Imatges de pÓgina

in ā, as, from , pāyin, “a drinker"; from , dāyin, “a giver" (see their declension, r. 43. iii. and p. 43.).

This noun of agency has often, like the first class, the sense of a present participle, and is then always united with the crude of the word which it governs in one compound: thus, from manas and hri, manohārin, “mindcaptivating” (r. 29.). It sometimes, also, governs the case of the verb, being still united with the word which it governs in one compound; as, grāmevāsin, dwelling in the village."

6. By adding aka to the root before which affix changes take place analogous to those before the causal ay (r. 107. c. d. e. f.); as, from kri, kāraka (1), "a doer," "doing"; from , nāyaka, “a leader," " leading"; from grah, grūhaka; from sidh, sūdhaka; from han, ghātaka; from J4, ; from kram, kramaka; from nand, nandaka; from sthā, sthāpaka (see their declension, r. 38. ii. and p.31.). This participial noun is also often joined with the crude of the noun which it governs in one compound word; as, aay, “effecting the business." It is very rarely found governing the case of the verb; as, gacoifa yfi,“ kissing the buds“ (Ratnāvali, p. 7.).

c. By adding ana to some few roots ending in consonants, after changes similar to those required before the causal affix; as, from nand, nandana, “rejoicing”;

rejoicing"; from , 240, “ vitiating"; from T, YA, "cleansing” (see their declension, r. 38. iii. and p. 31.)




132. Adverbs, like nouns and verbs, may be divided into simple and compound. The latter are treated of in the next Chapter on Compound Words.

Simple adverbs may be classed under four heads; ist, as




formed from the cases of nouns; 2dly, as formed with affixes ; 3dly, as of uncertain derivation ; 4thly, as prefixes to other words.

Adverbs formed from the Cases of Nouns. The following cases of nouns are used adverbially :

a. The nominative or accusative neuter of any adjective ; as, Hri,“ truly "; we, “much "; 1i, fa, “ quickly "; gai “fitly "; Hilü, “near"; got, “lightly"; ferati, wci, TC, ETİ, “exceedingly"; wapi,“ certainly "; fari, “ constantly "; pan,“ strongly.' The nom. acc. neuter of certain pronouns ; as, na, “therefore";

“ wherefore," when "; man,“ so long as "; 197, as long as "; fax,“ why ? " The nom. or acc. neut. of certain substantives and obsolete words; as E:,“ secretly"; FTA,“ willingly "; TTA,“ by name," " that is to say "; ani art,“ repeatedly "; fert“long ago "; , “ pleasantly"; Hran,“ now "; 7*" by night " (noctu).

b. The instrumental case of nouns and pronouns ; as, vfu, virtuously "; faut, “southwards"; TU, , “ northwards":

“ above "; 77a:, “below "; ai, “slowly "; na, “therefore "; G," wherefore." The instr. case of certain obsolete nouns ; farcur,“ for a long time "; falu,“ in a short time "; fear," by day"; femme,“fortunately"; HEH, EHT,“ quickly "; YAT,“ now."

c. The ablative case of a few nouns and pronouns ; as, acet, 'forcibly "; fua, “at a distance "; AAT, “therefore "; dira, "wherefore"? WATT ,

without cause, unexpectedly "; TRA, " from the north": and of a few obsolete nouns; as, fancta, "for a long time "; 17, “afterwards."

d. The locative case of a few nouns and obsolete words; as, TETT, “at night "; a, “far off"; ther, “in the forenoon "; ma,

suitably"; "in front "; PEUG, "at once "; hufe, “instantly "; अन्तरे, “ within."

Adverbs formed with Affixes. 133. fan chit, vfa api, and a chana, may form Indefinite adverbs of time and place, when affixed to interrogative adverbs; as, from कदा, “ when?" कदाचित, कदापि, and कदाचन, “sometimes"; from कुत्र

where?” garen, gana, sperm, shfa, “ somewhere "; from whence ?” gatva and nuca, “from somewhere "; from



and , कुतस्,


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“ in many

af, "when?” affen, "at some time "; from a “how?" QUEST,“ somehow or other" (cf. r. 85.).

a. tas (changeable to 7: or , r. 29.) may be added to any noun, and to some pronouns, to form adverbs; as, from up, una:, " with effort "; from wife, wifen:, “ from the beginning "; from 7 (the proper crude of the pronoun ap), na:, “thence"; similarly, इतः,

“ hence." This affix usually gives the sense of the prepositions with and from, and is often equivalent to the ablative case; as, in H:, “from me "; A., “from thee”:

but it is sometimes vaguely employed to express other relations; as, yni, “ behind the back "; van:, “in the first place "; FM:, sides "; van:, “in front"; wita:,

near to.” 6. tra, forming adverbs of Place; as, “here"; m, “there "; E, “where? ” E,“where"; 9,"everywhere "; 924,“ in another place”; 297,“ in one place "; 76, places "; va,“ there," “ in the next world.”

c. " thā and u tham, forming adverbs of Manner ; as, net, “ so"; 49, “as"; agu,“ in every way"; RAUT,“ otherwise "; ki, “how?" grü, “thus."

d. e da, forming adverbs of Time from pronouns, &c. ; as, TGT, then "; UGT,“ when "; TGT,“ when?” Raffi, once "; frugt, “constantly "; HET, HET, “always."

e. u, dhā, forming adverbs of Distribution from numeral adjectives; as, PAYT, “in one way"; font, “in two ways "; ciut, “in six ways "; MAUT, in a hundred ways "; FEHTI, “in a thousand ways "; TEXT,“ in many ways."

f. q vat may be added to any noun to form adverbs of Similitude; as, from azt, hutan, “like the sun "; from ê, gaa, as before."

g. Ta shas, forming adverbs of Quantity; as, afT:, abundantly "; veug:,“ in small quantities "; pfit:, “singly "; HE#ST:, by hundreds and thousands "; FAIT:, “hy degrees.'

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These are the forms generally used for the ablative case of the personal pronouns, the proper ablative cases Ha, being never used except as substitutes for the crude, in compound words.



Adverbs of Uncertain Derivation. 134. Of Affirmation.-mi, ar, fatics, ea,“ indeed "; sfa, “even.”

a. Of Negation.7, , afe, “not." मा, मास्म are prohibitive; as, AT JE,“ do not." HT is often used with the 3d preterite, the augment being rejected, as at mo, “do not " (p. 102.).

b. Of Interrogation.-faneng, afan, J, Tg, favje, “whether?"

c. Of Comparison.-57, “like "; ea, vh," so "; fangar,“ how much rather." d. Of Quantity:-wita, “exceedingly"; fun,

exceedingly"; f. “ a little "; ergo, once"; असकृत् , पुनः पुनर्, मुहुम् , भूयस् , “ repeatedly." e. Of, #, “so," “ thus ";

thus"; पुनर्, “again"; प्रायस् , “ for the most part "; tant, variously"; tea, “ separately "; forzen, “falsely "; M 9, “in vain ”; ,“ enough "; fefeta, SITE! (cf. 'kús), “ quickly "; gauft,“ silently."

f. Of Time.-WE, “to day,” “now "; erat, #ofa, “now "; नदानी, “ then"; पुग, “formerly"; पुरस् , पुरस्तात् , प्राक,

before "; gore, " at once "; HUH,“ instantly "; 074, " after death"; t.* “afterwards "; 1g, “ever "; 7 TU,“ never."

g. Of Place.FE, “here "; "where ?" EH, “ without.” h. Of Doubt.-falfan, wfuga, “perhaps."

Adverbial Prefixes. 135. a prefixed to nouns and even to participles with a privative or negative force, corresponding to the Greek a, the Latin in, and the English in, im, un; as, from yra, “possible," w, "impossible "; from qua, “touching

touching” (pres. part.), pasta, touching." When a word begins with a vowel, ez is euphonically substituted ; as, an, “end "; ro, "endless."

a. ufo ati, “excessively," "very "; as, ufanea, very great.

6. Tā, prefixed to imply “diminution "; as, wine, what pale.” un is prefixed with the same sense.

c. a or ku, prefixed to words to imply “disparagement "; as, कापुरुष, ,

a coward "; 9704, "deformed." d. ? dur, prefixed to imply “ badly,” or “ with difficulty "; as, दुष्कृत, badly done" (cf. p. 15. note); gata, “not easily broken." It is opposed to y, and corresponds to the Greek duo.




* These, however, admit of derivation, and a few others less obviously.


e. fare nir and fa vi are prefixed to nouns like ya with a privative or negative sense; as, fa, “powerless "; fata, “unarmed "; but not to participles.

f. y su, prefixed to imply “well,” "easily "; as, tenen, well done "; mata, "easily broken.” In this sense it is opposed to ; and corresponds to the Greek ců. It is also used for wf, to imply “very," "excessively "; as, HHET,“ very great."

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Copulative. 136. cha, "and," "also," corresponding to the Latin


and not et. It can never, therefore, stand as the first word in a sentence. It is not, however, like que, necessarily interposed between the first and second words, but may be admitted to any part of the sentence, being only excluded from the first place.

a. fe, “ for,” like y is always placed after its word, and never admitted to the first place in a sentence.

6. ufc, “if"; we, “then," " now," used very commonly as an inceptive particle. ततस्, upon that,” “then” (r. 133. a.). अन्यच्च, किच्च, अपरच, परत, अपिच, "again, moreover," used very commonly before quotations. 4, “also.”

Disjunctive. 137. at vā, “or," corresponds to the Latin ve, and is always placed after its word, being never admitted to the first place in a sentence. g, faceny,“ but "; the former is placed after its word; Tafa," although "; eta, "nevertheless," yet," sometimes used as a correlative to the last; अथवा, किम्वा, or else "; TET, or not "; ufat," whether," " whether or no." F, 7, 7, à, are expletives, often used in poetry with no other object than to fill up the verse.


138. Of all the internal evidences of the antiquity of Sanscrit, there is none more decisive than the sparing use which this language makes of prepositions, in expressing the dependence of one word upon another. These aids to syntactical combination are always to be regarded as a result of modern refinement, incom

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