:, -, -, “whose heart is pierced."
Relative form of Collective Compounds. 160. The following are examples of Collective or Dwigu compounds used relatively: fyd:, -uff, -#, “two-leaved "; fa.pl 9:, oft, -p, “tri-ocular "; frus:, -3, -6, “three-headed” (being substituted for मूर्द्धन्); चतुर्मुखः, -खी, -खं, “ four-faced "; चतुष्कोणः, -णं, quadrangular "; TASTU, -, -,
“ hundred-gated "'; चतुर्विद्यः, -द्या, -चं, “ possessed of the four sciences"; सहस्राक्षः, -क्षी, -हं, thousand-eyed. Relative form of Substantives compounded with certain Adverbial
Prefixes. 161. This includes a class of compounds possessing no corresponding absolute form, and composed of an adverb prefixed to a substantive. By far the greater number of these are formed with
* Occasionally the feminine of the adjective appears in the compound; as, yht:, “having a sixth wife.”
† Unless they be regarded as the relative form of Ayayıbhāva compounds.
the adverbial preposition HR,“ with,” contracted into #; as, Hanter, -धा, -धं, "angry"; सफलः, -ला, -लं, “fruitful " (p. 32. f.); सबन्धुः, -न्धुः, -न्धु, “possessed of kindred" (r. 54, 55, 56.); सयानः, -ला, -नं,
energetic"; सानन्दः, -न्दा, -न्दं, "joyful "; ससचिवः, -वा, -वं, companied by ministers"; सज्यः, -ज्या, -ज्यं, strung” (as a bow). The following are examples of other adverbial prefixes : 36.13#:, -YT, -uj, “with uplifted weapon "; ATGT991, -3, -, “of various forms"; क्वनिवासः, -सा, -सं, “where dwelling"? वजन्मा, -न्मा, -न्म, “where born"? it, -aft:, -for, “fearless” (p. 33. f.); nafar, -VT, -9, “ of that kind.”
COMPLEX COMPOUND NOUNS.
162. We have now to speak of those complex compound words, or compounds within compounds, which form the most remarkable feature in Sanscrit poetical composition. Instances might be given of twenty or thirty words thus compounded together, but these are the productions of the vitiated taste of more modern times, and are only curious as showing that the power of compounding words may often be perverted to the formation of a style the most extravagant and ridiculous. But even in the best specimens of Sanscrit composition, and in the simplest prose writings, four, five, or even six words are commonly compounded together, involving two or three forms under one head. It will be easy, however, to determine the character of the forms involved, by the rules propounded in the preceding pages; in proof of which the student has only to study attentively the examples we are about to give.
a. Instances of absolute complex compounds, whose sense is complete and unconnected, are not very abundant. The following may be taken as examples : कालान्तरावृत्ति शुभाशुभानि, “good and evil (occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time,” the whole being a dependent, involving a dependent and an aggregative ; Hagufaeolwait, “the general and the overseer of the forces,” the whole being an aggregative, involving two dependents ; aufer*74, Flv, “the protection from sorrow, enemies, and perils,” the whole being a dependent, involving an aggregative; wazifugega, " the disregarded words of a friend,” the whole being a descriptive, involving a dependent.