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in short, his was a philosophical exhibition, the mate-
Having taken our places at the glasses, the Italian
northern states-whether I contemplate the beauty
"Is not that a lovely child?" said the Italian.
"Have you ever seen that man before, my kind
We all declared we had not.
Before drawing the cord which was to exhibit the first picture to us, the Italian made a short speech in broken but perfectly intelligible English, the substance of which was-That his exhibition differed from all other exhibitions in the show way; that there was little in what he had to exhibit to gratify the eye as mere spectacle, but a good deal, he hoped, to strike the imagination, and perhaps improve the mind; that,
Click, again, went the cord of the show-box, and a splendid pageant took the place of the battle-piece. The scene was the interior of a noble Gothic hall, hung with rich tapestry, and blazing with the light of a thousand wax candles in silver sconces. Along the centre of the hall ran a long table, loaded with the most costly viands in gold and silver vessels. At this table sat a multitude of persons, male and female, splendidly attired. At a small table, at the farther end of the hall, and raised upon a dais, sat a lordlylooking personage, arrayed in sumptuous robes, and wearing on his head a crown of gold sparkling with precious stones. By his side sat a fair young lady, on
we might conjecture, was, in part at least, inspired by the profuse display of good cheer which the ample table board around which the guests were seated exhibited.
We could not, at first, make out any special purpose for this merry-making. But, at length, descrying a jolly-looking dame, who struck us at once as presenting what we may call the characteristics of a nurse, bearing about with an air of triumph a gaily-dressed and smiling babe in her arms, we made out that it was a christening. On a small brooch or clasp, which united in front a broad band or cincture that begirt the infant, the artist had inscribed, in very small, almost invisible letters, the words, “ Edward Marston, aged three weeks."
THE PHILOSOPHICAL SHOWMAN.
CARSWELL HOUSE, in which I have now resided for upwards of seven years, is a prettily situated mansion. It stands on the brow of a gentle declivity, and overlooks a wide extent of beautiful country. The view from our parlour windows in the summer season, when the woods are green, and the fields clothed in verdure, is delightful. It must be allowed, however, that we are rather dreary in winter. The house is somewhat solitary, and the snow, which falls heavily, lies long and deep around it. At about a quarter of a mile from the house passes a cart-road leading to the village whom all eyes seemed bent in wonder and admiration. showed that she could not walk without such aid. of Limburne, about five miles distant, and of this road the golden head of one of whom rested one of her Around her sported three or four young children; on
a stretch of about a mile lies in view of our windows.
last year, that one of my youngsters, who was standing
and on whom her lordly companion appeared gazing
Seeing the man's distress, I dispatched my gardener and footman to his assistance, desiring them to conduct him to the house, in which I meant he should remain until the storm had somewhat abated. In less than half an hour the man was comfortably seated by our kitchen fire, and proved to be an itinerant showman. He was an Italian, and the burden which we had observed upon his back was his show-box. Grateful for the kindness shown him-which kindness included of course the refreshments required by his condition—the poor Italian sent up a respectful message to the dining-room, to the effect that he would be happy to exhibit his show to the members of the family, if they would so far honour him. He was immediately requested to come up stairs, and to bring his show along with him.
We were all struck with admiration of this splendid scene, especially with the extraordinary beauty and sumptuous attire of the young lady who sat beside the king, and now inquired who the former and latter were. The Italian told us that the king was Edward IV.; the lady who sat beside him the celebrated Jane Shore. We were about to ask some other questions, when click, again, went the string of the box, and a dreary, monotonous view of frost-bound ponds and fields, and leafless trees, with a large city in the distance, which we subsequently learnt was London, was presented to our view. In the foreground of the picture, which it made one cold and chilly but to look at, was the figure of a miserable old woman, haggard and wrinkled with poverty and age, gathering sticks for firewood. Her clothes were in rags, and she seemed as if perishing with cold and hunger.
"Have you, my kind benefactors," said the Italian, as on a former occasion-" have you, think you, ever
I was much struck with the man's appearance on his entering the room, which he did with a remarkably graceful bow. His countenance had the swarthy hue of his country, and his dark eye all the fire and brilliancy that belong to the eyes of the children of the sunny south. But there was an expression of mildness and intelligence in his countenance not so often seen, and which at once attracted my attention. Having placed his show-box-a tasteful thing, beautifully painted and gilt-in a proper situation, he withdrew the slides from the lenses, wiped them carefully, and placing himself at one end of the box, in order to work the tableaux, or pictures, he invited us, with a polite bow and pleasant smile, to take our places at the sights, of which there were in all six.
seen that miserable old woman before ?"
Again the string was drawn. And now the interior | of an apartment of moderate size, and otherwise such as are seen in the houses of the more respectable of the middling classes, was exhibited. It was filled with company, all apparently dressed for the occasion, and seemed to be the scene of some joyous revelry-every countenance beaming with a mirth and glee which,
Again the string was drawn, and another apartment, similar to the above described, was exhibited; but how differently occupied. It was filled with mourners, and on a table or tressel in the centre lay a coffin. It was still unclosed, and we could see that it contained the body of an old man. His ghastly, withered countenance, and pinched features, were uncovered, and on the metal plate of the coffin lid, which lay close by, we read, "Edward Marston, aged 72 years." The figure which we now contemplated was, then, the smiling cherub of the preceding picture. Where now were the members of that merry company, whom we saw assembled to welcome his admission within the pale of the church? One after another, they have all long since descended into the grave; and he, too, is now about to follow. His term of life has run out. It was a long one; but at its close it seemed to have passed almost as quickly as the transition of the two pictures.
"Now, my kind benefactors," said the Italian, "let us see what is doing in the mansion adjoining this house of mourning."
He drew the string, and a brilliantly lighted apartment, filled with a gay assembly, presented itself. The centre of the floor was occupied by a crowd of light-footed dancers, and mirth and revelry held unrestrained dominion over the scene.
"It is the celebration of a marriage," said the Italian. "Look to the right, and you will see the bride and bridegroom standing together. That is she, the fair young girl in the white satin dress. See how and graceful young man, on whose arm she so fondly beautiful she is; how elegant her form! That tall leans, is her husband. How happy he looks! He has no thought for the future. His whole soul, his every sense, is wrapt up in the present; he dreams not that all this happiness and joy will speedily pass away."
And, at this instant, away like thought passed the joyous scene, and another took its place. It was a fair garden; and on one of its rustic seats sat an old lady, dressed in the deepest mourning of widowhood. long staff, with an ivory head, which stood beside her, Her aged countenance was sad and melancholy. A
as if blessing the child.
"Know ye who that feeble old woman is?" said the Italian.
stood the nature and scope of his exhibition.
Once more the string was drawn, and a splendid
solved to devote his life to this object. He was appointed a member of the Council of Education; but finding little was to be done by those with whom he acted, he threw off all connexion with the government, and determined to form on his own estate of Hofwyl, and with his own fortune, an institution, to prove practically what could be done, by a right system of education, for the benefit of humanity.
Such was the principle on which M. de Fellenberg started as an educationist about forty years ago, and we have now to say something of his operations. His plans were comprehensive and full of benevolence. He purchased and added about two hundred acres of land to his estate, which must have been originally small, his object being not only to improve the knowledge of agriculture in the district, but to make lessons in industrial affairs a means of moral training. He began, therefore, by establishing an agricultural school, which he formed of the destitute children of the canton. To this, after a time, he added a school for youths from the higher classes of society. And, lastly, he formed an intermediate school of boys, chiefly the sons of farmers who were able to pay a small board. His scheme was gone about with great caution and deliberation; for his object being the formation of character, it was absolutely necessary that new comers should be admitted only after the previous pupils had been to a certain extent fixed in principle. This was a wise resolution, which it would be well for teachers in general to copy, as large accessions of raw lads at one time are apt to derange the whole economy of an educational establishment, and undo much of the advantages already gained.
Hiring a voiture on purpose for the day, we proceeded from Berne in a northerly direction, and passed for several miles through a rich agricultural tract, well clothed with tall timber, and evidently the property of a class of persons above the usual standing of cottage farmers. The fields had been cleared of their autumnal produce; ploughs were here and there seen turning over the furrows preparatory for new crops; and at the doors of the large thatched homesteads of the farmers, clusters of women were busy skutching flax, with the customary energy and clacking noise with which that occupation is performed. Passing through these pleasing scenes of rural comfort and industry-or, I should almost say, hard labour, for hard it would be to English females-our carriage at length entered a more undulating stretch of country, and made the best of its way through a pretty thick wood. On emerging from the cool shade of the overhanging
After a course of constant improvement for nearly forty years, we now find the establishment of Hofwyl complete in all its details-the edifices constituting the schools and dwelling-houses settled into the character of a quiet orderly village, and the fields, for half a mile round, trimmed with the same skill and neatness as you would see in East Lothian or Norfolk. The buildings stand on the most elevated part of the estate, and are of a respectable appearance, each several storeys in height. On entering an open play-ground, we have, on the right, the largest building, in which M. de Fellenberg and his family, and also the higher class of pupils, reside, and in which also are some of the class-rooms. On the lower or sunk floor are the kitchen and cellars; the floor above contains a large dining-room, chapel, and other apartments; on the next floor are the class-rooms; and the top storey is laid out in two large sleeping apartments, with a row of beds on each side-the whole clean and neat in the extreme. Each boy occupies a separate bed, and the whole are superintended by masters, whose apartments are adjoining. The boys are never alone, so that none has the power of either domineering over or contaminating his companions. All rise at 5, and breakfast at 6 o'clock in summer, and at 6 and 7 in winter. trees, we had before us an open tract, in the midst of From this large and commodious building we were which, on the top of a gently rising ground, stood conducted to a house of more plain appearance across Hofwyl a situation apparently unmatchable in point the play-ground, the lower part of which we found to of salubrity and beauty, for all around, the cleared be occupied as a museum and a receptacle for garden fields descend to distant vales and meadows, which where several young gentlemen were at the time entools; in the floor above was a cabinet-making shop, are backed by sheltering hills and woods; and from gaged in making articles according to their own taste, various parts of the grounds are seen the long ridgy under the direction of a professed workman. Passing peaks of the Bernese Alps. A few minutes served to a place for gymnastic exercises, we now went to the carry us up to the place, where we were received with house containing the intermediate classes, at which, the greatest politeness and attention by M. de Fellen- in a lower hall, eighty lads were at the time at dinner, under the superintendence of their masters. Next, berg, one of the most venerable men whom it was we adjourned to the extensive suite of buildings conever my fortune to meet ; and his son, a young gentle-nected with the dairy and operations of the farm, man who is now taking a large share of the burden which stood on the northern slope, and a little aloof of the establishment. As it is my desire to give as from the main cluster of the establishment. Here a exact an idea as possible of Hofwyl and the plans of closed to us. In a series of lower offices stood seventymost extensive system of rural management was disits proprietor, I hope to be excused for going a little two cows, beautiful large animals, which I was told were occasionally, for the sake of exercise, employed in drawing the plough-a practice to which nothing could reconcile either the ladies of the party or myself. immense size; and in a neighbouring loft we were In the upper part of the cow-house was a barn of shown a large array of agricultural implements, quite new, and ready for use-the preparation of these articles on the most improved plan forming a part of M. de Fellenberg's widely comprehensive schemes. The dairy, the places of residence of the boys of the lower school, and other departments, were shown, but require no notice. After seeing every thing here, we were led by a pathway down the sloping field to a pond 90 feet in diameter, neatly paved, and surrounded by a tall hedge, with a dressing-house. The water is kept ever fresh by a spring. This is the bathing pond for the boys, and here they learn to swim.
ordinary changes which are constantly taking place in human affairs, often from heedlessness, or, perhaps, wilful extravagance, on the one hand, and perseverance
with self-denial on the other."
Here dinner being announced, we were reluctantly compelled to desist, for the time, from further gratifying our curiosity with these pictures of life. But as there was no appearance of the storm abating, and as I in consequence had offered the Italian quarters for the night-an offer which he gratefully accepted-we engaged him to renew his interesting exhibition in the evening; he having informed us that we had yet seen but a very small portion of what he had to show.
A FEW WEEKS ON THE CONTINENT. VISIT TO HOFWYL.
HOFWYL, situated at the distance of from six to eight English miles from Berne, was one of those places which had formed a principal object of my visit to Switzerland—a visit which, it will have been perceived, was rather less to scramble over ice at the height of ten thousand feet, than to see nature in her more charming moods, and to observe something of the character and features of Swiss society. No one taking the slightest interest in education and its progress, could visit Berne without seeing the far-spoken of establishment of M. de Fellenberg, more particularly since it is open to the inspection of strangers from all quarters of the world. It was not therefore surprising that I made it the object of a special side
M. de Fellenberg is by birth a Swiss, having been born in the canton of Berne, in the year 1771. His immediate ancestors were of the patrician or privileged class, which late events have levelled with the ordinary citizens of the country; by the mother's side, he is a descendant of the Dutch admirals Cornelius and Van Tromp. The excellent example and admonitions of his parents had a happy influence upon his early years, and induced that strong devotion to the interests of his country and of mankind at large which has distinguished him through life. While still a young man, he had the sagacity to form the conclusion that no species of political reform in the affairs of Switzerland could be of any use unless preceded by a reform in education. To satisfy himself on this point, he travelled all over Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Germany on foot, everywhere acquainting himself with the state of the people, residing in the villages and farm-houses, and mingling in the labours and hearing the sentiments of the peasants. On the invasion of Switzerland by the French in 1798, he took an active part in opposing them, was proscribed, and fled to Germany. He was soon after recalled to his native country, and employed on a political mission to the French Directory; but the prevailing disregard of all principle gave him a distaste of diplomacy, and he resigned his office. He then filled a public station at home, and, fully impressed with the belief that the only resource against the revolutionary horrors he had witnessed was to be found in education, he re
We were conducted over these various outlying parts of the establishment by young M. de Fellenberg, who has been in England, and clearly explained every thing to us in our own tongue. Returning with him to the grande maison, we again sat down by the side of the venerable founder of the institution; and what betwixt his own and his son's observations, I really believe little was left to be told. The manner and conversation of M. de Fellenberg were exceedingly pleasing. In his appearance is embodied all that we can conceive of an estimable old man-a most benevolent cast of countenance, silver white hair, and the sober dress of a recluse. He spoke in French, and so slowly and distinctly that there was no mistaking his meaning. German is the common language in this
part of Switzerland, and is therefore used in the schools; but French and English are taught to those who desire them. At the period of my visit, the whole establishment included about 150 boys, of whom from 50 to 60 belonged to the high school, 80 to the intermediate, and the remainder to the lower or agricultural school. With respect to the latter, their schooling is on a very moderate scale; but they are taken gratuitously, and their labour, such as it is, compensates for their board and instruction. The boys of the intermediate school are taught on a more advanced plan, but with reference to ordinary professions, including agriculture, and are boarded in a plain manner, conformable to the moderate sum paid for their attendance. The pith of the whole concern is the high school; the pupils are taught by the best masters, and I should certainly say that the principle of their education is unexceptionable, for it refers alike to physical, intellectual, and moral training. Among other accomplishments, vocal music is taught upon scientific principles to all, and instrumental music to those whose taste inclines. Lessons in music being also given in the lower schools, at times there are meetings in which all join in concert. An English lady, who has three boys at the institution, and to whom I have been indebted for a candid statement of what she saw and felt during a pretty lengthened visit, says, in a communication to me on the subject"The pupils of the intermediate school sing in parts with a perfection rare among children; and I was never more touched by music, than when, early on a Sunday morning, their voices broke the universal stillness. There is a monthly concert on a Sunday evening. The night I was present the audience consisted of more than two hundred persons, formed of the pupils of the three schools and their masters, who took no part in the performance, also M. de Fellenberg, his daughters, and grand-children, and servants of the whole establishment. The orchestra was composed of violins, violoncello, double bass, trombone, clarionet, flute, and French horn. The pieces played were those of Haydn, Neukomm, Rossini, and other leading composers. The audience were very attentive, but did not applaud, as M. de Fellenberg conceives the young have not suffi cient judgment to pronounce an opinion publicly. After the concert, the performers were invited publicly to the saloon, and partook of refreshments. I may here mention that the part taken by M. de Fellenberg's daughters is most valuable. Their mother died about three years since. She gave them the example of an undeviating co-operation in the views and practical details of their father's philanthropic designs. They all speak English, and their maternal kindness and care of the young children are beyond all praise. They are elegant and accomplished women, uniting the simplicity of Swiss habits with intellectual refinement. In the winter, the pupils visit the saloon in turn, twice a-week, and also join the domestic circle of the head master and his wife. Thus, Hofwyl unites the advantages of public with domestic education in a manner unknown in any other institution."
It is customary in some of the best continental annually with their masters; and this is particularly boarding-schools for the boys to proceed on excursions attended to at Hofwyl. A certain number of boys are placed under the charge of a trusty master, and set out on a tour in the month of August, in a direction previously determined. The journey is on foot, and each carries a knapsack, furnished with a few articles of clothing. Thus the squad march over hill and dale, visit places of historical interest, picturesque scenes, ruins of old castles, and towns of commercial note. It need hardly be mentioned that these journeys, which last for several weeks, are of great use in openadvantages which may be derived from physical exering up the minds of the youths, independently of the cise. A boy at a school of this liberal kind, in the course of a few years, has perambulated the north of Italy, the Tyrol, a portion of Germany, and best part of Switzerland, and is able to converse in several languages; while a boy at an English boarding-school has seen nothing, can with difficulty translate a few words of Latin, and speak only his own vernacular tongue.
I learned from M. de Fellenberg that he has taken every possible care to surround the institution with a pure moral atmosphere, to exclude evil influence and example, and thus, as far as possible, control whatever evil passions the pupil may naturally possess. Boys who are restive under the mild system of discipline which is established are removed. It is not every one who will be admitted. The place is not a reformatory or penitentiary; neither is it a place in which there is any attempt at proselytising. In the course of religious instruction, nothing beyond the general principles of Christianity are taught; and on Sunday, the boys of each sect attend chapel at certain hours, when a clergyman of their own creed is in attendance. The chapel is a large apartment, which we were shown in making the round of the premises. It is plainly furnished with benches, and has at one end an object which I took to be a closed cupboard; pointing to it, M. de Fellenberg observed that it was "l'autel pour la messe," which was shut up when the place was used for the reformed worship. Notwithstanding the presence of this dangerous piece of furniture, there never has been known an instance of a conversion to Roman Catholicism in the school, neither has there been an instance of a change from Roman Catholicism to Protestantism. M. de Fellenberg is not a propa
different parts of Switzerland and Germany; and
their pleasures, and too knowing for simple enjoyment. Some attempts, indeed, have been made of late years, by men of both taste and learning, to rally back the popular feeling to these standards of primitive simplicity; but the time has gone by-the feeling has become chilled by habits of gain and traffic-the country apes the manners and amusements of the town, and little is heard of May-day at present, except from the lamentations of authors, who sigh after it from among the brick walls of the city."
It is not unworthy of notice that the late Dr Parr was "a patron of May-day sports. Opposite his parsonage house at Hatton, near Warwick, on the other side of the road, stood the parish May-pole, which on the annual festival was dressed with garlands, surrounded by a numerous band of villagers. The doctor was first of the throng,' and danced with his parishioners the gayest of the gay. He kept the large crown of the May-pole in a closet of his house, from which it was produced every May-day, with fresh flowers and streamers preparatory to its elevation, and to the doctor's own appearance in the ring. He always spoke of this festivity as one wherein he joined with peculiar delight to himself and advantage to his neighbours."
POPULAR ENGLISH FESTIVALS.
A SOUND of laughing villages comes over the imagina-
gandist; and his liberal and judicious arrangements for
The world in general, condemning what it cannot understand, or which does not fall in with its own prejudices, has, I believe, not hesitated to hold up M. de Fellenberg as a charlatan, and his schemes as at best idle dreams. That this character is unjust, I have no hesitation in saying. He may not have realised all his intentions; but these intentions were sincere, and he has at least sacrificed a lifetime in endeavouring to carry them into effect. Local circumstances, as I have hinted, have not a little hampered his views; but he has clearly made an impression in the educational arrangements of his country; and, by the model which he has presented of a farm cultivated on the best principles of science and art, his exertions have proved of great value to the agriculture of this part of the continent. Persons, also, who have been trained up at his seminary have gone forth and established industrial schools on a similar model in
A certain superstitious feeling attached to Mayday. The dew of that morning was considered as a cosmetic of the highest efficacy, and women, especially young women, who are never unwilling to improve in this respect, used to go abroad before sunrise to gather it. To this day, there is a resort of the fair sex every May-morning to Arthur's Seat, near Edinburgh, for the purpose of washing their faces with the dew. Mr Pepys, in his curious diary written in the time of Charles II., gravely tells us of his wife gone to Woolwich for a little air, and to gather May-dew, "which Mrs Turner hath taught her is the only thing in the world [Rowland's Kalydor not being then invented] to wash her face with." Scott, in his "Discovery of Witchcraft," speaks of a sprig of hawthorn gathered on May-day, and hung in the entry to a house, as a presumed preservative against all malign influences. We find another quaint superstition as to May-day in Gay's "Shepherd's Week":"
There was also a practice of making fools on Mayday, similar to what obtains on the first of the preceding month. The deluded were called May-goslings. It was held unlucky to marry in May, a notion which, we learn from Ovid, existed among the Romans.
A gentleman residing at Hitchin, in Hertfordshire, communicated to Mr IIone a curious account of the way in which May-day is observed at that place. The Mayers there express their judgment of the estimableness of the characters of their neighbours by fixing branches upon their doors before morning; those who are unpopular find themselves marked with nettle or some other vile weed instead. "Throughout the day, parties of these Mayers are seen dancing and frolicking in various parts of the town. The group that I saw to-day, which remained in Bancroft for more than an hour, was composed as follows:-First came two men with their faces blacked, one of them with a birch broom in his hand, and a large artificial hump on his back; the other dressed as a woman, all in rags and tatters, with a large straw bonnet on, and carrying a ladle: these are called 'Mad Moll and her husband.' Next came two men, one most fantastically dressed with ribbons, and a great variety of gaudy-coloured silk handkerchiefs tied round his arms from the shoulders to the wrists, and down his thighs and legs to the ankles; he carried a drawn sword in his hand; leaning upon his arm was a youth dressed as a fine lady, in white muslin, and profusely bedecked from top to toe with gay ribbons; these, I understood, were called the Lord and Lady' of the company. After these followed six or seven couples more, attired much in the same style as the lord and lady, only the men were without swords. When this group received a satisfactory contribution at any house, the music struck up from a violin, clarionet, and fife, accompanied by the long drum, and they began the merry dance, and very well they danced, I assure you; the men-women looked and footed it so much like real women, that I stood in great doubt as to which sex they belonged to, till Mrs Jassured me that women were not permitted to mingle in these sports. While the dancers were merrily footing it, the principal amusement to the populace was caused by the grimaces and clownish tricks of Mad Moll and her husband. When the circle of spectators became so contracted as to interrupt the dancers, then Mad Moll's husband went to work with his broom, and swept the road dust all round the circle into the faces of the crowd; and when any pretended affronts were offered (and many were offered) to his wife, he pursued the offenders, broom in hand; if he could not overtake them, whether they were males or females, he flung his broom at them. These flights and pursuits caused an abundance of merriment."+ The
* Hone's Every-Day Book.
quarter-staff on his shoulder; and Morris, the mole- however, an extensive though superficial reader; and
The moon shines bright, and the stars give a light,
In London, as has been said, May-day was once as much observed as it was in any rural district. There were several May-poles throughout the city, particularly one near the bottom of Catherine Street in the Strand, which, rather oddly, became in its latter days a support for a large telescope at Wanstead in Essex, the property of the Royal Society. The milkmaids were amongst the last conspicuous celebrators of the day. They used to dress themselves in holiday guise on this morning, and come in bands with fiddles, whereto they danced, attended by a strange-looking pyramidal pile, covered with pewter plates, ribbons, and streamers, either borne by a man upon his head, or by two men upon a hand-barrow: this was called their garland. The young chimney-sweepers also made this a peculiar festival, coming forth into the streets in fantastic dresses, and making all sorts of unearthly noises with their shovels and brushes. The benevolent Mrs Montagu, one of the first of the class of literary ladies in England, gave these home slaves an annual dinner on this day, in order, we presume, to aid a little in reconciling them to existence. In London, Mayday still remains the great festival of the sweeps, and much finery and many vagaries are exhibited on the
The Robin Hood games and morris-dances, by which this day was distinguished till the Reformation, appear, from many scattered notices of them, to have been entertainments full of interest to the common people. Robin has been alternatively styled in at least one document as the King of May, while Maid Marian seems to have been held as the Queen. The various scattered particulars respecting these festivities, which make but dry reading by themselves, have been wrought up to some advantage by Mr Strutt in his "Queen Hoo Hall," where he describes May-day as celebrated by the servants and dependants of an English baron of the fifteenth century. (We abridge a little in the matter of costume.) "In the front of the pavilion, a large square was staked out, and fenced with ropes, to prevent the crowd from pressing upon the performers, and interrupting the diversion; there were also two bars at the bottom of the enclosure, through which the actors might pass and repass, as occasion required. Six young men first entered the square, clothed in jerkins of leather, with axes upon their shoulders like woodmen, and their heads bound with large garlands of ivy leaves, intertwined with sprigs of hawthorn. Then followed six young maidens of the village, dressed in blue kirtles, with garlands of primroses on their heads, leading a fine sleek cow decorated with ribbons of various colours interspersed with flowers; and the horns of the animal were tipped with gold. These were succeeded by six foresters equipped in green tunics, with hoods and hosen of the same colour; each of them carried a bugle-horn attached to a baldrick of silk, which he sounded as he passed the barrier. After them came Peter Lanaret, the baron's chief falconer, who personified Robin Hood; he was attired in a bright grass-green tunic, fringed with gold; his hood and his hosen were particoloured, blue and white; he had a large garland of rose-buds on his head, a bow bent in his hand, a sheaf of arrows at his girdle, and a bugle-horn depending from a baldrick of light blue tarantine, embroidered with silver; he had also a sword and a dagger, the hilts of both being richly embossed with gold. Fabian, a page, as Little John, walked at his right hand; and Cecil Cellerman, the butler, as Will Stukely, at his left. These, with ten others of the jolly outlaw's attendants who followed, were habited in green garments, bearing their bows bent in their hands, and their arrows in their girdles. Then came two maidens, in orange-coloured kirtles with white courtpies, strewing flowers, followed immediately by the Maid Marian, plentifully supplied. Isabel had not. like her sisters, been permitted to go to school, though hers was a case elegantly habited in a watchet-coloured tunic reaching in which school discipline might have been highly efficato the ground. She was supported by two bride- cious; she had not even been considered capable of maidens, in sky-coloured rochets girt with crimson enduring the usual process of mental instruction at girdles. After them came four other females in green home. Thus, her education, even that inferior part which courtpies, and garlands of violets and cowslips. Then relates to the understanding and the memory, was as Sampson, the smith, as Friar Tuck, carrying a huge | vague and irregular as could well be imagined. She was,
INSANITY CURED BY THE PATIENT HIMSELF. I recollect a case which occurred to me thirty-five years ago, of a seaman, who had been living in a very intemperate way for some time, until he became so maniacal, that he could not be kept on board his ship. He was sent to the workhouse at Hull, where he had only been a few days, when he leaped out of the window, in consequence, as he afterwards related to me, of believing that he should escape him, if he could but get out of the the devil wanted to get possession of him. He thought house. He said he felt quite free for some time; but he at last heard him beneath the pavement, wherever he went in the town. He then thought, that if he could only leap on board a ship, which was at some little distance from the wharf, he should avoid him; but he had not been long on board, before he felt convinced that he was scratching at the bottom of the vessel, and it then occurred to him, that if he got on shore and cut his throat, he should be safe. He borrowed a knife from a sailor whom he met, and instantly cut his throat from destruction, the pharynx was wounded, but the carotids ear to ear. As is very usual in these attempts at selfwere uninjured; the hemorrhage from the superficial vessels was enormous. The parts were speedily brought together; the wound healed by the first intention; he was never insane one moment after the brain was relieved by the immediate loss of blood. He related to me all the above circumstances. He got perfectly well, and went to sea within a month after his unsuccessful attempt at self-destruction.-Sir W. C. Ellis on Insanity.
STATISTICS OF MUSCULAR POWER.
AN ELEGANTLY USELESS YOUNG LADY.
of flight. To effect these, he has, in maturity and health, Man has the power of imitating every motion but that sixty bones in his head, sixty in his thighs and legs, sixtytwo in his arms and hands, sixty-seven in his trunk. He has also 434 muscles. His heart makes sixty-four pulsations in a minute; and, therefore, 3,840 in an hour92,160 in a day. There are also three complete circulations of his blood in the short space of an hour. In respect to the comparative speed of animated beings and of impelled bodies, it may be remarked, that size and construction seem to have little influence; nor has comparative strength, although one body giving any quantity The sloth is by no means a small animal, and yet it can of motion to another is said to lose so much of its own. travel only fifty paces in a day; a worm crawls only five inches in fifty seconds; but a ladybird can fly 20 million times its own length in less than an hour. An elk can run a mile and a half in seven minutes; an antelope a mile in a minute; the wild mule of Tartary has a speed even greater than that; an eagle can fly eighteen leagues in an Of this class of young ladies we find the following hour; and a Canary falcon can even reach 250 leagues in specimen in a work now publishing, called " the short Family space of sixteen hours.-Bucke. Secrets":-" Isabel advanced along the path of life with feeble and uncertain steps; for in addition to her constitutional delicacy, she had to contend with a will undisciplined, and with endless longings after personal gratification unchecked, unregulated, and consequently incapable of being gratified to their full extent. Indulged in a kind of dreamy idleness, from which she was seldom as a favourite child, the greater part of her life was spent roused, except by some awakening desire for personal gratification, some complaint of mental or bodily uneasishe was generally too languid or too indolent to carry ness, or some scheme for momentary amusement, which into effect. The consequence of all this was, that Isabel arrived at the age of eighteen, a victim to dyspepsia, an amateur in medicine, a martyr to nervous maladies, and as elegantly discontented with life, and all it had to offer, as any other young lady of her age could think becoming her character and station. The worst of all was, that, by this system of injudicious treatment, false tastes had been created, unnatural cravings excited for
bodily as well as mental stimulants, which, under the
names of cordials, tonics, and restoratives, were but too
ADHERENCE TO OLD CUSTOMS.
The Welsh plough is one of the most awkward unmeaning tools to be found in any civilised country; but the Rotherham and other improved ploughs are coming into general use. A gentleman, a naval officer in Cardiganshire, introduced the light Rotherham, and insisted on back, the new ploughs were dismissed the service, and the his ploughmen using them. As soon as he turned his old ones brought into the field. One day, in a rage, he committed the old ploughs to the flames, and set the new ones a-going. Afterwards, taking a ride to cool himself, old ploughs, borrowed from the neighbours, at work; the and returning, he found the new ploughs in the ditch, and master then thinking it useless to persevere, gave up the contest. "I have," said he, "seen various kinds of human beings, in different parts of the globe, but none so obstinately bent on old usages as the Welsh."-Loudon's Encyclopædia of Agriculture.
An error occurred in the paper on Coleridge which appeared in the Journal, No. 530. The poet's children, we are informed by P. H., are the following:-David Hartley, author of an interesting
book entitled "The Worthies of Lancashire and Yorkshire"
Derwent, who has written a large volume on the scriptural cha
racter of the English Church-and Sara, the writer of a beautiful tale called “* Phantasmion.'
LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row.
Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars.
THE STRUGGLES OF ADOLESCENCE. THE passage from boyhood to youth was marked amongst the Romans by a ceremonious investiture with what they called the toga cirilis, or robe of manhood. I presume this was put on at a certain age, so that there could be no dubiety about the matter. The boy was a boy one day; next day, he was a man; all the world acknowledged the transition, and there was no more to be said. It is very different in this country, where a lad will sometimes hang for a year or two in a doubtful state between boy and man, to the great discomfort of himself, and not without some inconvenience to his neighbours, who scarcely know how to address or consider him. He himself is probably eager to be ranked with men, and for this reason has long put away boyish things; but his seniors, somehow, are usually plaguily slow at perceiving that he has ceased to be a boy-so that, unless he puts forward some determined claim, he stands little chance of being accepted in the superior capacity. This, again, his bashfulness may forbid his doing, so that he is condemned to pine in secret under an injustice for which there is no immediate remedy.
If a youngster have elder brothers, who have for some time been received into the pale of manhood, his case is even worse. I have known desperate struggles take place between younger and elder brothers, in the assertion of a claim to be considered as an adult specimen of the genus homo. It is very shameful; but certainly the policy of the elder parties is decidedly of the keep-him-down character. Orlando, in As You Like It, is but a type of what all younger brothers have to endure from elder brothers. One may have got above any thing like a particular affection for bread and butter for several months, and by rising at five every morning, may have made way through not only Smith's Wealth of Nations, but also Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; yet those big fellows will still deny one's claim to manhood. One may have even begun to shave pretty regularly, though somewhat clandestinely, once a-week; yet for some time it will all not do. Constant squabbling and fighting goes on-in some instances for one or more years-before the point is finally settled.
A toga cirilis, to be put on at a particular age, would save all these inconveniences. We have, indeed, a toga virilis in the long-tailed coat; but then there is no fixed time for induing it. The difficulty with the young man is-to get his long-tailed coat. That would settle the matter at once; but then nobody will let him have it. Father, elder brothers, all who have any concern in the business, are found to labour under a remarkable prejudice about long-tailed coats, albeit wearing such garments most complacently themselves. The candidate is sure to be by far too young for it: in a year or two it may do very well, but it is absurd to speak of such a thing just now. In short, he must wait. And thus they would
"Bid him sigh on from day to day, And wish and wish the soul away"until he almost rises in rebellion against authority of every kind; when at length, like many more important things, that is conceded to terror which has been denied to justice. Well may we say to the youth, "The long-tailed coat would make you a man at once; but first catch your long-tailed coat!"
Yet, if we cannot preach in the kirk, we may sing mass in the quier. It sometimes happens that, although a long-tailed coat is for the time unattainable, a pair of boots is not so; and the exchange of shoes for boots is a step towards the desired object. A sensible youth will be content to take his reform by instalments,
SATURDAY, MAY 7, 1842.
trusting by and by to get the whole. And it is really
The getting of boots, stocks, hats, and such things, are but inferior stages in the career towards manhood. They are unmarked, unfelt, in comparison with the grand business of getting a long-tailed coat. There lies the real struggle of youth. The other things are outworks: the long-tailed coat is the citadel. I well remember that, when I attained to boots, my ambition had scarcely yet conceived the idea of a longtailed coat. One is modest at first, after the manner of Colonel Jack, of whom Defoe records-" About this time the colonel thought he might take it upon him to wear a shirt." About the time when I got a hat, the vision of a long-tailed coat hung with considerable distinctness before my mental eyesight. I beheld the skirts dangling, and the yellow buttons gleaming, in one of those fits of clair-coyance which are only enjoyed in youth. Still the coat, like many equally important matters, long remained a matter of abstract speculation-a kind of Yarrow Unvisited. I was sensible of its importance, for I saw how differently a lad in a jacket and one in a long-tailed coat were esteemed; but at the same time I knew that I was yet young and small, and without any proper pretensions to be so far advanced. At length, however, the time came when the long-tailed coat could be no longer dispensed with.
I and two juvenile and jacketed friends had for years been playfellows. We not only played together on all occasions, but had a regular alliance with regard to all matters offensive and defensive. As we grew up, we came to have a joint-stock collection of rabbits, from which we expected to derive an immense fortune; but this, like so many other joint-stock concerns, turned out a complete failure. Nothing occurred to mar the friendly feeling which subsisted between us, until one of my companions, who was a little taller and spoke somewhat louder than the rest, appeared before us one morning, to our no
small astonishment, in a long-tailed coat. Our tall friend had cunningly kept the matter a secret, evidently, as we thought, for the purpose of creating a sensation. I and my remaining jacketed friend were taken by surprise, and stood perfectly awe-struck and abashed, peering from under our raised hands at our exalted companion. If he had exercised authority over us while he wore a jacket like ourselves, what would he not do now that he was arrayed in all the pride and plenitude of a long-tailed coat? We trembled at the anticipation, which only turned out to be too true. He of the long-tailed coat kept us in a state of perpetual helotism. There was a swell and a swagger in his air that nothing short of a long-tailed coat could have imparted. His voice waxed louder and more imperious. He dictated and dogmatised over us at his pleasure. We of course succumbed before him, for what could jackets do against a longtailed coat? But were we to continue in that state for ever? That was the question. We had evidently arrived at a great crisis, and something must be done. My little jacketed friend and I did not say much on the subject, but our looks spoke volumes, and we knew that we felt as one. I may also remark that our longtailed friend did not in so many words tell us that we were wretches in jackets, but his whole demeanour announced it as plainly as if he had spoken it. He first humbled us with an attempt at affability and condescension; then cooled off entirely. He was now joined to a set of younkers who wore regular longtailed coats and smoked cigars. We were no longer fit company for him. Flesh and blood could not stand this unmoved, and in the first heat of our indignation we cogitated how we might manage to humble him in turn by cutting a skirt away from his coat. But this passed off. We came to see that it would be better for us to try to rise to his level, than to endeavour to pull him down to ours-a plan, by the way, which may be recommended to the consideration of many older persons with curtailing doctrines. Not many weeks passed ere my sole remaining companion had succeeded in the great object. By some means, to me at the time inexplicable, he had contrived to nestle himself into a pea-green coat with marvellously long tails. I had scarcely recovered from the surprise which this gave me, when I saw him one day walking down the street arm in arm with the tall youth who had lately so shamefully entreated us both, and whom we, in our resentment, had vowed never again to speak to-no, upon no account whatHere was a specimen of human constancy! Matters were quickly enough decided. In less than a week, my late companion had completely deserted the party of the jackets, and was received as a full privileged member of the fraternity of the long-tailed
I went home melancholy and misanthropical. Visions of a long-tailed coat, as already mentioned, had ere now visited me, but I was not eager on the subject: I could have waited meekly till time was ripe for the glory which I knew was ultimately to be mine. But when I saw myself thus cast forth as it were from my own proper society, on account of my wearing a jacket, it was no longer possible to exercise patience. It was now clear that if I did not get a long-tailed coat myself, and that speedily, I must fall back upon a set of boys below me in age and all other respects. Agitation had not then become a political principle, but was a recognised domestic one, and I lost no time in taking advantage of it. I spoke to my sister to speak to my mother to speak to my father to get me a long-tailed coat. Next evening, as the worthy man was reposing in his easy chair after