Imatges de pÓgina
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in short, his was a philosophical exhibition, the mate-
rial being taken from human life.

Having taken our places at the glasses, the Italian
a cord, when there was presented to us the
figure-picture, I presume it was, but so admirably
painted, so life-like, so finely relieved, that it seemed
a beautiful statue-of a child, a lovely boy of between
three and four years of age. We all uttered an in-
voluntary exclamation of delight on beholding this
fair child; his look was so innocent, so playful; his
brow so open and sunny; the smile on his beauteous
countenance so full of sweetness and childish sim-

northern states-whether I contemplate the beauty
of their cities, or the general aspect of their fine
country, in which nature every where is seen render-
ing her rich and free tribute to industry and skill-drew
or whether I regard the general comfort and pro-
sperity of the labouring population-my admiration is
strongly excited, and, to do justice to my feelings,
must be strongly expressed. Probably there is no
country where the means of temporal happiness are
so generally diffused, notwithstanding the constant
flow of emigrants from the old world; and I believe
there is no country where the means of religious and
moral improvement are so abundantly provided-plicity.
where facilities of education are more within the reach
of all, or where there is less of extreme poverty and
destitution. As morals have an intimate connexion
with politics, I do not think it out of place here to
record my conviction, that the great principle of
popular control, which is carried out almost to its full
extent in the free states, is not only beautiful in theory,
but that it is found to work well in practice. It is
true that disgraceful scenes of mob violence and Lynch
law have occurred, but perhaps not more frequently
than popular outbreaks in Great Britain; while, gene-
rally, the supremacy of law and order have been re-
stored without troops, or special commissions, or
capital punishments. It is also true that these occur-
rences are, for the most part, directly traceable, not
to the celebrated declaration of the equal and un-
alienable right of all men to life, liberty, and the pur-
suit of happiness, which is the fundamental principle
of the constitution, but to the flagrant violation of
that principle in the persons of the coloured popula-
tion, of whom those in most of the free states are
actually or virtually deprived of political rights; and
the rest, constituting a majority of the population in
some of the southern states, are held in abject slavery."
To this we have nothing to add, but that the slavery
of the southern states of America and elsewhere will
not be got rid of by frantic projects such as have
lately proved abortive, but by plans devised on prin-
ciples of common sense, peaceful suasion, and a rea-
sonable allowance of time to permit prejudices to be
weakened and ultimately removed.

"Is not that a lovely child?" said the Italian.
"Saw you ever such a picture of innocence? Saw
you ever human countenance so utterly free from all
expression of evil-from all indications of the darker
passions of human nature? Does he not seem, in
truth, a very angel? You cannot believe it possible
nay, it surely is not possible-that so guileless and
innocent a being should ever become a cruel, ruthless,
blood-thirsty savage."
"No, no,
we all exclaimed; "it cannot be. It is
impossible."
At this instant, click went one of the cords of the
show-box. The picture of the child disappeared, and
what is called a battle-piece occupied its place. In
the foreground, a body of cavalry was making despe-
rate havock amongst the remains of an army which
had just been broken and put to flight. The leader
of the charging party was himself employing his sabre
with merciless activity, not scrupling to cut down
even those who supplicated his mercy, or whose
wounds disabled them for flight or resistance. His
countenance manifested that excitement which accom-
panies the exercise of the more violent passions.

"Have you ever seen that man before, my kind
friends?" said the Italian, with a gentle but signifi-
cant smile.

We all declared we had not.
"Ah! my good friends, but you have," he said,
laughing. That ruthless warrior is no other than
the beautiful and innocent child, grown to man's
estate, whom you a little while since so much ad-

mired."

Before drawing the cord which was to exhibit the first picture to us, the Italian made a short speech in broken but perfectly intelligible English, the substance of which was-That his exhibition differed from all other exhibitions in the show way; that there was little in what he had to exhibit to gratify the eye as mere spectacle, but a good deal, he hoped, to strike the imagination, and perhaps improve the mind; that,

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Click, again, went the cord of the show-box, and a splendid pageant took the place of the battle-piece. The scene was the interior of a noble Gothic hall, hung with rich tapestry, and blazing with the light of a thousand wax candles in silver sconces. Along the centre of the hall ran a long table, loaded with the most costly viands in gold and silver vessels. At this table sat a multitude of persons, male and female, splendidly attired. At a small table, at the farther end of the hall, and raised upon a dais, sat a lordlylooking personage, arrayed in sumptuous robes, and wearing on his head a crown of gold sparkling with precious stones. By his side sat a fair young lady, on

we might conjecture, was, in part at least, inspired by the profuse display of good cheer which the ample table board around which the guests were seated exhibited.

We could not, at first, make out any special purpose for this merry-making. But, at length, descrying a jolly-looking dame, who struck us at once as presenting what we may call the characteristics of a nurse, bearing about with an air of triumph a gaily-dressed and smiling babe in her arms, we made out that it was a christening. On a small brooch or clasp, which united in front a broad band or cincture that begirt the infant, the artist had inscribed, in very small, almost invisible letters, the words, “ Edward Marston, aged three weeks."

THE PHILOSOPHICAL SHOWMAN.

CARSWELL HOUSE, in which I have now resided for upwards of seven years, is a prettily situated mansion. It stands on the brow of a gentle declivity, and overlooks a wide extent of beautiful country. The view from our parlour windows in the summer season, when the woods are green, and the fields clothed in verdure, is delightful. It must be allowed, however, that we are rather dreary in winter. The house is somewhat solitary, and the snow, which falls heavily, lies long and deep around it. At about a quarter of a mile from the house passes a cart-road leading to the village whom all eyes seemed bent in wonder and admiration. showed that she could not walk without such aid. of Limburne, about five miles distant, and of this road the golden head of one of whom rested one of her Around her sported three or four young children; on

a stretch of about a mile lies in view of our windows.

last year, that one of my youngsters, who was standing
It was on a wild snowy day in the month of January of such surpassing loveliness, she, too, was magnifi- long, thin, withered, and palsied hands. She seemed
at a window looking at the drift which was whirling
past in thick and blinding clouds, called my attention
to the figure of a man on the road, who, though still
struggling with the storm, seemed ready every moment
to sink beneath its violence. He appeared unable to
make any way against the suffocating drift; and this
the less readily that he bore, as we could discern, a
heavy burden on his back.

and on whom her lordly companion appeared gazing
with inexpressible fondness. As became a creature
cently attired, while behind and around her chair
stood a crowd of attendants, ready to obey her
slightest wish. It seemed, in truth, as if the air of
heaven would not be permitted to breathe too rudely
on that exquisitely beautiful form.

Seeing the man's distress, I dispatched my gardener and footman to his assistance, desiring them to conduct him to the house, in which I meant he should remain until the storm had somewhat abated. In less than half an hour the man was comfortably seated by our kitchen fire, and proved to be an itinerant showman. He was an Italian, and the burden which we had observed upon his back was his show-box. Grateful for the kindness shown him-which kindness included of course the refreshments required by his condition—the poor Italian sent up a respectful message to the dining-room, to the effect that he would be happy to exhibit his show to the members of the family, if they would so far honour him. He was immediately requested to come up stairs, and to bring his show along with him.

We were all struck with admiration of this splendid scene, especially with the extraordinary beauty and sumptuous attire of the young lady who sat beside the king, and now inquired who the former and latter were. The Italian told us that the king was Edward IV.; the lady who sat beside him the celebrated Jane Shore. We were about to ask some other questions, when click, again, went the string of the box, and a dreary, monotonous view of frost-bound ponds and fields, and leafless trees, with a large city in the distance, which we subsequently learnt was London, was presented to our view. In the foreground of the picture, which it made one cold and chilly but to look at, was the figure of a miserable old woman, haggard and wrinkled with poverty and age, gathering sticks for firewood. Her clothes were in rags, and she seemed as if perishing with cold and hunger.

younger

"Have you, my kind benefactors," said the Italian, as on a former occasion-" have you, think you, ever

I was much struck with the man's appearance on his entering the room, which he did with a remarkably graceful bow. His countenance had the swarthy hue of his country, and his dark eye all the fire and brilliancy that belong to the eyes of the children of the sunny south. But there was an expression of mildness and intelligence in his countenance not so often seen, and which at once attracted my attention. Having placed his show-box-a tasteful thing, beautifully painted and gilt-in a proper situation, he withdrew the slides from the lenses, wiped them carefully, and placing himself at one end of the box, in order to work the tableaux, or pictures, he invited us, with a polite bow and pleasant smile, to take our places at the sights, of which there were in all six.

seen that miserable old woman before ?"
We all declared we had not.
"Ah! wrong again," replied the Italian, with one
of his gentle and intelligent smiles. "You have seen
her. What will you think, now, when I tell you that
that starving, wretched, repulsive, old woman, who is
searching the leafless hedges for withered sticks where-
with to make a fire to warm her aged limbs, and the
beauteous young lady whom you saw seated beside
royalty, surrounded with all the pomp and adulation
of a regal court, are one and the same person. It is
So. And yet, extreme as the transition is, it is not
the work of fancy. It is not the conception of an idle
brain; it is an incident from real life. That miserable
old woman is Jane Shore; and such, we all know was
her unhappy end."

Again the string was drawn. And now the interior | of an apartment of moderate size, and otherwise such as are seen in the houses of the more respectable of the middling classes, was exhibited. It was filled with company, all apparently dressed for the occasion, and seemed to be the scene of some joyous revelry-every countenance beaming with a mirth and glee which,

Again the string was drawn, and another apartment, similar to the above described, was exhibited; but how differently occupied. It was filled with mourners, and on a table or tressel in the centre lay a coffin. It was still unclosed, and we could see that it contained the body of an old man. His ghastly, withered countenance, and pinched features, were uncovered, and on the metal plate of the coffin lid, which lay close by, we read, "Edward Marston, aged 72 years." The figure which we now contemplated was, then, the smiling cherub of the preceding picture. Where now were the members of that merry company, whom we saw assembled to welcome his admission within the pale of the church? One after another, they have all long since descended into the grave; and he, too, is now about to follow. His term of life has run out. It was a long one; but at its close it seemed to have passed almost as quickly as the transition of the two pictures.

"Now, my kind benefactors," said the Italian, "let us see what is doing in the mansion adjoining this house of mourning."

He drew the string, and a brilliantly lighted apartment, filled with a gay assembly, presented itself. The centre of the floor was occupied by a crowd of light-footed dancers, and mirth and revelry held unrestrained dominion over the scene.

"It is the celebration of a marriage," said the Italian. "Look to the right, and you will see the bride and bridegroom standing together. That is she, the fair young girl in the white satin dress. See how and graceful young man, on whose arm she so fondly beautiful she is; how elegant her form! That tall leans, is her husband. How happy he looks! He has no thought for the future. His whole soul, his every sense, is wrapt up in the present; he dreams not that all this happiness and joy will speedily pass away."

And, at this instant, away like thought passed the joyous scene, and another took its place. It was a fair garden; and on one of its rustic seats sat an old lady, dressed in the deepest mourning of widowhood. long staff, with an ivory head, which stood beside her, Her aged countenance was sad and melancholy. A

as if blessing the child.

"Know ye who that feeble old woman is?" said the Italian.

stood the nature and scope of his exhibition.
"We guess," said we; for we now fully under-

she was.
"Right," he replied, satisfied that we did know who
"That ancient dame, who cannot totter
along without the support of a staff, is no other than
the fair young bride of the preceding picture. Her
husband, the gay and graceful youth whom you saw
by her side, has been long dead, and these bright-
haired children who are sporting around her are her
grand-children. Thus goes the world on.""

Once more the string was drawn, and a splendid
mansion presented itself to view. A little, ragged,
shivering boy, who seemed to have been soliciting
charity, was being thrust rudely from the door by a
pompous, over-fed menial, who held a stick over him
in a threatening attitude. The Italian bade us mark
the little ragged boy well. We did so. He drew the
string, and the same mansion was again presented to
our sight. But it had undergone many changes.
Additions had been made to it here and there. New
doors and windows had been struck out, and other
prominent features altered. The grounds around
the building, too, had undergone change; trees grew
where there had been none before; and where there
had, they had been cut down. Altogether, the painter,
if picture it was, had so contrived it, that, on compar-
ing the appearances of the mansion in the two paint-
ings, a distinct impression was conveyed of the lapse
of an interval of many years. A little way from the
door of the house in the picture we were now con-
templating, a gentleman, seemingly the proprietor,
was about to get into a carriage. An old mendicant
on crutches, with hat in hand, his grey locks stream-
ing in the wind, stood a little apart, as if in the act of
imploring his charity. The appeal did not appear to
be made in vain. The gentleman, with a look of great
benevolence, was putting something into his hand.
The Italian now questioned us as before.
"Know
ye," he said, "who that gentleman is, and who that
poor old man who is soliciting his charity, and, as you
see, not in vain? That gentleman, my kind friends,"
he went on, "is the poor boy who was turned from
the door of the mansion thirty years since, and he
who is now appealing to his benevolence is the samo
with him who drove him away-such are the extra-

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solved to devote his life to this object. He was appointed a member of the Council of Education; but finding little was to be done by those with whom he acted, he threw off all connexion with the government, and determined to form on his own estate of Hofwyl, and with his own fortune, an institution, to prove practically what could be done, by a right system of education, for the benefit of humanity.

Such was the principle on which M. de Fellenberg started as an educationist about forty years ago, and we have now to say something of his operations. His plans were comprehensive and full of benevolence. He purchased and added about two hundred acres of land to his estate, which must have been originally small, his object being not only to improve the knowledge of agriculture in the district, but to make lessons in industrial affairs a means of moral training. He began, therefore, by establishing an agricultural school, which he formed of the destitute children of the canton. To this, after a time, he added a school for youths from the higher classes of society. And, lastly, he formed an intermediate school of boys, chiefly the sons of farmers who were able to pay a small board. His scheme was gone about with great caution and deliberation; for his object being the formation of character, it was absolutely necessary that new comers should be admitted only after the previous pupils had been to a certain extent fixed in principle. This was a wise resolution, which it would be well for teachers in general to copy, as large accessions of raw lads at one time are apt to derange the whole economy of an educational establishment, and undo much of the advantages already gained.

Hiring a voiture on purpose for the day, we proceeded from Berne in a northerly direction, and passed for several miles through a rich agricultural tract, well clothed with tall timber, and evidently the property of a class of persons above the usual standing of cottage farmers. The fields had been cleared of their autumnal produce; ploughs were here and there seen turning over the furrows preparatory for new crops; and at the doors of the large thatched homesteads of the farmers, clusters of women were busy skutching flax, with the customary energy and clacking noise with which that occupation is performed. Passing through these pleasing scenes of rural comfort and industry-or, I should almost say, hard labour, for hard it would be to English females-our carriage at length entered a more undulating stretch of country, and made the best of its way through a pretty thick wood. On emerging from the cool shade of the overhanging

After a course of constant improvement for nearly forty years, we now find the establishment of Hofwyl complete in all its details-the edifices constituting the schools and dwelling-houses settled into the character of a quiet orderly village, and the fields, for half a mile round, trimmed with the same skill and neatness as you would see in East Lothian or Norfolk. The buildings stand on the most elevated part of the estate, and are of a respectable appearance, each several storeys in height. On entering an open play-ground, we have, on the right, the largest building, in which M. de Fellenberg and his family, and also the higher class of pupils, reside, and in which also are some of the class-rooms. On the lower or sunk floor are the kitchen and cellars; the floor above contains a large dining-room, chapel, and other apartments; on the next floor are the class-rooms; and the top storey is laid out in two large sleeping apartments, with a row of beds on each side-the whole clean and neat in the extreme. Each boy occupies a separate bed, and the whole are superintended by masters, whose apartments are adjoining. The boys are never alone, so that none has the power of either domineering over or contaminating his companions. All rise at 5, and breakfast at 6 o'clock in summer, and at 6 and 7 in winter. trees, we had before us an open tract, in the midst of From this large and commodious building we were which, on the top of a gently rising ground, stood conducted to a house of more plain appearance across Hofwyl a situation apparently unmatchable in point the play-ground, the lower part of which we found to of salubrity and beauty, for all around, the cleared be occupied as a museum and a receptacle for garden fields descend to distant vales and meadows, which where several young gentlemen were at the time entools; in the floor above was a cabinet-making shop, are backed by sheltering hills and woods; and from gaged in making articles according to their own taste, various parts of the grounds are seen the long ridgy under the direction of a professed workman. Passing peaks of the Bernese Alps. A few minutes served to a place for gymnastic exercises, we now went to the carry us up to the place, where we were received with house containing the intermediate classes, at which, the greatest politeness and attention by M. de Fellen- in a lower hall, eighty lads were at the time at dinner, under the superintendence of their masters. Next, berg, one of the most venerable men whom it was we adjourned to the extensive suite of buildings conever my fortune to meet ; and his son, a young gentle-nected with the dairy and operations of the farm, man who is now taking a large share of the burden which stood on the northern slope, and a little aloof of the establishment. As it is my desire to give as from the main cluster of the establishment. Here a exact an idea as possible of Hofwyl and the plans of closed to us. In a series of lower offices stood seventymost extensive system of rural management was disits proprietor, I hope to be excused for going a little two cows, beautiful large animals, which I was told were occasionally, for the sake of exercise, employed in drawing the plough-a practice to which nothing could reconcile either the ladies of the party or myself. immense size; and in a neighbouring loft we were In the upper part of the cow-house was a barn of shown a large array of agricultural implements, quite new, and ready for use-the preparation of these articles on the most improved plan forming a part of M. de Fellenberg's widely comprehensive schemes. The dairy, the places of residence of the boys of the lower school, and other departments, were shown, but require no notice. After seeing every thing here, we were led by a pathway down the sloping field to a pond 90 feet in diameter, neatly paved, and surrounded by a tall hedge, with a dressing-house. The water is kept ever fresh by a spring. This is the bathing pond for the boys, and here they learn to swim.

ordinary changes which are constantly taking place in human affairs, often from heedlessness, or, perhaps, wilful extravagance, on the one hand, and perseverance

with self-denial on the other."

Here dinner being announced, we were reluctantly compelled to desist, for the time, from further gratifying our curiosity with these pictures of life. But as there was no appearance of the storm abating, and as I in consequence had offered the Italian quarters for the night-an offer which he gratefully accepted-we engaged him to renew his interesting exhibition in the evening; he having informed us that we had yet seen but a very small portion of what he had to show.

A FEW WEEKS ON THE CONTINENT. VISIT TO HOFWYL.

HOFWYL, situated at the distance of from six to eight English miles from Berne, was one of those places which had formed a principal object of my visit to Switzerland—a visit which, it will have been perceived, was rather less to scramble over ice at the height of ten thousand feet, than to see nature in her more charming moods, and to observe something of the character and features of Swiss society. No one taking the slightest interest in education and its progress, could visit Berne without seeing the far-spoken of establishment of M. de Fellenberg, more particularly since it is open to the inspection of strangers from all quarters of the world. It was not therefore surprising that I made it the object of a special side

excursion.

into detail.

M. de Fellenberg is by birth a Swiss, having been born in the canton of Berne, in the year 1771. His immediate ancestors were of the patrician or privileged class, which late events have levelled with the ordinary citizens of the country; by the mother's side, he is a descendant of the Dutch admirals Cornelius and Van Tromp. The excellent example and admonitions of his parents had a happy influence upon his early years, and induced that strong devotion to the interests of his country and of mankind at large which has distinguished him through life. While still a young man, he had the sagacity to form the conclusion that no species of political reform in the affairs of Switzerland could be of any use unless preceded by a reform in education. To satisfy himself on this point, he travelled all over Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Germany on foot, everywhere acquainting himself with the state of the people, residing in the villages and farm-houses, and mingling in the labours and hearing the sentiments of the peasants. On the invasion of Switzerland by the French in 1798, he took an active part in opposing them, was proscribed, and fled to Germany. He was soon after recalled to his native country, and employed on a political mission to the French Directory; but the prevailing disregard of all principle gave him a distaste of diplomacy, and he resigned his office. He then filled a public station at home, and, fully impressed with the belief that the only resource against the revolutionary horrors he had witnessed was to be found in education, he re

We were conducted over these various outlying parts of the establishment by young M. de Fellenberg, who has been in England, and clearly explained every thing to us in our own tongue. Returning with him to the grande maison, we again sat down by the side of the venerable founder of the institution; and what betwixt his own and his son's observations, I really believe little was left to be told. The manner and conversation of M. de Fellenberg were exceedingly pleasing. In his appearance is embodied all that we can conceive of an estimable old man-a most benevolent cast of countenance, silver white hair, and the sober dress of a recluse. He spoke in French, and so slowly and distinctly that there was no mistaking his meaning. German is the common language in this

part of Switzerland, and is therefore used in the schools; but French and English are taught to those who desire them. At the period of my visit, the whole establishment included about 150 boys, of whom from 50 to 60 belonged to the high school, 80 to the intermediate, and the remainder to the lower or agricultural school. With respect to the latter, their schooling is on a very moderate scale; but they are taken gratuitously, and their labour, such as it is, compensates for their board and instruction. The boys of the intermediate school are taught on a more advanced plan, but with reference to ordinary professions, including agriculture, and are boarded in a plain manner, conformable to the moderate sum paid for their attendance. The pith of the whole concern is the high school; the pupils are taught by the best masters, and I should certainly say that the principle of their education is unexceptionable, for it refers alike to physical, intellectual, and moral training. Among other accomplishments, vocal music is taught upon scientific principles to all, and instrumental music to those whose taste inclines. Lessons in music being also given in the lower schools, at times there are meetings in which all join in concert. An English lady, who has three boys at the institution, and to whom I have been indebted for a candid statement of what she saw and felt during a pretty lengthened visit, says, in a communication to me on the subject"The pupils of the intermediate school sing in parts with a perfection rare among children; and I was never more touched by music, than when, early on a Sunday morning, their voices broke the universal stillness. There is a monthly concert on a Sunday evening. The night I was present the audience consisted of more than two hundred persons, formed of the pupils of the three schools and their masters, who took no part in the performance, also M. de Fellenberg, his daughters, and grand-children, and servants of the whole establishment. The orchestra was composed of violins, violoncello, double bass, trombone, clarionet, flute, and French horn. The pieces played were those of Haydn, Neukomm, Rossini, and other leading composers. The audience were very attentive, but did not applaud, as M. de Fellenberg conceives the young have not suffi cient judgment to pronounce an opinion publicly. After the concert, the performers were invited publicly to the saloon, and partook of refreshments. I may here mention that the part taken by M. de Fellenberg's daughters is most valuable. Their mother died about three years since. She gave them the example of an undeviating co-operation in the views and practical details of their father's philanthropic designs. They all speak English, and their maternal kindness and care of the young children are beyond all praise. They are elegant and accomplished women, uniting the simplicity of Swiss habits with intellectual refinement. In the winter, the pupils visit the saloon in turn, twice a-week, and also join the domestic circle of the head master and his wife. Thus, Hofwyl unites the advantages of public with domestic education in a manner unknown in any other institution."

It is customary in some of the best continental annually with their masters; and this is particularly boarding-schools for the boys to proceed on excursions attended to at Hofwyl. A certain number of boys are placed under the charge of a trusty master, and set out on a tour in the month of August, in a direction previously determined. The journey is on foot, and each carries a knapsack, furnished with a few articles of clothing. Thus the squad march over hill and dale, visit places of historical interest, picturesque scenes, ruins of old castles, and towns of commercial note. It need hardly be mentioned that these journeys, which last for several weeks, are of great use in openadvantages which may be derived from physical exering up the minds of the youths, independently of the cise. A boy at a school of this liberal kind, in the course of a few years, has perambulated the north of Italy, the Tyrol, a portion of Germany, and best part of Switzerland, and is able to converse in several languages; while a boy at an English boarding-school has seen nothing, can with difficulty translate a few words of Latin, and speak only his own vernacular tongue.

I learned from M. de Fellenberg that he has taken every possible care to surround the institution with a pure moral atmosphere, to exclude evil influence and example, and thus, as far as possible, control whatever evil passions the pupil may naturally possess. Boys who are restive under the mild system of discipline which is established are removed. It is not every one who will be admitted. The place is not a reformatory or penitentiary; neither is it a place in which there is any attempt at proselytising. In the course of religious instruction, nothing beyond the general principles of Christianity are taught; and on Sunday, the boys of each sect attend chapel at certain hours, when a clergyman of their own creed is in attendance. The chapel is a large apartment, which we were shown in making the round of the premises. It is plainly furnished with benches, and has at one end an object which I took to be a closed cupboard; pointing to it, M. de Fellenberg observed that it was "l'autel pour la messe," which was shut up when the place was used for the reformed worship. Notwithstanding the presence of this dangerous piece of furniture, there never has been known an instance of a conversion to Roman Catholicism in the school, neither has there been an instance of a change from Roman Catholicism to Protestantism. M. de Fellenberg is not a propa

different parts of Switzerland and Germany; and
thus the benevolent designs of the founder of Hofwyl
are likely, at a future day, to be fully carried out.
We parted from M. de Fellenberg's family not
without regret, and returned slowly to Berne, ponder-
ing on the many agreeable sensations which had been
experienced on our visit.

their pleasures, and too knowing for simple enjoyment. Some attempts, indeed, have been made of late years, by men of both taste and learning, to rally back the popular feeling to these standards of primitive simplicity; but the time has gone by-the feeling has become chilled by habits of gain and traffic-the country apes the manners and amusements of the town, and little is heard of May-day at present, except from the lamentations of authors, who sigh after it from among the brick walls of the city."

It is not unworthy of notice that the late Dr Parr was "a patron of May-day sports. Opposite his parsonage house at Hatton, near Warwick, on the other side of the road, stood the parish May-pole, which on the annual festival was dressed with garlands, surrounded by a numerous band of villagers. The doctor was first of the throng,' and danced with his parishioners the gayest of the gay. He kept the large crown of the May-pole in a closet of his house, from which it was produced every May-day, with fresh flowers and streamers preparatory to its elevation, and to the doctor's own appearance in the ring. He always spoke of this festivity as one wherein he joined with peculiar delight to himself and advantage to his neighbours."

POPULAR ENGLISH FESTIVALS.
MAY-DAY.

A SOUND of laughing villages comes over the imagina-
tion at the very name of May-day. This, in times
when festivals were real observances of the people,
was one of the most signally and cheerfully kept,
although it has not the least trace of Christianity
about it, but may be said to be Pagan all over. The
celebration of May-day must have been prompted by
nature herself: the time of the young flower and leaf,
and of all the promise which August fulfils, could not
but impress the minds of the simplest people, and dis-
pose them to joyful demonstrations in word and act.
The sun, as the immediate author of the glories of the
season, was now worshipped by the Celtic nations
under the name of Baal; hence the festival of Beltein,
still faintly observed in Ireland and the Highlands of
Scotland. Even in Ayrshire, they kindled Baal's fire
in the evening of May-day, till about the year 1790.
The Romans held games called Floralia, at which
there was great display of flowers, and where women
danced, if we are to believe Juvenal, only too enthusi-
astically. The May-day jollities of modern Europe
seem to be directly descended from the Floralia.

gandist; and his liberal and judicious arrangements for
each set of boys being brought up in the religion of
their parents, shows that he is any thing but a bigot.
The plans of this amiable philanthropist may be
said to be much ahead of the age in which he lives.
He has formed conceptions of the moral improvability
of the human species which do not seem to enter the
minds of ordinary instructors. The object of ninety-
nine in the hundred of persons assuming the educa-
tion of youth, is little more than to impart a certain
routine of instruction. They have not the most re-
mote idea of elevating the moral character-cultivat-
ing and purifying the innermost thoughts of the
child. Fellenberg aims at making the very most of
the being committed to his charge-training him to
be a really good as well as highly intelligent man.
For this end, besides excluding evil influence and
example, he surrounds the pupil with what will allure
and stimulate him to good; but without resorting to
the principle of emulation, or holding out the offer of
prizes and honorary distinctions, which he considers
injurious to sound morals. When new pupils arrive,
they find themselves in the midst of a busy little
world; they perceive industry and occupation accom-
panied by enjoyment; they soon acquire a love of
intellectual and moral exercise for their own sake;
and gradually falling into the stream of duties, in
turn exert an influence on others. But though ap-
parently left to act as free agents, they are indivi-
dually under constant supervision; the effects of cir-
cumstances on their bodies and minds are observed;
evil propensities are restrained, and every thing is
done to inspire confidence, self-control, and that self-
approval which is ever the reward of good conduct. In England, we have to go back a couple of hundred
I believe I should only tire the reader by saying years for the complete May-day; since then it has
any thing more respecting Hofwyl. I ought to speak gradually declined, and now it is almost extinct. When
with diffidence, as I spent only a few hours within it was fully observed, the business of the day began
the walls of the institution; and before pronouncing with the day itself, that is to say, at midnight. We
an opinion, ought to have followed the plan of an have the authority of Shakspeare, that with the popu-
Irish nobleman who lately went to the establishment, lace of England it was impossible to sleep on May
like myself, for a forenoon, but was so delighted with morning. Immediately after twelve had struck,
all he saw that he stayed six months. My impression they were all astir, wishing each other a merry May,
is, that the class instruction and physical and moral as they still, at the same hour on the first of January,
training at Hofwyl are of the first order; at all events, wish each other a happy new year. They then went
I never saw any thing to compare with it in England: forth, with music and the blowing of horns, to some
and I am assured by those who have children in the neighbouring wood, where they employed themselves
institution persons who know what education should in breaking down and gathering branches. These
be that it is all they could wish. How far M. de they brought back at an early hour, and planted over
Fellenberg has realised the views on which he origin- their doors, so that by daylight the whole village looked
ally set out, is a different question. I rather think quite a bower. The citizens of London went a-Maying
he has been disappointed. The bulk of the Swiss, as in this fashion, notwithstanding their comparative dis-
I mentioned on a former occasion, are a set of hard-tance from woods. They went marshalled in parishes,
working peasant farmers. They are diligent, frugal, or in unions of two or three parishes; their mayor
and virtuous, but their minds are contracted. The and aldermen went also; and we read of Henry VIII.
offer of M. de Fellenberg to educate their children has and Queen Catherine riding from Greenwich to
never been accepted of with hearty approbation or
Shooter's Hill, attended by lords and ladies, to join
thanks. Their plan of rearing a family consists in in the sport. In some places, the Mayers brought
making their children contribute a share to the gene- home a garland suspended from a pole, round which
ral means of subsistence. A child of four years can they danced. In others, and this was a more general
tend a goat; a boy of twelve can handle a spade. The custom, there was an established May-pole for the vil-
whole scheme of operations in Switzerland is to take lage, which it was their business to dress up with
out of every living being all the work he or she can flowers and flags, and dance around throughout all
produce to the general stock. Against such mean the latter part of the day. A May-pole was as tall as
ideas of the value of juvenile labour, M. de Fellenberg the mast of a sloop of fifty tons, painted with spiral
could not possibly contend. The offer to a parent to stripes of black and white, and properly fixed in a
educate his child was equivalent to asking him to part frame to keep it erect. Here lads and lasses danced in
with a servant ; and it was imagined that the offer was a joyful ring for hours to the sounds of the viol, and
made only for selfish purposes. Consequently, the lower masquers personating Robin Hood, Little John, Maid
department of the institution has been the least suc- Marian, and others of the celebrated Sherwood com-
cessful; still, it has sent out a considerable number of pany of outlaws, as well as morris-dancers, performed
lads well skilled in husbandry on the most approved their still more merry pranks. May-poles, as tending
models, and that is something done for the great out- to encourage levity of deportment, were condemned
field of ignorance. The intermediate school has been by the puritans in Elizabeth's time; James I. sup-
a degree more successful, and is generally well at- ported them in his Book of Sports; they were alto-
tended. It must likewise have had a beneficial effect gether suppressed during the time of the Common-
in scattering throughout the middle order of society wealth, but got up again at the Restoration. Now,
many young men impressed with proper notions of change of manners has done that which ordinances
trade, agriculture, and social organisation. The of parliament could not do. This object, so inter-
strength of the institution appears to have centered woven with our national poetical literature, is all
in the upper school, which is attended by gentlemen's but rooted out of the land. Washington Irving
sons from Germany, and some other countries to speaks of having seen one in the earlier days of his
which the fame of the institution has spread, includ- acquaintance with England-probably twenty-five
ing Switzerland. There are a few young gentlemen years ago. "I shall never," he says, "forget the
from England. The plan of uniting in one establish- delight I felt on first seeing a May-pole. It was on
ment three boarding-schools of different grades, ap- the banks of the Dee, close by the picturesque old
peared to me objectionable, and I imagine it would bridge that stretches across the river from the quaint
scarcely answer in England. I learned, however, that little city of Chester. I had already been carried
it has never been attended with the collisions I anti- back into former days by the antiquities of that ve-
cipated; and that when all the various boys happened nerable place, the examination of which is equal to
to assemble, there was nothing like arrogant superiority turning over the pages of a black-letter volume, or
on the one hand, or inferiority on the other, but that gazing on the pictures in Froissart. The May-pole
all was perfect harmony between them.
on the margin of that poetic stream completed the
illusion. My fancy adorned it with wreaths of flowers,
and peopled the green bank with all the dancing
revelry of May-day. The mere sight of this May-pole
gave a glow to my feelings, and spread a charm over
the country for the rest of the day; and as I traversed
a part of the fair plains of Cheshire, and the beautiful
borders of Wales, and looked from among swelling
hills down a long green valley, through which the
Deva wound its wizard stream,' my imagination turned
all into a perfect Arcadia. I value every custom that
tends to infuse poetical feeling into the common
people, and to sweeten and soften the rudeness of
rustic manners, without destroying their simplicity.
Indeed, it is to the decline of this happy simplicity
that the decline of this custom may be traced; and
the rural dance on the green, and the homely May-day
pageant, have gradually disappeared, in proportion as
the peasantry have become expensive and artificial in

The world in general, condemning what it cannot understand, or which does not fall in with its own prejudices, has, I believe, not hesitated to hold up M. de Fellenberg as a charlatan, and his schemes as at best idle dreams. That this character is unjust, I have no hesitation in saying. He may not have realised all his intentions; but these intentions were sincere, and he has at least sacrificed a lifetime in endeavouring to carry them into effect. Local circumstances, as I have hinted, have not a little hampered his views; but he has clearly made an impression in the educational arrangements of his country; and, by the model which he has presented of a farm cultivated on the best principles of science and art, his exertions have proved of great value to the agriculture of this part of the continent. Persons, also, who have been trained up at his seminary have gone forth and established industrial schools on a similar model in

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A certain superstitious feeling attached to Mayday. The dew of that morning was considered as a cosmetic of the highest efficacy, and women, especially young women, who are never unwilling to improve in this respect, used to go abroad before sunrise to gather it. To this day, there is a resort of the fair sex every May-morning to Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh, for the purpose of washing their faces with the dew. Mr Pepys, in his curious diary written in the time of Charles II., gravely tells us of his wife gone to Woolwich for a little air, and to gather May-dew, "which Mrs Turner hath taught her is the only thing in the world [Rowland's Kalydor not being then invented] to wash her face with." Scott, in his "Discovery of Witchcraft," speaks of a sprig of hawthorn gathered on May-day, and hung in the entry to a house, as a presumed preservative against all malign influences. We find another quaint superstition as to May-day in Gay's "Shepherd's Week":"

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There was also a practice of making fools on Mayday, similar to what obtains on the first of the preceding month. The deluded were called May-goslings. It was held unlucky to marry in May, a notion which, we learn from Ovid, existed among the Romans.

A gentleman residing at Hitchin, in Hertfordshire, communicated to Mr IIone a curious account of the way in which May-day is observed at that place. The Mayers there express their judgment of the estimableness of the characters of their neighbours by fixing branches upon their doors before morning; those who are unpopular find themselves marked with nettle or some other vile weed instead. "Throughout the day, parties of these Mayers are seen dancing and frolicking in various parts of the town. The group that I saw to-day, which remained in Bancroft for more than an hour, was composed as follows:-First came two men with their faces blacked, one of them with a birch broom in his hand, and a large artificial hump on his back; the other dressed as a woman, all in rags and tatters, with a large straw bonnet on, and carrying a ladle: these are called 'Mad Moll and her husband.' Next came two men, one most fantastically dressed with ribbons, and a great variety of gaudy-coloured silk handkerchiefs tied round his arms from the shoulders to the wrists, and down his thighs and legs to the ankles; he carried a drawn sword in his hand; leaning upon his arm was a youth dressed as a fine lady, in white muslin, and profusely bedecked from top to toe with gay ribbons; these, I understood, were called the Lord and Lady' of the company. After these followed six or seven couples more, attired much in the same style as the lord and lady, only the men were without swords. When this group received a satisfactory contribution at any house, the music struck up from a violin, clarionet, and fife, accompanied by the long drum, and they began the merry dance, and very well they danced, I assure you; the men-women looked and footed it so much like real women, that I stood in great doubt as to which sex they belonged to, till Mrs Jassured me that women were not permitted to mingle in these sports. While the dancers were merrily footing it, the principal amusement to the populace was caused by the grimaces and clownish tricks of Mad Moll and her husband. When the circle of spectators became so contracted as to interrupt the dancers, then Mad Moll's husband went to work with his broom, and swept the road dust all round the circle into the faces of the crowd; and when any pretended affronts were offered (and many were offered) to his wife, he pursued the offenders, broom in hand; if he could not overtake them, whether they were males or females, he flung his broom at them. These flights and pursuits caused an abundance of merriment."+ The

* Hone's Every-Day Book.

† Ibid.

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quarter-staff on his shoulder; and Morris, the mole- however, an extensive though superficial reader; and
taker, who represented Much, the miller's son, having those who conversed with her only for a short time, be
a long pole with an inflated bladder attached to one
lieved her to be a much better informed person than she
We have said, that, with all her disadvan-
end. And after them the May-pole, drawn by eight really was.
fine oxen, decorated with scarfs, ribbons, and flowers tages, Isabel was not absolutely disagreeable. So far
from this, she generally attracted attention in company
of divers colours, and the tips of their horns were em-
bellished with gold. The rear was closed by the hobby- which, perhaps, was less beautiful than interesting and
by her easy and lady-like manners, and by a countenance
horse and the dragon. When the May-pole was drawn expressive. Unassailed by any of those severe trials
into the square, the foresters sounded their horns, and which put to the test the real principles upon which we
the populace expressed their pleasure by shouting in- act, she had not made the discovery herself, nor had any
cessantly until it reached the place assigned for its of her friends made it for her, that she was in reality sel-
elevation. During the time the ground was prepar. fish and unamiable; for while every one ministered to
ing for its reception, the barriers of the bottom of the her gratification, she had only to express her gratitude,
enclosure were opened for the villagers to approach affect a little willingness to deny herself, and expatiate
and adorn it with ribbons, garlands, and flowers, as on her regret at being the cause of so much trouble, and
their inclination prompted them. The pole being all went on exactly as she wished-the trouble was in-
sufficiently onerated with finery, the square was
curred, the attempted self-denial was frustrated, and the
cleared from such as had no part to perform in the kindness for which she expressed her gratitude was
pageant, and then it was elevated amidst the reiter-repeated and increased. What a lesson do we learn by
a sudden reverse of this order of things!-a lesson, per-
ated acclamations of the spectators. The woodmen haps, the most severe that experience ever teaches;
and the milk-maidens danced around it according to while, at the same time, our dependence upon animal
the rustic fashion; the measure was played by Peretto and selfish gratification, our irritability, impatience, and
Cheveritte, the baron's chief minstrel, on the bagpipes, wounded feeling, when these are denied, show us but too
accompanied with the pipe and tabor, performed by faithfully the living picture of those passions of which we
one of his associates. When the dance was finished, believed ourselves incapable, simply because indulgence
Gregory the jester, who undertook to play the hobby- had hitherto lulled them to rest." This listless and
horse, came forward with his appropriate equipment, spoiled child, the story goes on to say, is married, but
and frisking up and down the square without restric- having no mental resources to fall back upon, and no
tion, imitated the galloping, curvetting, ambling, taste for the active duties of life, she seeks artificial ex-
trotting, and other paces of a horse, to the infinite citement; the result is such as might have been ex-
satisfaction of the lower classes of the spectators. He pected-she loses caste, and sinks into disgraced obscu-
rity.
was followed by Peter Parker, the baron's ranger, who
personated a dragon, hissing, yelling, and shaking his
wings with wonderful ingenuity; and to complete the
mirth, Morris, in the character of Much, having small
bells attached to his knees and elbows, capered here
and there between the two monsters in the form of a
dance; and as often as he came near to the sides of
the enclosure, he cast slyly a handful of meal into the
faces of the gaping rustics, or rapped them about their
heads with the bladder tied at the end of his pole. In
the mean time, Sampson, representing Friar Tuck,
walked with much gravity around the square, and
occasionally let fall his heavy staff upon the toes of
such of the crowd as he thought were approaching
more forward than they ought to do; and if the suf-
ferers cried out from the sense of pain, he addressed
them in a solemn tone of voice, advising them to count
their beads, say a paternoster or two, and to beware
of purgatory. These vagaries were highly palatable
to the populace, who announced their delight by re-
peated plaudits and loud bursts of laughter; for this
reason they were continued for a considerable length
of time; but Gregory, beginning at last to falter in
his paces, ordered the dragon to fall back. The well-
nurtured beast, being out of breath, readily obeyed,
and their two companions followed their example,
which concluded this part of the pastime. Then the
archers set up a target at the lower part of the green,
and made trial of their skill in a regular succession.
Robin Hood and Will Stukely excelled their com-
rades, and both of them lodged an arrow in the centre
circle of gold, so near to each other that the difference
could not readily be decided, which occasioned them
to shoot again, when Robin struck the gold a second
time, and Stukely's arrow was affixed upon the edge
of it. Robin was therefore adjudged the conqueror;
and the prize of honour, a garland of laurel embel-
lished with variegated ribbons, was put upon his head;
and to Stukely was given a garland of ivy, because he
was the second best performer in that contest. The
pageant was finished with the archery, and the pro-
cession began to move away to make room for the
villagers, who afterwards assembled in the square, and
amused themselves by dancing round the May-pole in
promiscuous companies, according to the ancient cus-
tom."

The moon shines bright, and the stars give a light,
A little before it is day;
So God bless you all, both great and small,
And send you a joyful May!"

In London, as has been said, May-day was once as much observed as it was in any rural district. There were several May-poles throughout the city, particularly one near the bottom of Catherine Street in the Strand, which, rather oddly, became in its latter days a support for a large telescope at Wanstead in Essex, the property of the Royal Society. The milkmaids were amongst the last conspicuous celebrators of the day. They used to dress themselves in holiday guise on this morning, and come in bands with fiddles, whereto they danced, attended by a strange-looking pyramidal pile, covered with pewter plates, ribbons, and streamers, either borne by a man upon his head, or by two men upon a hand-barrow: this was called their garland. The young chimney-sweepers also made this a peculiar festival, coming forth into the streets in fantastic dresses, and making all sorts of unearthly noises with their shovels and brushes. The benevolent Mrs Montagu, one of the first of the class of literary ladies in England, gave these home slaves an annual dinner on this day, in order, we presume, to aid a little in reconciling them to existence. In London, Mayday still remains the great festival of the sweeps, and much finery and many vagaries are exhibited on the

occasion.

The Robin Hood games and morris-dances, by which this day was distinguished till the Reformation, appear, from many scattered notices of them, to have been entertainments full of interest to the common people. Robin has been alternatively styled in at least one document as the King of May, while Maid Marian seems to have been held as the Queen. The various scattered particulars respecting these festivities, which make but dry reading by themselves, have been wrought up to some advantage by Mr Strutt in his "Queen Hoo Hall," where he describes May-day as celebrated by the servants and dependants of an English baron of the fifteenth century. (We abridge a little in the matter of costume.) "In the front of the pavilion, a large square was staked out, and fenced with ropes, to prevent the crowd from pressing upon the performers, and interrupting the diversion; there were also two bars at the bottom of the enclosure, through which the actors might pass and repass, as occasion required. Six young men first entered the square, clothed in jerkins of leather, with axes upon their shoulders like woodmen, and their heads bound with large garlands of ivy leaves, intertwined with sprigs of hawthorn. Then followed six young maidens of the village, dressed in blue kirtles, with garlands of primroses on their heads, leading a fine sleek cow decorated with ribbons of various colours interspersed with flowers; and the horns of the animal were tipped with gold. These were succeeded by six foresters equipped in green tunics, with hoods and hosen of the same colour; each of them carried a bugle-horn attached to a baldrick of silk, which he sounded as he passed the barrier. After them came Peter Lanaret, the baron's chief falconer, who personified Robin Hood; he was attired in a bright grass-green tunic, fringed with gold; his hood and his hosen were particoloured, blue and white; he had a large garland of rose-buds on his head, a bow bent in his hand, a sheaf of arrows at his girdle, and a bugle-horn depending from a baldrick of light blue tarantine, embroidered with silver; he had also a sword and a dagger, the hilts of both being richly embossed with gold. Fabian, a page, as Little John, walked at his right hand; and Cecil Cellerman, the butler, as Will Stukely, at his left. These, with ten others of the jolly outlaw's attendants who followed, were habited in green garments, bearing their bows bent in their hands, and their arrows in their girdles. Then came two maidens, in orange-coloured kirtles with white courtpies, strewing flowers, followed immediately by the Maid Marian, plentifully supplied. Isabel had not. like her sisters, been permitted to go to school, though hers was a case elegantly habited in a watchet-coloured tunic reaching in which school discipline might have been highly efficato the ground. She was supported by two bride- cious; she had not even been considered capable of maidens, in sky-coloured rochets girt with crimson enduring the usual process of mental instruction at girdles. After them came four other females in green home. Thus, her education, even that inferior part which courtpies, and garlands of violets and cowslips. Then relates to the understanding and the memory, was as Sampson, the smith, as Friar Tuck, carrying a huge | vague and irregular as could well be imagined. She was,

INSANITY CURED BY THE PATIENT HIMSELF. I recollect a case which occurred to me thirty-five years ago, of a seaman, who had been living in a very intemperate way for some time, until he became so maniacal, that he could not be kept on board his ship. He was sent to the workhouse at Hull, where he had only been a few days, when he leaped out of the window, in consequence, as he afterwards related to me, of believing that he should escape him, if he could but get out of the the devil wanted to get possession of him. He thought house. He said he felt quite free for some time; but he at last heard him beneath the pavement, wherever he went in the town. He then thought, that if he could only leap on board a ship, which was at some little distance from the wharf, he should avoid him; but he had not been long on board, before he felt convinced that he was scratching at the bottom of the vessel, and it then occurred to him, that if he got on shore and cut his throat, he should be safe. He borrowed a knife from a sailor whom he met, and instantly cut his throat from destruction, the pharynx was wounded, but the carotids ear to ear. As is very usual in these attempts at selfwere uninjured; the hemorrhage from the superficial vessels was enormous. The parts were speedily brought together; the wound healed by the first intention; he was never insane one moment after the brain was relieved by the immediate loss of blood. He related to me all the above circumstances. He got perfectly well, and went to sea within a month after his unsuccessful attempt at self-destruction.-Sir W. C. Ellis on Insanity.

STATISTICS OF MUSCULAR POWER.

AN ELEGANTLY USELESS YOUNG LADY.

of flight. To effect these, he has, in maturity and health, Man has the power of imitating every motion but that sixty bones in his head, sixty in his thighs and legs, sixtytwo in his arms and hands, sixty-seven in his trunk. He has also 434 muscles. His heart makes sixty-four pulsations in a minute; and, therefore, 3,840 in an hour92,160 in a day. There are also three complete circulations of his blood in the short space of an hour. In respect to the comparative speed of animated beings and of impelled bodies, it may be remarked, that size and construction seem to have little influence; nor has comparative strength, although one body giving any quantity The sloth is by no means a small animal, and yet it can of motion to another is said to lose so much of its own. travel only fifty paces in a day; a worm crawls only five inches in fifty seconds; but a ladybird can fly 20 million times its own length in less than an hour. An elk can run a mile and a half in seven minutes; an antelope a mile in a minute; the wild mule of Tartary has a speed even greater than that; an eagle can fly eighteen leagues in an Of this class of young ladies we find the following hour; and a Canary falcon can even reach 250 leagues in specimen in a work now publishing, called " the short Family space of sixteen hours.-Bucke. Secrets":-" Isabel advanced along the path of life with feeble and uncertain steps; for in addition to her constitutional delicacy, she had to contend with a will undisciplined, and with endless longings after personal gratification unchecked, unregulated, and consequently incapable of being gratified to their full extent. Indulged in a kind of dreamy idleness, from which she was seldom as a favourite child, the greater part of her life was spent roused, except by some awakening desire for personal gratification, some complaint of mental or bodily uneasishe was generally too languid or too indolent to carry ness, or some scheme for momentary amusement, which into effect. The consequence of all this was, that Isabel arrived at the age of eighteen, a victim to dyspepsia, an amateur in medicine, a martyr to nervous maladies, and as elegantly discontented with life, and all it had to offer, as any other young lady of her age could think becoming her character and station. The worst of all was, that, by this system of injudicious treatment, false tastes had been created, unnatural cravings excited for

bodily as well as mental stimulants, which, under the

names of cordials, tonics, and restoratives, were but too

ADHERENCE TO OLD CUSTOMS.

The Welsh plough is one of the most awkward unmeaning tools to be found in any civilised country; but the Rotherham and other improved ploughs are coming into general use. A gentleman, a naval officer in Cardiganshire, introduced the light Rotherham, and insisted on back, the new ploughs were dismissed the service, and the his ploughmen using them. As soon as he turned his old ones brought into the field. One day, in a rage, he committed the old ploughs to the flames, and set the new ones a-going. Afterwards, taking a ride to cool himself, old ploughs, borrowed from the neighbours, at work; the and returning, he found the new ploughs in the ditch, and master then thinking it useless to persevere, gave up the contest. "I have," said he, "seen various kinds of human beings, in different parts of the globe, but none so obstinately bent on old usages as the Welsh."-Loudon's Encyclopædia of Agriculture.

An error occurred in the paper on Coleridge which appeared in the Journal, No. 530. The poet's children, we are informed by P. H., are the following:-David Hartley, author of an interesting

book entitled "The Worthies of Lancashire and Yorkshire"

Derwent, who has written a large volume on the scriptural cha

racter of the English Church-and Sara, the writer of a beautiful tale called “* Phantasmion.'

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row.

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.

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EDINBURGH

NUMBER 536.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF "CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE," "CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE," &c.

THE STRUGGLES OF ADOLESCENCE. THE passage from boyhood to youth was marked amongst the Romans by a ceremonious investiture with what they called the toga cirilis, or robe of manhood. I presume this was put on at a certain age, so that there could be no dubiety about the matter. The boy was a boy one day; next day, he was a man; all the world acknowledged the transition, and there was no more to be said. It is very different in this country, where a lad will sometimes hang for a year or two in a doubtful state between boy and man, to the great discomfort of himself, and not without some inconvenience to his neighbours, who scarcely know how to address or consider him. He himself is probably eager to be ranked with men, and for this reason has long put away boyish things; but his seniors, somehow, are usually plaguily slow at perceiving that he has ceased to be a boy-so that, unless he puts forward some determined claim, he stands little chance of being accepted in the superior capacity. This, again, his bashfulness may forbid his doing, so that he is condemned to pine in secret under an injustice for which there is no immediate remedy.

If a youngster have elder brothers, who have for some time been received into the pale of manhood, his case is even worse. I have known desperate struggles take place between younger and elder brothers, in the assertion of a claim to be considered as an adult specimen of the genus homo. It is very shameful; but certainly the policy of the elder parties is decidedly of the keep-him-down character. Orlando, in As You Like It, is but a type of what all younger brothers have to endure from elder brothers. One may have got above any thing like a particular affection for bread and butter for several months, and by rising at five every morning, may have made way through not only Smith's Wealth of Nations, but also Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; yet those big fellows will still deny one's claim to manhood. One may have even begun to shave pretty regularly, though somewhat clandestinely, once a-week; yet for some time it will all not do. Constant squabbling and fighting goes on-in some instances for one or more years-before the point is finally settled.

A toga cirilis, to be put on at a particular age, would save all these inconveniences. We have, indeed, a toga virilis in the long-tailed coat; but then there is no fixed time for induing it. The difficulty with the young man is-to get his long-tailed coat. That would settle the matter at once; but then nobody will let him have it. Father, elder brothers, all who have any concern in the business, are found to labour under a remarkable prejudice about long-tailed coats, albeit wearing such garments most complacently themselves. The candidate is sure to be by far too young for it: in a year or two it may do very well, but it is absurd to speak of such a thing just now. In short, he must wait. And thus they would

"Bid him sigh on from day to day, And wish and wish the soul away"until he almost rises in rebellion against authority of every kind; when at length, like many more important things, that is conceded to terror which has been denied to justice. Well may we say to the youth, "The long-tailed coat would make you a man at once; but first catch your long-tailed coat!"

Yet, if we cannot preach in the kirk, we may sing mass in the quier. It sometimes happens that, although a long-tailed coat is for the time unattainable, a pair of boots is not so; and the exchange of shoes for boots is a step towards the desired object. A sensible youth will be content to take his reform by instalments,

SATURDAY, MAY 7, 1842.

trusting by and by to get the whole. And it is really
remarkable how far even this alteration will go in
advancing the youth to his proper character. One of
a set of boys accustomed to play together, appears
some fine spring morning with his organs of escape
encased in boots. He is instantly recognised as having
undergone some strange change, though they cannot
at first tell what it consists in. He is no longer the
companion they had yesterday, but somehow has got
quite above them. They approach with the hesitation
due to his felt superiority, to see what it is that has
changed him so suddenly, and ere long detect the
boots; yet cannot at first understand how those
articles should have such an effect. The truth is, it
is not the material boots upon his feet that make him
look different; there is something within that passeth
show. It is the boots of his mind that make the
impress. He feels booted, and no longer is the boy
he was. Were his actual boots quite concealed from
view, he would still be the new man-like Addison's
waiting-maid, whom there was no speaking to on the
day when she put on her new garters. The other
fellows have a faint sense of how the case stands, and
at once see that, unless they can get boots too, they
must be content to strike under. Home, therefore,
they go to their parents, and commence a process
of agitation for boots-to every refusal replying,
"Well, there's Harry Go-ahead has got boots, and he
is no older than we," until they gain their point. This
done, all is smooth for a time, but only till some one
of the set takes another stride in advance for in-
stance, getting a stock in place of a black handker-
chief, or a hat instead of a cap-when instantly the
whole pack, as before, must struggle to get upon the
same footing.

The getting of boots, stocks, hats, and such things, are but inferior stages in the career towards manhood. They are unmarked, unfelt, in comparison with the grand business of getting a long-tailed coat. There lies the real struggle of youth. The other things are outworks: the long-tailed coat is the citadel. I well remember that, when I attained to boots, my ambition had scarcely yet conceived the idea of a longtailed coat. One is modest at first, after the manner of Colonel Jack, of whom Defoe records-" About this time the colonel thought he might take it upon him to wear a shirt." About the time when I got a hat, the vision of a long-tailed coat hung with considerable distinctness before my mental eyesight. I beheld the skirts dangling, and the yellow buttons gleaming, in one of those fits of clair-coyance which are only enjoyed in youth. Still the coat, like many equally important matters, long remained a matter of abstract speculation-a kind of Yarrow Unvisited. I was sensible of its importance, for I saw how differently a lad in a jacket and one in a long-tailed coat were esteemed; but at the same time I knew that I was yet young and small, and without any proper pretensions to be so far advanced. At length, however, the time came when the long-tailed coat could be no longer dispensed with.

I and two juvenile and jacketed friends had for years been playfellows. We not only played together on all occasions, but had a regular alliance with regard to all matters offensive and defensive. As we grew up, we came to have a joint-stock collection of rabbits, from which we expected to derive an immense fortune; but this, like so many other joint-stock concerns, turned out a complete failure. Nothing occurred to mar the friendly feeling which subsisted between us, until one of my companions, who was a little taller and spoke somewhat louder than the rest, appeared before us one morning, to our no

PRICE 14d.

small astonishment, in a long-tailed coat. Our tall friend had cunningly kept the matter a secret, evidently, as we thought, for the purpose of creating a sensation. I and my remaining jacketed friend were taken by surprise, and stood perfectly awe-struck and abashed, peering from under our raised hands at our exalted companion. If he had exercised authority over us while he wore a jacket like ourselves, what would he not do now that he was arrayed in all the pride and plenitude of a long-tailed coat? We trembled at the anticipation, which only turned out to be too true. He of the long-tailed coat kept us in a state of perpetual helotism. There was a swell and a swagger in his air that nothing short of a long-tailed coat could have imparted. His voice waxed louder and more imperious. He dictated and dogmatised over us at his pleasure. We of course succumbed before him, for what could jackets do against a longtailed coat? But were we to continue in that state for ever? That was the question. We had evidently arrived at a great crisis, and something must be done. My little jacketed friend and I did not say much on the subject, but our looks spoke volumes, and we knew that we felt as one. I may also remark that our longtailed friend did not in so many words tell us that we were wretches in jackets, but his whole demeanour announced it as plainly as if he had spoken it. He first humbled us with an attempt at affability and condescension; then cooled off entirely. He was now joined to a set of younkers who wore regular longtailed coats and smoked cigars. We were no longer fit company for him. Flesh and blood could not stand this unmoved, and in the first heat of our indignation we cogitated how we might manage to humble him in turn by cutting a skirt away from his coat. But this passed off. We came to see that it would be better for us to try to rise to his level, than to endeavour to pull him down to ours-a plan, by the way, which may be recommended to the consideration of many older persons with curtailing doctrines. Not many weeks passed ere my sole remaining companion had succeeded in the great object. By some means, to me at the time inexplicable, he had contrived to nestle himself into a pea-green coat with marvellously long tails. I had scarcely recovered from the surprise which this gave me, when I saw him one day walking down the street arm in arm with the tall youth who had lately so shamefully entreated us both, and whom we, in our resentment, had vowed never again to speak to-no, upon no account whatHere was a specimen of human constancy! Matters were quickly enough decided. In less than a week, my late companion had completely deserted the party of the jackets, and was received as a full privileged member of the fraternity of the long-tailed

ever.

coats.

I went home melancholy and misanthropical. Visions of a long-tailed coat, as already mentioned, had ere now visited me, but I was not eager on the subject: I could have waited meekly till time was ripe for the glory which I knew was ultimately to be mine. But when I saw myself thus cast forth as it were from my own proper society, on account of my wearing a jacket, it was no longer possible to exercise patience. It was now clear that if I did not get a long-tailed coat myself, and that speedily, I must fall back upon a set of boys below me in age and all other respects. Agitation had not then become a political principle, but was a recognised domestic one, and I lost no time in taking advantage of it. I spoke to my sister to speak to my mother to speak to my father to get me a long-tailed coat. Next evening, as the worthy man was reposing in his easy chair after

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