Imatges de pàgina
[ocr errors]


[ocr errors][ocr errors]



the government of these matters by invariable natural come to the rescue ; affects respect for the day, which

I know thou art: that form of thine, en fair, laws. In perfect ignorance, or in some vague hope of happened to be one of those held sacred by the Jews ;

Is genius' home, nor soul is wanting there.

Heaven thee wealth, nor did kind Ileaven rcfuso escape, they rush into circumstances which may be and so sheers off, leaving Horace in the hands of his

A better boor-the wit that wealth to use: said to secure their ruin. Were they fully aware of tormentor. At this juncture, the plaintiff in a suit, What could her suckling nurse's wish assign, the truth, they would avoid such circumstances sedu- in which the babbler was defendant, luckily appears, Save person, genius, fortune, fame like thine ? lously. Conscientiousness to the other party in the and effects the desired riddance. An allusion here re

Yet take advice : howe'er your life be pass'd, matrimonial contract, demands their doing so. Nay, quires a little explanation. When a prosecutor wished

Act as you thought each day that dawns your last ;

For so, should many chance to be in store, it is demanded by more than this-conscientiousness to compel the attendance of his adversary before the You'll relish each new-comer all the more, towards the possible offspring of the alliance. To prætor, the adversary being unwilling to go, he was And live, with keener zest, the unexpected hour. usher into existence beings who are only to be a bur at liberty to drag him thither by force, provided he

In fine, my friend, if ever dull you be, den to themselves, and condemned from the first to first touched the ear of any person present, and se

Then come my way, and have a laugh at me:

In good condition, fat and sleek, am I-early death, is an act as evil in its consequences as to cured his attestation to the refusal. If this ceremony

A well-fed pig of Epicurus' sty. inflict deadly injury upon a healthy person; and, were omitted, the arrest was deemed illegal. “The

-Epistles, L 4. where this is known, the act is not less strongly for- ancients believed that the seat of the memory was in

The epistle to Bullatius, of which we extract only bidden by a right morality. The views of society the tip of the ear; and hence their custom of touchupon these points are as yet very imperfect ; but we ing it, in order to remind another of a thing, or for the concluding section, may be read as a commentary do not despair that the time will arrive, when either the purpose of calling him to witness any circum- place.” From an obscure intimation in one of his

on Milton's emphatic axiom—"The mind is its own to marry with disease, or to marry a diseased person, stance or occurrence.”* will be shrunk from as one of the most flagitious of

odes, it would seem that Horace had once been in

Thus chatter'd he: when Fuscus comes in view, acts, and visited, where it occurs, with the same re

danger of shipwreck. The remembrance of his former A friend of mine that well my pesterer knew.

jeopardy might whet the zeal with which he reproprobation which is now bestowed on fraudulency and Our greetings over, straightway I begin gross outrages of all kinds.

To twitch, significant, his callous skin,

bates the rage for travel. We here use the version It seems at first sight to admit of some question

Provokingly pinch-proof; I nod full sly;

of Francis :

A thousand gestures show my agony: how far it is right to recommend a selection of the

Believe me, at delicious Rhodes to live,

I summon worlds of meaning into a squint; best women and men for husbands and wives, as that.

To a sound mind no greater bliss can give
In vain : the rogue plays shy to every hint.

Than a thick coat in summer's burning ray,
would imply that a number are to be left over on ac " You had some matter to disclose, I thought-
count of what are perhaps only natural misfortunes.

Something or other, though I know not what:

Or a light mantle on a snowy day,

Or to a swimmer Tiber's freezing stream,
But, on a more careful consideration, such selection

A secret 'twas; I long to hear't, I vow."
" True, I remember ; but won't tell you now.

Or sunny rooms in August's mid-day flame. appears quite legitimate. It is better that the weakly

Another time, for all I've got to say,

While yet 'tis in your power, while fortune smiles, and the foolish be left over, than that the sound and Will serve I see you are engaged to-day :

At Rome with rapture vaunt those happy isles; rational should be so, because the former are the least

Besides, 'tis thirtieth Sabbath; surely you

Then with a grateful hand the bliss receive,
On no account would thus affront the Jew ?"

If Heaven an hour more fortunate shall give. likely to enjoy happiness in the married state. Still

I've no such scruples, I assure you."

Seize on the present joy, and thus possess, more clearly is this the case, considering that it is But all the world are not enlighten'd so ;

Where'er you live, an inward happiness. better that the race should be continued from good

If reason only can our cares allay,

I have my weak side, I must own with painthan from inferior stock. It is therefore only right My friend, excuse me, we shall meet again."

Not the bold site that wide commands the sea;

If they who through the venturous ocean range, for both men and women to endeavour to obtain as Black day! he leaves me : when, by happy chance,

Not their own passions, but the climate change; good specimens of the opposite sex for their partners

Who but the foresaid plaintiff should advance!

Anxious through seas and land to search for rest “ Where now, you scoundrel ?" (he accosts my friend) :

Is but laborious idleness at best: as possible. A good general figure is a point worth "Sir, you'll be evidence?" (to me) : I lend looking to in all cases ; but young ladies especially are

In desert Ulubræ the bliss you'll find,

My ear with right good-will : away they go, apt to make it rather too important a one. What would A mob thcir convoy: Phæbus saved me so.

If you preserve a firm and equal mind.

--Epistles, L. IL. they think of an advice to look for a well-developed

--Satires, 1. 9.

The second book contains only three epistles. In head, as a not less important point? The large heads At Rome, in the time of IIorace, fortune-hunting tend to the upper strata

of society, the small heads had become a profession. In an imaginary dialogue the opinion of Ilurd, these are “ the best and most haps inferior present rank, but who from this cause is Thebes, introduced in the

Odyssey, the poet covertly third are throughout critical;

an epithet scarcely rising in life, is apt to turn out much preferable in the satirises the mean practices of his countrymen. From applicable to the light gossip of the second. The

former compositions bear a relation to his other epislong run to marrying a perfect equal, whose develop this performance we extract the following passages. ment of brain indicates the probability of a declining The version is by Dr Dunkin, the coadjutor of Francis tolary and satirical

writings, rery, similar to that subcourse. Let no man, on the other hand, who wishes

sisting between Pope's “ Epistles” and his “Essay on

Criticism." We must reserve our attention for the that his children should possess competent ability, ally himself to a small-headed woman. The volume

How poor and naked I return, behold,

third, which is better known under the appellation Unerring prophet, as you first foretold.

of the Art of Poetry. In this composition he sets of brain is hereditary, as well as tallness and a fair The wooing tribe,t in revellings employ'd, skin. Indeed, this is the case with all natural cha

out somewhat abruptly, with a very forcible illus

My stores have lavishd, and my herds destroy'd ; racteristics ; and it may be laid down as a general

But high descent and meritorious deeds,

tration of the grotesque effect produced by patches rule, that such qualities as we should like in children,

Unblest with wealth, are viler than sea-weeds.

of false ornament in composition ; guards against

abuse of the poetic license; enforces the necessity of such qualities should we look for in the associate of the conjugal yoke.

a just estimate of one's own powers; adverts to the
Since, to be brief, you shudder at the thought

beauty of an unaffected diction, admitting at the
Of want, attend how riches may be caught.
Suppose a thrush, or any dainty thing,

same time that words have their generation as well as TIIE LIFE AND POETRY OF HORACE.

Be sent to you, dispatch it on the wing

men, and observes that custom is the supreme arbiter
To some rich dotard. What your garden yields,

of language ; and then specifies the different measures
The choicest honours of your cultured fields,

appropriate to the various orders of poetry. Here he AFTER the Odes of Horace, his Satires fall under

To him be sacrificed, and let him taste, review. Of these he has left eighteen, which are dis

Before your gods, the vegetable feast.

launches into a disquisition on the drama, both as Though he be perjured, though a low-born knare,

written and acted, enjoining a strict attention to the tributed into two books. Luxury, avarice, and affec Stain'd with fraternal blood, a fugitive slave,

proprieties of situation and character, and counselling tation, the prevalent vices of the time, he assails with Yet wait upon him at his least command,

the removal of murders and the like revolting specmuch sound sense and easy raillery. Employing on

And always bid him take the upper hand.

tacles from the stage. He exhorts aspirants to dramapurpose, in this class of compositions, a homely, conversational style, whence his allusion to his " pedes

If any one desires you to peruse

tic fame to the daily and nightly study of the Grecian trian muse,” he not only directs his powerful ridicule

His will, be sure you modestly resuse,

models ; ridicules, in his keenest style, the folly and And push it from you ; but obliquely read

presumption of those who declined to use the prunagainst the local and ephemeral modes of vice and

The second clause, and quick run o'er the deed,

ing-knife, pleading genius as an apology for the vanity, but probes, with a steady and scientific hand, Observing whether, to reward your toil,

neglect of revision; and yet rebukes the captions crithose permanent principles in human nature, which You claim the whole, or must divide the spoil.

ticism, which, passing by without eulogy the conspiare ever ready to throw off a fresh race of follies as

-Satires, II. 5.

cuous beauties of a composition, only fastens, like the soon as their predecessors have vanished. Take the In Roman wills, which were generally written on flesh-fly, on the tainted part. He then, addressing following verses, which form the introductory section tablets overspread with wax, the first line or clause himself especially to the elder of the young Pisos, enof the First Satire, as a specimen. The poet illustrates was occupied by the name of the testator ; the second, larges on the necessity of distinguished excellence in the discontent produced by covetousness. He ad as is above intimated, would contain that of the lega- order to the establishment of such a reputation as he dresses Mæcenas :

tee. A man was at liberty to pass by his nearest re seems to have set his heart on ; observing that, though How happens it, my friend, that none's content,

latives, and constitute whom he pleased his heirs, moderate talents might command success in other lines Nor likes the lot or choice or chance hath lent;

provided the persons nominated were Roman citizens. of useful exertion, poetical mediocrity was alike inTurns from his own employ with perverse will,

The lively sarcastic vein which pervades and is tolerable" to gods, to men, and to booksellers.” After And after that of others hankers still?

proper to the satires of Horace, is likewise so charac- delivering the celebrated advice, to suppress a piece "Oh, happy merchants !" thus the veteran sighs,

teristic of his Epistles, that many eminent critics have till the ninth year after its production, and pronouncAs o'er his war-worn frame he casts his eyes; While thus the merchant, tossing on the brine

viewed the latter as simply a continuation of the ing a warm panegyric on the masters of ancient song, “ A soldier's life is better far than mine:

former. The distinction between the two classes of he glances at the oft-mooted question, whether art or For why, I'm ever on the rack ; but he

compositions is, however, sufficiently marked by a va- genius enters the more largely into the composition of An hour will bring him death or victory!

riety of circumstances. The individuality of address, good poetry. He declares both indispensable ; and The man of law, to whom at cock crow swarm A pack of clients, lauds the quiet farm :

the range of topics, and the constant exclusion of holds up, in conclusion, by way of bugbear to all unThe simple farmer to the city come,

dialogue, clearly establish the propriety of the title licensed trespassers on Parnassus, a highly graphic Vows none are bless'd but those that live at Rome.

under which the epistles have come down to us. picture of a bard run mad. There's many a case would suit my aim as well,

The letters of the first book, of which there are In the passage which we select as a specimen, there "Twould tire the babbler Fabius' self to tell :

twenty, are mostly familiar or moral. The poet skips occurs a much-quoted line, which runs literally thus : So here's my point. Suppose some god should say, Good-naturedly, “ Well, each may have his way: with great alacrity from gay to grave. At one time

“ He bears off every point who has blended the useful You, soldier, be a trader ; lawyer, you

he is eulogising Homer ; at another, excusing himself with the sweet.” The allusion is to the manner of Shall, since you wish it, be a farmer too.

for having ill-pared nails or a threadbare shirt ; now recording votes at the elective assemblies of the So off! Why linger ye?" Why, each is fain

he is discoursing on the excellence of virtue, anon he Romans. Each of these was indicated by a dot on a To lose the boon, and be himself again. And yet they might be bless'd! Why, where's the wonder

is inviting a friend to supper. These productions are tablet ; consequently, he who bore off all the dots was If he, the wrathful sovereign of the thunder,

supposed to have been written when their author was the successful candidate. Hence is derived the EngShould puff his cheeks, and, for the future, swear

verging on fifty. We translate entire, as a favourable lish phrase, to carry one's point. lle'll not so readily fulfil their prayer?

specimen of the lighter sort, the epistle to a celebrated -Satires, I. 1.

Poets design to profit, or delight, contemporary poet:

Or useful things in pleasing verse convey. In the satire of which we next translate a portion,

When morals you instil, be brief; and then

TO ALBIUS TIBULLUS. Horace describes, with exquisite humour, the molest

Your precepts will be readily retained. ation he had suffered from the pertinacity of a bore.

My friendly critic, think you I can guess After various ineffectual attempts to shake off this


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

How you employ your rural loneliness?

The aged will explode an idle tale,
Art writing verses which shall more than vie

And stories too severe disgust the young : “ weaver of long tales," he hopes at last to carry his With even Parman Cassius' elegy?

But he who joins instruction with delight, point by the connivance of a friend, in a little strata Or art thou sauntering through the healthful wood,

Profit with pleasure, gains the praise of all; gem which his seasonable appearance has suggested. Revolving themes beseem the wise and good ?

For such a work shall live, pass o'er the seas,

And bear to future times the author's fame. He is, as the event proves, too sanguine. The waggish

Yet there are faults which pardon may deserve: acquaintance enjoys the poet's vexa too keenly to

† Penelope's suitors.

Not every string obeys the master's band,

* Anthon.

Nor always can the archer hit the mark.

circumstances ; but it is indubitable, that irregulari- seemed, after several days, as if more blood were So, in a work where many beauties shine,

ties in the distribution of the blood-vessels do some actually directed to that region. The face became I will not cavil at a few mistakes,

times take place, causing operations otherwise safe to much swollen and discoloured, as if from the effects Which inadvertence sometimes may commit, Or human nature could not wholly shun.

become seriously dangerous. Such irregularities are of a blow ; and an oozing also commenced from the What then? Suppose a copyer should transcribe

very rare, however, and the old surgeons only resorted gums and nostrils. Still considerable hopes were enThe same words wrong, though often told his fault; to this explanation, because they were unacquainted tertained from the 23d to the 31st of December, the Or a musician the same jarring strings

with the existence of any peculiar constitutional ten- oozing remaining comparatively slight, though almost Repeat- who could abstain from ridicule ?

dency to hemorrhage in individuals. In those early continuous; but the worst symptoms suddenly reSo he who trips at every other line, May justly be compared to Chærilus ; *

cases, where a cure was effected, pressure was the curred, and the patient sank on the 17th of January, For, when he stumbles on a shining verso,

means employed ; in one instance, a melted plaster notwithstanding all the exertions of his able attend I smile to see it in such company,

was introduced into the socket of the tooth, and, in ants. And wonder by what magic it came there;

another, a portion of a bean, fixed down, was success It may not be very common for cases to occur, But fret whenever honest Homer nods.

-Duncombe's Version.
fully used to stop the bleeding.

where the predisposition to bleedings is so extremely

The truth respecting the existence of a hemorr- strong as in the instances recorded. But where they In that class of his writings which has come under review in the present article, Horace appears as the hagic predisposition in individuals, was made strikingly are liable to occur, even in a modified form, guarded possessor of qualities which rarely enter into the apparent in a case recorded by Nir Blagden in 1816. conduct is advisable ; and, moreover, from what takes mental conformations of those whom he has himself Joseph Langton had a tooth extracted when a boy; place in the instance of one member of a family,

an oozing of blood followed, and ceased only at the another may at least learn a lesson of prudence. The 80 felicitously dubbed, the genus irritabile ratum.I end of twenty-one days. The slightest wound, in unfortunate gentleman, whose case has just been of his own intellectual proportions, that fine instinct this boy's case, caused dangerous hemorrhage ; and stated, had a tooth extracted three years before his which taught him the limits of his own strength, and followed by a flow of blood, which even the tying of Had he been aware of such a case as that of the boy

one trifling hurt in the forehead, in 1815, had been death, and a bleeding of three days' duration followed. prevented him from overstraining it, to which these, both ends of the small bleeding vessel failed to check. Langton, or had he been generally informed on the suband indeed all his works, are the infallible indices, are

Blood still oozed from the open surface, but caustic ject, he would in all likelihood have received a warnendowments but seldom seen allied to that ardent, (potass) at length stopt it. The boy and his friends ing which might have prolonged his life. He erred, generous, imaginative temperament, which is the very

were so far made aware of the existence of some indeed, in not relating his former experience to Dr source and soul of poetry, And yet these apparently dangerous peculiarity in his constitution, that, when Roberts, who might have timeously cautioned him. antagonist attributes weld together in, and impart toothache again troubled him, it was for a time conits distinctive idiosyncracy to the genius of Horace. sidered better to bear it than risk the extraction. public may, it appears to us, be of great service.

For these reasons, the relation of such cases to the His satires and epistles sliow the man of the world

At last, the tooth, one of the grinders on the left side The cause of the hemorrhagic diathesis is supposed the keen Crabbe-like observer of every-day life and manners—the shrewd yet good-natured unmasker of of the upper jaw, was taken

out. Profuse bleeding to be a deficiency of the fibrine or thicker portions of the faults and the follies of his fellows. He peers into caustic, cold applications, and pressure by plugging, or clot at the mouths of wounded vessels. Flows of

followed; and, on the day succeeding the operation, the blood, which prevents the formation of a coagulum the most secret nooks of the human heart, and lays were all tried, but with, 'at best, merely temporary blood are naturally stopped, in ordinary cases, by such his finger on the very foibles that seemed best screened advantage. On the fourth day, the hemorrhage still clots. The remedial means to be employed, where there is no straining and no affectation; he does not continued, and the actual cautery, or red-hot iron, bleedings occur in persons predisposed to them, must sink into vulgarity, nor does he strut in heroics. On the fifth day, the bleeding went on, and the boy ing. It is not uncommon for leech-bites to cause long

was applied, which checked the flow for a few hours. depend, to a certain extent, upon the site of the bleedThere is no writer with whom one feels so soon on

was reduced so low, that it was resolved to tie the and dangerous bleedings in children. Frequently, the the easy footing of a companion,

carotid artery of the left side of the neck, one of the employment of pressure, continued for a lengthened “Horace still charms with graceful negligence,

great sources of the blood in the face and head. The time, is efficacious in checking the flow; but someAnd without method talks us into sense ;

operation was performed ; but to the ill-fated youth it times ordinary pressure, caustics, and even hot iron, Will, like a friend, familiarly convey The truest notions in the easiest way."

proved only a new avenue to dissolution. The wound are applied in vain. The passage of a very fine needle

made by the operation began in the course of a few from lip to lip of the wound, and the twisting afterIt is in the Odes, however, that Horace towers into minutes to bleed profusely ; ice checked it ; but, on wards upon the needle of thread in the shape of a the poet, and puts on the grandeur of the “diviner the removal of the ice, it instantly broke out afresh. figure of eight, has often been found effective where mind.” These, in his own judgment, formed the As for the bleeding from the tooth, it was stopped for other means have failed. Often, in the case of permonument on which his name was to stand inscribed a few hours by the operation, but again returned ; sons even but slightly predisposed to bleeding, an for the homage of posterity. For music of cadence, and, on the seventh day from the removal of the tooth, alarming flux comes from the nostrils, which resists for purity of diction, and for beauty of sentiment and the boy died.

cold applications and other common remedies. Presimagery, each of the odes will ever be esteemed a There did appear to be in this case something pecu- sure is here the most effective remedy, and it is one, model and a study; and in his hands the Latin tongue liar about the poor lad's tooth, matter of a purulent happily, which can be readily used by non-professional becomes an instrument more delicate and flexible than kind having come from the socket; but the other cir- persons. Lint may answer the purpose, but other it ever approves itself in those of any other writer.

cumstances prove sufficiently that a remarkable predis- substances have been found more efficacious. One

position to bleeding, from any lesion of the skin what- substance, we are assured upon excellent authority, PREDISPOSITION TO BLEEDINGS.

ever, existed in the boy, and was the immediate cause answers the end peculiarly well, and has been long

of death. It has been observed that this extraordinary in use among the common people of some districts of It is now pretty clearly understood that almost every peculiarity was hereditary, and pervaded families. Great Britain. This is simply a portion of the blood individual human being has something peculiar in his krimer mentions one family, of which the male de- dried. The fluid matter being expelled by heat, the physical organisation-some characteristic which ren- scendants, for four generations, had been strangely fibrine and thicker parts are left, which are the very ders him liable to special impressions from certain liable to bleedings; and M. Sanson, in a treatise pub- materials wanted by the thin flowing blood to make a classes of circumstances and casualties. By this it is lished in 1836, mentions a case, where a man died clot. This remedy is at once simple, and must necesnot meant that every single person differs in consti- from a slight hemorrhage, having been preceded to sarily be ever at hånd. With regard to bleedings from tution from every other person. Scientific observers the grave by six children, all of whom were cut off by the socket of an extracted tooth, fatal in so many cases, have seen grounds for arranging mankind into classes, the bleeding consequent on casual wounds. In an it seems to us, after an examination of the cases reaccording to their peculiarities of constitution ; and it American essay on the same subject, the following corded, that, where the hemorrhagic diathesis is it is found that, as our temperament may chance to case is recorded among others :-"A. B., of the state marked and strong, pressure is the only safe and effecbe nervous, or sanguine, or bilious, we will be exposed of Maryland, has had six children, four of whom have tual remedy. The repeated use of caustics appears to particular impressions, in each case, from particular died of a loss of blood from the most trifling scratches to blister the gums, and but to add fresh outlets, ulticircumstances. There is a species of idiosyncrasy, or bruises. A small pebble fell on the nail of a finger mately, for the oozing blood. Even the operation of however, which has not attracted so much attention of the last of them when at play, being a year or two tying the carotid artery, in the boy Langton's case, as other constitutional peculiarities, being, indeed, of old; in a short time, the blood issued from the end of only accelerated the fatal result. Pressure, while it comparatively rare occurrence. At the same time, it the finger, till he bled to death.” The sister of these can do no injury, seems best fitted to do good. The is a physical singularity of the most remarkable kind, children had no such peculiarity. Mr Liston also question is—what is the best material to use in exertmysterious in its nature and striking in its effects. relates the case of a family of seven brothers, all of ing pressure on the socket ? Obviously such a subWhen it comes before medical men in the case of any whom were affected by the hemorrhagic diathesis, stance as will best contribute to the formation of a patient, they term it the Hemorrhagic Diathesis ; that while their five sisters could bear wounds without any clot in the mouths of the open vessels. The simple is, a tendency to bleedings or fluxes of blood, from unusual danger. Of one of these brothers whom Mr pressure of a hard unyielding substance will scarcely any hurt or lesion of the skin, to an extent far greater Liston saw, it is mentioned that he was a large, do this, as a hard body cannot mould itself into tho than is. common with persons ordinarily constituted. strong-made man, without any thing peculiar or un- shape of the cavity, and the blood will too readily force So strong is this liability in some instances, that a healthy in his aspect.

a way past it. One medical gentleman has been sucleech-bite has caused death, the flow of blood having The last instance in proof of a hemorrhagic predis- cessful, where all other remedies failed, with plaster proved irrepressible by all the usual means. Another position in individuals which we shall give here, is a of Paris, introduced into the socket in a soft state. In feature, distinguishing this idiosyncrasy, is its here- very remarkable one which occurred in Edinburgh in this case, the liquid parts of the flowing blood would ditary character. It has been observed to pass from December 1841. Two reports have been given of it be absorbed by the plaster, and the thick parts, formgeneration to generation, and to pervade whole fami- in the medical journals-one by Dr Roberts, dentist, ing the clot, left at the mouths of the vessels. It is lies. From attending to the cases of this kind on and the other by Dr David Hay, who accompanies his probable that this substance will be found a valuable record, both instruction and warning, interesting to statement with a number of analogous cases, of which resource in such cases. The other substance menmany, may perhaps be derived.

those already noticed form examples. Mr C. P., a tioned above, namely, blood dried or nearly dried, The extraction of teeth has frequently called into gentleman of middle age, came to Dr Roberts on the would in all probability form an equally valuable perilous and fatal action the hemorrhagic diathesis ; 19th of December, and had a decayed wisdom-tooth material for filling the socket, though we are not aware and surgeons seem to have had their attention first taken from the under jaw. No unusual bleeding en if it has yet been used in the case of bleedings from directed to the subject by accidents resulting from sued at first ; but, on the evening of the same day, a the teeth. Where either of these substances, or comthat operation. In a work published at Paris in 1778, continuous stream of blood was flowing from the mon lint, or any other material, is used to fill up the by M. Jourdain, a dentist, we find various early cases socket. Dr Roberts, being applied to, checked it for socket, it is necessary to keep it down and compress alluded to. Haller mentions a caso of mortal hemorr- the time by a plug of lint, compressed with a piece of it, by means of cork, or something of the kind, prohagy, caused by the extraction of a tooth. Plater cork. It soon broke out anew, however, and, for three perly fixed. gives an example of a locksmith, who had a tooth weeks and two days, continued to bleed, with occa As bleedings are much more easily checked at the extracted, and was seized in consequence with a flux sional intermissions caused by the various remedies outset, for the most part, than after they have been of blood, which resisted all remedies, whether in the employed. Full trials were made of caustic, the use permitted to continue for a time, these hints regardform of compression, touching with caustic, or caute-' of which is to burn and shrivel up the ends of the ing the use of pressure may prove not altogether unrisation with red-hot iron, and terminated fatally. In bleeding vessels, so impeding the sanguineous flow. serviceable in guiding the public, where medical aid is these and other early cases, the surgeons conceived that The cautery, or red-hot iron, was applied more than not at hand. And, moreover, as already observed, a small artery, or vessel carrying blood directly from once; and on the second trial of it, the lip was slightly the present remarks may afford that caution whichi

, the heart, had been wounded, thus producing the fatal burned by accident. The result of this accident in the case of Mr C. P., might have lengthened á issue. No artery, at least of such a bulk as to cause showed but too clearly what the nature of the case valuable life. At the same time, it should be kept in any danger, lies at the roots of the teeth in ordinary was ; an oozing of blood took place from the burn, mind, that instances of a strong hemorrhagic dia

which continued for days. Cold lotions were used, thesis are rare; and that, in ordinary cases, fluxes of * A wretched versifier in the train of Alexander the Great. and pressure exerted in various ways; all was in vain. blood are perfectly under the command of medical The irritable tribe of poets

In place of a lessened flow of blood to the head, it men, whether after operations or otherwise. It would


be foolish, indeed, for persons with no constitutional / motives thus mixed up with what is truly the greatest sage to the legislature (1839), says, that of 4614 adult peculiarities of the kind under consideration, to ne- secular cause in which men can be engaged !

males in that state who applied to the country clerks glect the means which nature and art have provided for the relief of suffering, from any fear of conseLeaving the Colonisation Society, however, to settle for marriage licenses in 1837, 1047 were unable to

Another authority says that quences which depend on a specific cause, and which its own disputes, we are more pleased in turning to there is reason to suppose that one-fourth of the are only witnessed where that cause exists in a marked parts in Friend Sturge's narrative which give token people of the state cannot write their names. “ The degree.

of an improvement in the American public mind re- destitution of the means of moral and religious im-
specting the treatment of coloured persons :—“One provement is in like manner very great.” Matters
evening during my stay, I took tea with twelve or land, where few things are more striking than the

are very different in the old free states of New EngJOSEPH STURGE'S VISIT TO THE

fifteen coloured gentlemen, at the house of a coloured number and commodiousness of the places of worship. UNITED STATES.

family. The refined manners and great intelligence Schools are likewise abundant. But the progress of Joseph STURGE is a respectable and intelligent mem- of many of them would have done credit to any temperance is most surprising. There are splendid ber of the Society of Friends, who, twelve months society. The whites have a monopoly of prejudice, and " it is now very rare to see a drunken person ago, left his quiet home near Birmingham to visit the but not a monopoly of intellect; nor of education and

even in the most populous cities.” United States, for the purpose of contributing his accomplishments; nor even of those more trivial yet

Visiting Lowell, a manufacturing town, which has mite of encouragement to the cause of slave abolition, fascinating graces, which throw the charm of elegance been called the Manchester of America, he was much and the promotion of permanent international peace. and refinement over social life. I found, from the pleased with the great propriety of demeanour of the On his return he has favoured the world with an conversation I had with my coloured friends on dif-operative classes, particularly the girls employed in

the factories. On this subject he quotes the following account of what he saw, experienced, and thought, ferent occasions, that the prejudice against them was during his journey, on these great subjects, but chiefly steadily, and not very slowly, giving way; yet several from a native authority :-" The most striking and

gratifying feature of Lowell is the higla moral and that of the abolition of slavery. We have perused instances were mentioned, of recent occurrence, which intellectual condition of its working population. In the work of Mr Sturge not without gratification, both show that it is still strong. I will quote one only. looking over

the books

of the mills we visited, where A coloured gentleman informed me that last winter, the operatives entered their names, I observed very as respects his observations and the circumstances

a near female relative being about to take a journey few that were not written by themselves ; certainly which came under his notice, but with much less satis- by railway to Philadelphia, she was compelled, though not five per cent. of the whole number were signed faction than we had reason to expect from the pro- in delicate health, to travel in the comfortless exposed with a mark, and many of these were evidently Irish. duction of a man usually so clear-headed. The style car, expressly provided for negroes, though he offered It was impossible to go through the mills and notice is far from being perspicuous, and the account of the to pay double fare for a place in the regular carriage. the respectable appearance and becoming and modest journey is so retarded and confused with extraneous resided in New York, mentioned to me, as a marked very favourable estimate of their character and posi

A lady, not of the proscribed class, who has long deportment of the factory girls,' without forming a matter, that the reader has the greatest difficulty in indication of a favourable change in regard to colour, tion in society. But it would be difficult indeed for knowing at any time where the author is, or what he the holding of such meetings as those at which the a passing observer to rate them so high as they are would exactly be at. We fear the volume lias been Amistad captives were introduced. Such an exhibi- proved to be by the statistics of the place. The written in haste, and without a precise idea of that tion, instead of causing a display of benevolent inter female operatives are generally boarded in houses great desideratum in the narrative of a tourist-tak- excited the malignant passions of the multitude, and work, and which are placed under the superintendence

est among all classes, would some years ago have built and owned by the corporations' for whom they ing the reader in all cases along with him.

probably caused a popular outbreak. Another sign of matrons of exemplary character, and skilled in In looking over the work, we find a few matters of the times was, that white and coloured children housewifery, who pay a low rent for the houses, and worthy of remark or extract. It appears that two or might be seen walking in procession, without distinc provide all necessaries for their inmates, over whom three years ago, a serious schism broke out among the tion, on the anniversaries of the charity schools. The they exercise a general oversight, receiving about one abolitionists in the United States, and certainly about informed me that there is now residing in this city a same lady, in whose veracity I place full confidence, dollar and one-third from each per week. Each of

these houses accommodates from thirty to fifty young one of the most paltry affairs which ever unsettled a native of Cuba, formerly a slave-holder at the Havana, women, and there is a wholesome rivalry among the great cause : the source of disquietude was, whether who narrowly escaped assassination from a negro. mistresses which shall make their inmates most comwomen should be placed on committees, and vote He had threatened the slave with punishment on the fortable. We visited one of the boarding-houses, and along with male members of the anti-slavery body. self in Liis master's room, and in the night stabbed siderable number of the factory girls are farmers?

were highly pleased with its arrangement. A conAn actual separation in the societies took place in and killed his mistress by mistake, instead of his daughters, and come hither from the distant states of the spring of 1840, and there are now two leading master. Three negroes were executed as principal Vermont and New Hampshire, &c., to work for two, societies, “ The American and Foreign Anti-slavery and accessories ; but their intended victim was 50 three, or four years, when they return to their native Society,” and “ The American Anti-slavery Society." terrified, that he left Havana for New York. His hills

, dowered with a little capital of their own earnWe are glad to learn from Mr Sturge, that notwith- fears, not his conscience, were alarmed, for he still ings. The factory operatives

at Lowell form a comcarries on his diabolical traffic between Africa and munity that commands the respect of the neighbour. standing this unseemly rupture, “ a better and kind. Cuba, and is reported to have gained by it, last year, hood, and of all under whose observation they come. lier feeling is beginning to pervade all classes of one hundred thousand dollars. He lives in great No female of an immoral character could remain a American abolitionists ; the day of mutual crimina- splendour, and has the character of a liberal and week in any of the mills. The superintendent of the tion seems to be passing away, and there is strong to the blacks. One murder makes a villain, thou- and a half years of his superintendence of that factory, reason to hope that the action of the respective so

sands a hero.' How wide the distinction between employing about nine hundred and fifty young women, cieties will henceforward harmoniously tend to the this man and the wretches who paid the forfeit of he had known of but one case of an illegitimate birth, same object.” According to our author, the members their lives for a solitary murder!”

and the mother was an Irish immigrant. Any malo of the Society of Friends in the states are any thing

A little farther on, he says__"A fine black man was or female employed, who was known to be in a state but warm in the cause of abolition. What is the brought to me about this time, who showed me papers of inebriety, would be at once dismissed." The next reason for this is not clearly stated. It appears, how- sand five hundred dollars for his freedom. He had " The average wages, clear of board, amount to about

by which it appeared he had lately given one thou- extract shows their prosperity in a pecuniary point. ever, that the Friends have lent a helping hand to the since been driven from the state in which he lived, by two dollars a-week. Many an aged father or mother, schemes of the Colonisation Society, and this is con the operation of a law enacted to prevent the con in the country, is made happy and comfortable, by the sidered a serious error in principle. This society, it tinued residence of free people of colour, and has thus self-sacrificing contributions from the affectionate and may be necessary to remind our readers, is an asso

been banished from a wife and family, who are still dutiful daughter here. Many an old homestead has ciation organised and supported by voluntary contri- slaves. He has agreed with their owner, that if he been cleared of its encumbrances, and thus saved to

can pay two thousand five hundred dollars in six the family, by these liberal and honest earnings. To butions, to assist free persons of colour, who may find years, his wife and six children shall be free ; and he the many and most gratifying and cheering facts, themselves uncomfortable in America, to emigrate to was then trying to get cmployment in New York, in which, in the course of this examination, I have had Liberia, on the coast of Africa, where now, as lately the hope of being able to raise this large sum within occasion to state, I here add a few others relating to mentioned by us, there is a flourishing little nation of the specified time.”

the matter now under discussion, furnished me by Mr

“I subsequently,” he observes, “visited, in com- Carney, the treasurer of the Lowell Institution for civilised blacks. This society has met with the un

pany with a coloured gentleman, one of the principal Savings. The whole number of depositors in this compromising hostility of nearly all abolitionists, and coloured schools in New York, in which there were institution, on the 23 July, was 1976 ; the whole it is spoken very disparagingly of by Friend Sturge. upwards of three hundred children present. All the amount of deposits was 305,796 dollars and 70 cents The charges made against the Colonisation Society departments appeared to be conducted, under coloured (about L.60,000). Of these depositors 978 are factory seem to amount to this, that the society distracts teachers, with great order and efficiency, and the girls, and the amount of their funds now in the bank is

attainments of the higher classes were very considerestimated by Mr Carney, in round numbers, at 100,000 attention from the principal object of pursuit-total able. On the whole, this school would bear compari- dollars. It is a common thing for one of these girls and immediate abolition, and contemplates the ex son with any similar school for white children which to have 500 dollars in deposit ; and the only reason why patriation of the coloured race from America, on the I ever visited.”

she does not exceed this sum is the fact, that the inground that amalgamation with the whites is imprac

Mr Sturge visited Washington in the course of his stitution pays no interest on any larger sum than this. ticable. These charges may or may not be true, for tour, one of his objects being to present an address to After reaching this amount, she invests her remaining

the President of the United States from the commit- | funds elsewhere." any thing we know; but it is abundantly evident that tee of the British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society, In addition to this satisfactory account of the workthe grand crime of the Colonisation Society is not signed by Thomas Clarkson. A communication which ing population of Lowell, Mr Sturge mentions the uniting in the projects of the leading abolitionists. he made to the president on the subject met with no following fact as an instance of the spread of intellecThe whole affair, we fear, is a matter of jealousy. reply, and the address was never delivered. The pre- tual cultivation :-“I ought not to omit a notice of No man must relieve the pressure of slavery in any consistent with etiquette. We question if an English sisting of original articles, written exclusively by the

sident's non-reply was shabby, but perhaps politic and the Lowell Offering,' a little monthly magazine, conother way than is sanctioned by those at head-quar- monarch would receive an address from a foreigner, factory girls. The editor of the · Boston Christian ters, because that would be depriving these personages praying his majesty to use his influence in dissolving Examiner commends this little periodical to those of all glory in winning the battle. The success of the one of the most prominent national institutions. who consider the factory system to be degrading and Liberian scheme, which, one would think, would de At Baltimore, a slave-holding city, Mr Sturge was demoralising ; and expresses a doubt whether a comlight every humane mind, is odious to the great party glad to find that free people of colour were fully alive mittee of young ladies, selected from the most refined

“ One individual and best-educated families in any of our towns and leaders of the anti-slavery societies. It is an achieve- told us, that in distributing about two hundred and cities, could make a fairer appearance in type than ment from which they derive no honour; they did fifty religious books, which had been sent to be gra- these hard-working factory girls." not plan it, and it is proceeding without their assist tuitously supplied to the poor of this class, he found In his general observations on all that had passed ance. How melancholy is it to find the meanest only five or six families in which the children were under his notice in the States, the author sums up his

not learning to read and write." In Virginia, con opinions on the social condition of the people at large

siderable efforts have been made to promote general as follows :-"In short, whether I consider the reli* London: Ilamilton and Adams. 1811.

education ; " yet the governor of Virginia, in his mes. I gious, the benevolent, or the literary institutions of the

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]

northern states—whether I contemplate the beauty in short, his was a philosophical exhibition, the mate we might conjecture, was, in part at least, inspired of their cities, or the general aspect of their fine rial being taken from human life.

by the profuse display of good cheer which the amplo country, in which nature every where is seen render Hlaving taken our places at the glasses, the Italian table board around which the guests were seated exing her rich and free tribute to industry and skill- drew a cord, when there was presented to us the hibited. or whether I regard the general comfort and pro- figure-picture, I presume it was, but so admirably

We could not, at first, make out any special purpose sperity of the labouring population-my admiration is painted, so life-like, so finely relieved, that it seemed for this merry-making. But, at length, descrying a strongly excited, and, to do justice to my feelings, a beautiful statue of a child, a lovely boy of between jolly-looking dame, who struck us at once as presentmust be strongly expressed. Probably there is no three and four years of age. We all uttered an in- ing what we may call the characteristics of a nurse, country where the means of temporal happiness are voluntary exclamation of delight on beholding this bearing about with an air of triumph a gaily-dressed 80 generally diffused, notwithstanding the constant fair child ; his look was so innocent, so playful ; his and smiling babe in her arms, we made out that it flow of emigrants from the old world, and I believe brow so open and sunny; the smile on his beauteous was a christening. On a small brooch or clasp, which there is no country where the means of religious and countenance so full of sweetness and childish sim- united in front a broad band or cincture that begirt moral improvement are so abundantly provided - plicity.

the infant, the artist had inscribed, in very small, where facilities of education are more within the reach “ Is not that a lovely child ?" said the Italian. almost invisible letters, the words, “ Edward Marston, of all, or where there is less of extreme poverty and “Saw you ever such a picture of innocence? Saw aged three weeks.” destitution. As morals have an intimate connexion you ever human countenance so utterly free from all Again the string was drawn, and another apartwith politics, I do not think it out of place here to expression of evil—from all indications of the darker ment, similar to the above described, was exhibited; record my conviction, that the great principle of passions of human nature ? Does he not seem, in but how differently occupied. It was filled with popular control, which is carried out almost to its full truth, a very angel? You cannot believe it possible mourners, and on a table or tressel in the centre lay extent in the free states, is not only beautiful in theory, -nay, it surely is not possible—that so guileless and a coffin. It was still unclosed, and we could see that but that it is found to work well in practice. It is innocent a being should ever become a cruel, ruthless, it contained the body of an old man. His ghastly, true that disgraceful scenes of mob violence and Lynch blood-thirsty savage."

withered countenance, and pinched features, were law have occurred, but perhaps not more frequently “No, no,” we all exclaimed ; “it cannot be. It is uncovered, and on the metal plate of the coffin lid, than popular outbreaks in Great Britain ; while, gene- impossible.”

which lay close by, we read, “ Edward Marston, aged rally, the supremacy of law and order have been re-. At this instant, click went one of the cords of the 72 years.” The figure which we now contemplated stored without troops, or special commissions, or show-box. The picture of the child disappeared, and was, then, the smiling cherub of the preceding piccapital punishments. It is also true that these occur- what is called a battle-piece occupied its place. In ture. Where now were the members of that merry rences are, for the most part, directly traceable, not the foreground, a body of cavalry was making despe- company, whom we saw assembled to welcome his to the celebrated declaration of the equal and un rate havock amongst the remains of an army which admission within the pale of the church? One after alienable right of all men to life, liberty, and the pur- had just been broken and put to flight. The leader another, they have all long since descended into the suit of happiness, which is the fundamental principle of the charging party was himself employing his sabre grave; and he, too, is now about to follow. His term of the constitution, but to the flagrant violation of with merciless activity, not scrupling to cut down of life has run out. It was a long one ; but at its that principle in the persons of the coloured popula- even those who supplicated his mercy, or whose close it seemed to have passed almost as quickly as tion, of whom those in most of the free states are wounds disabled them for flight or resistance. His the transition of the two pictures. actually or virtually deprived of political riglıts; and countenance manifested that excitement which accom “Now, my kind benefactors,” said the Italian, “let the rest, constituting a majority of the population in panies the exercise of the more violent passions. us see what is doing in the mansion adjoining this some of the southern states, are held in abject slavery.” “ Have you ever seen that man before, my kind house of mourning." To this we have nothing to add, but that the slavery friends ?" said the Italian, with a gentle but signifi

He drew the string, and a brilliantly lighted apartof the southern states of America and elsewhere will cant smile.

ment, filled with a gay assembly, presented itself. not be got rid of by frantic projects such as have We all declared we had not.

The centre of the floor was occupied by a crowd of lately proved abortive, but by plans devised on prin “Ah! my good friends, but you have,” he said, light-footed dancers, and mirth and revelry held unciples of common sense, peaceful suasion, and a rea- laughing. “That ruthless warrior is no other than restrained dominion over the scene. sonable allowance of time to permit prejudices to be the beautiful and innocent child, grown to man's

" It is the celebration of a marriage," said the weakened and ultimately removed.

estate, whom you a little while since so much ad- Italian. “Look to the right, and you will see the mired."

bride and bridegroom standing together. That is she, Click, again, went the cord of the show-box, and a beautiful she is ; how elegant her form! That tall

the fair young girl in the white satin dress. See how THE PHILOSOPHICAL SHOWMAN. splendid pageant took the place of the battle-piece. and graceful young man, on whose arm she so fondly CARSWELL House, in which I have now resided for The scene was the interior of a noble Gothic hall, hung leans

, is her husband. Ilow happy he looks ! He has upwards of seven years, is a prettily situated mansion. with rich tapestry, and blazing with the light of a It stands on the brow of a gentle declivity, and over

no thought for the future. His whole soul, his every thousand wax candles in silver sconces. Along the looks a wide extent of beautiful country. The view centre of the hall ran a long table, loaded witî the sense, is wrapt up in the present ; he dreams not that from our parlour windows in the summer season, when table sat à multitude of persons, male and female, most costly viands in gold and silver vessels. At this all this happiness and joy will speedily pass away.”

And, at this instant, away like thought passed the the woods are green, and the fields clothed in verdure

, splendidly

attired. At a small table, at the farther joyous scene, and another took its place. It was a are rather dreary in winter. The house is somewhat end of the hall, and raised upon a dais, sat a lordly- fair garden; and on one of its rustic seats sat an old solitary, and the snow, which falls heavily, lies long looking personage, arrayed in sumptuous robes, and lady, dressed in the deepest inourning of widowhood. and deep around it." 'At about a quarter of a mile wearing on his head a crown of gold sparkling with long staff

, with an ivory head, which stood beside her, from the house passes a cart-road leading to the village whom all eyes seemed bent in wonder and admiration, Around her sported three or four young children; on

showed that she could not walk without such aid. of Limburne, about five miles distant, and of this road and on whom her lordly companion appeared gazing the golden head of one of whom rested one of her a stretch of about a mile lies in view of our windows. It was on a wild snowy day in the month of January of such surpassing loveliness

, she, too, was magnifi- long, thin, withered, and palsied hands. She seemed

as if blessing the child. at a window looking at the drift which was whirling cently attired, while behind and around her chair

“Know ye who that feeble old woman is ?" said past in thick and blinding clouds, called my attention stood a crowd of attendants, ready to obey her

the Italian. to the figure of a man on the road, who, though still heaven would not be permitted to breathe too rudely stood the nature and scope of his exhibition, slightest wish. It seemed, in truth, as if the air of

“We guess,” said we; for we now fully understruggling with the storm, seemed ready every moment to sink beneath its violence. He appeared unable to

on that exquisitely beautiful form. make any way against the suffocating drift ; and this

We were all struck with admiration of this splendid she was.

" Right,” he replied, satisfied that we did know who

“ That ancient dame, who cannot totter the less readily that he bore, as we could discern, a

scene, especially with the extraordinary beauty and along without the support of a staff, is no other than heavy burden on his back.

sumptuous attire of the young lady who sat beside the fair young bride of the preceding picture. Her Seeing the man's distress, I dispatched my gardener the king, and now inquired who the former and latter husband, the gay and graceful youth whom you saw and footman to his assistance, desiring them to con

were. The Italian told us that the king was Edward by her side, has been long dead, and these brightduct him to the house, in which I meant he should IV.; the lady

who sat beside him the celebrated Jane haired children who are sporting around her are her remain until the storm had somewhat abated. In Shore. We were about to ask some other

questions, grand-children. Thus goes the world on.” less than half an hour the man was comfortably seated when click, again, went the string of the box, and a by our kitchen fire, and proved to be an itinerant dreary, monotonous view of frost-bound ponds and mansion presented itself to view. A little, ragged,

Once more the string was drawn, and a splendid showman. He was an Italian, and the burden which fields, and leafless trees, with a large city in the dis- shivering boy, who

seemed to have been soliciting Grateful for the kindness shown him—which kind- presented to our view. In the foreground of the charity, was being thrust rudely from the door by å ness included of course the refreshments required by picture, which it made one cold and chilly but to look pompous, over-fed menial, who held a stick over him his condition-the poor Italian sent up a respectful at, was the figure of a miserable old woman, haggard the little

ragged boy well. We did so. He drew the message to the dining-room, to the effect that he and wrinkled with poverty and age, gathering sticks string, and the same mansion was again presented to would be happy to exhibit his show to the younger for firewood. Her clothes were in rags, and she

our sight. But it had undergone inany changes. members of the family, if they would so far honour seemed as if perishing with cold and hunger.

Additions had been made to it here and there. New him. He was immediately requested to come up

“ Have you, my kind benefactors,” said the Italian, doors and windows had been struck out, and other stairs, and to bring his show along with him.

as on a former occasion—“ have you, think you, ever prominent features altered. The grounds around I was much struck with the man's appearance on seen that miserable old woman before ?"

the building, too, had undergone change ; trees grew his entering the room, which he did with a remark We all declared we had not.

where there had been none before ; and where there ably graceful bow. His countenance had the swarthy “Ah! wrong again,” replied the Italian, with one had, they had been cut down. Altogether, the painter, hue of his country, and his dark eye all the fire and of his gentle and intelligent smiles. “ You have seen if picture it was, had so contrived it, that, on comparbrilliancy that belong to the eyes of the children of her. What will you think, now, when I tell you that ing the appearances of the mansion in the two paintthe sunny south. But there was an expression of that starving, wretched, repulsive, old woman, who is ings, a distinct impression was conveyed of the lapse mildness and intelligence in his countenance not so searching the leafless hedges for withered sticks where of an interval of many years. A little way from the often seen, and which at once attracted my attention. with to make a fire to warm her aged limbs, and the door of the house in the picture we were now con

Having placed his show-box—a tasteful thing, beau- beauteous young lady, whom you saw seated beside templating, a gentleman, seemingly the proprietor, tifully painted and gilt-in a proper situation, he with royalty, surrounded with all the pomp and adulation was about to get into a carriage. An old mendicant drew the slides from the lenses, wiped them carefully, of a regal court, are one and the same person. It is on crutches, with hat in hand, his grey locks streamand placing himself at one end of the box, in order to 60. And yet, extreme as the transition is, it is not ing in the wind, stood a little apart, as if in the act of work the tableaux, or pictures, he invited us, with the work of fancy. It is not the conception of an idle imploring his charity. The appeal did not appear to polite bow and pleasant smile, to take our places at brain; it is an incident from real life. That miserable be made in vain. The gentleman, with a look of great the sights, of which there were in all six.

old woman is Jane Shore ; and such, we all know was benevolence, was putting something into his hand. Before drawing the cord which was to exhibit the her unhappy end."

The Italian now questioned us as before. “Know first picture to us, the Italian made a short speech Again the string was drawn. And now the interior ye,” he said, “who that gentleman is, and who that in broken but perfectly intelligible English, the sub- of an apartment of moderate size, and otherwise such poor old man who is soliciting his charity, and, as you stance of which was—That his exhibition differed from

as are seen in the houses of the more respectable of see, not in vain? That gentleman, my kind friends," all other exhibitions in the show way; that there the middling classes, was exhibited. It was filled with he went on," is the poor boy who was turned from was little in what he had to exhibit to gratify the eye company, all apparently dressed for the occasion, and the door of the mansion thirty years since, and he as mere spectacle, but a good deal, he hoped, to strike seemed to be the scene of some joyous revelry-every who is now appealing to his benevolence is the samo the imagination, and perhaps improve the mind; that, countenance with a mirth and glee which, with him drove him away-such the cxtra

[ocr errors]


ordinary changes which are constantly taking place solved to devote his life to this object. He was ap- part of Switzerland, and is therefore used in the in human affairs, often from heedlessness, or, perhaps, pointed a member of the Council of Education ; but schools ; but French and English are taught to those wilful extravagance, on the one hand, and perseverance tinding little was to be done by those with whom he who desire them. At the period of my visit, the whole with self-denial on the other.”

acted, he threw

off all connexion with the government, establishment included about 150 boys, of whom from Here dinner being announced, we were reluctantly and determined to form on his own estate of Hofwyl, 50 to 60 belonged to the high school, 80 to the intercompelled to desist, for the time, from further grati- and with his own fortune, an institution, to prove mediate, and the remainder to the lower or agriculfying our curiosity with these pictures of life. But as practically what could be done, by a right system of tural school. With respect to the latter, their schoolthere was no appearance of the storm abating, and as education, for the benefit of humanity.

ing is on a very moderate scale ; but they are taken I in consequence had offered the Italian quarters for Such was the principle on which M. de Fellenberg gratuitously, and their labour, such as it is, compenthe night-an offer which he gratefully accepted—we started as an educationist about forty years ago, and sates for their board and instruction. The boys of the engaged him to renew his interesting exhibition in we have now to say something of his operations. His intermediate school are taught on a more advanced the evening ; he having informed us that we had yet plans were comprehensive and full of benevolence. plan, but with reference to ordinary professions, inseen but a very small portion of what he had to show. He purchased and added about two hundred acres of cluding agriculture, and are boarded in a plain manner,

land to his estate, which must have been originally conformable to the moderate sum paid for their atten

small, his object being not only to improve the know- dance. The pith of the whole concern is the high A FEW WEEKS ON THE CONTINENT. ledge of agriculture in the district, but to make lessons school; the pupils are taught by the best masters,

in industrial affairs a means of moral training. He and I should certainly say that the principle of their

began, therefore, by establishing an agricultural school, education is unexceptionable, for it refers alike to Hofwel, situated at the distance of from six to which he formed of the destitute children of the can- physical, intellectual, and moral training. Among eight English miles from Berne, was one of those ton. To this, after a time, he added a school for other accomplishments, vocal music is taught upon places which had formed a principal object of my visit youths from the higher classes of society. And, lastly, scientific principles to all, and instrumental music to to Switzerland—a risit which, it will have been per

he formed an intermediate school of boys, chiefly the those whose taste inclines. Lessons in music being

sons of farmers who were able to pay a small board. also given in the lower schools, at times there are ceived, was rather less to scramble over ice at the His scheme was gone about with great caution and meetings in which all join in concert. An English height of ten thousand feet, than to see nature in her deliberation ; for his object being the formation of lady, who has three boys at the institution, and to more charming moods, and to observe something of character, it was absolutely necessary that new comers whom I bave been indebted for a candid statement of the character and features of Swiss society. No one should be admitted only after the previous pupils had what she saw and felt during a pretty lengthened taking the slightest interest in education and its pro

been to a certain extent fixed in principle. This was visit, says, in a communication to me on the subject

a wise resolution, which it would be well for teachers “The pupils of the intermediate school sing in parts gress, could visit Berne without seeing the far-spoken in general to copy, as large accessions of raw lads at with a perfection rare among children; and I was never of establishment of M. de Fellenberg, more particu- one time are apt to derange the whole economy of an more touched by music, than when, early on a Sunday larly since it is open to the inspection of strangers educational establishment, and undo much of the ad- morning, their voices broke the universal stillness. from all quarters of the world. It was not therefore vantages already gained.

There is a monthly concert on a Sunday evening.

After a course of constant improvement for nearly The night I was present the audience consisted of more surprising that I made it the object of a special side

forty years, we now find the establishment of Hofwyl than two hundred persons, formed of the pupils of the excursion.

complete in all its details—the edifices constituting three schools and their masters, who took no part in Hiring a voiture on purpose for the day, we pro- the schools and dwelling-houses settled into the cha- the performance, also Fellenberg, his daughters, ceeded from Berne in a northerly direction, and passed racter of a quiet orderly village, and the fields, for and grand-children, and servants of the whole establish for several miles through a rich agricultural tract, half a mile round, trimmed with the same skill and ment. The orchestra was composed of violins, violon

neatness as you would see in East Lothian or Norfolk. cello, double bass, trombone, clarionet, flute, and well clothed with tall timber, and evidently the pro- The buildings stand on the most elevated part of the French horn. The pieces played were those of Haydn, perty of a class of persons above the usual standing of estate, and are of a respectable appearance, each several Neukomm, Rossini, and other leading composers. The cottage farmers. The fields had been cleared of their storeys in height. On entering an open play-ground, audience were very attentive, but did not applaud, as autumnal produce ; ploughs were here and there seen we have, on the right, the largest building, in which M. de Fellenberg conceives the young have not suffiturning over the furrows preparatory for new crops ; class of pupils, reside, and in which also are some of After the concert, the performers were invited pub.

M. de Fellenberg and his family, and also the higher cient judgment to pronounce an opinion publicly. and at the doors of the large thatched homesteads of the class-rooms. On the lower or sunk floor are the licly to the saloon, and partook of refreshments. I the fariners, clusters of women were busy skutching kitchen and cellars ; the floor above contains a large may here mention that the part taken by M. de Felflax, with the customary energy and clacking noise dining-room, chapel

, and other apartments; on the lenberg's daughters is most valuable. Their mother with which that occupation is performed. Passing next floor are the class-rooms ; and the top storey is died about three years since. She gave them the through these pleasing scenes of rural comfort and in- laid out in two large sleeping apartments, with a row example of an undeviating co-operation in the views

of beds on each side-the whole clean and neat in the and practical details of their father's philanthropic dustry-or, I should almost say, hard labour, for hard extreme. Each boy occupies a separate bed, and the desigris. They all speak English, and their maternal it would be to English females-our carriage at length whole are superintended by masters, whose apartments kindness and care of the young children are beyond entered a more undulating stretch of country, and are adjoining. The boys are never alone, so that none all praise. They are elegant and accomplished women, made the best of its way through a pretty thick wood. has the power of either domineering orer or conta- uniting the simplicity of Swiss babits with intellectual On emerging from the cool shade of the overhanging minating his companions. All rise at 5, and breakfast refinement. In the winter, the pupils visit the saloon

at 6 o'clock in summer, and at 6 and 7 in winter. in turn, twice a-week, and also join the domestic circle trees, we had before us an open tract, in the midst of

From this large and commodious building we were of the head master and his wife. Thus, Hofwyl unites which, on the top of a gently rising ground, stood conducted to a house of more plain appearance across the advantages of public with domestic education in a Hlofwyl—a situation apparently unmatchable in point the play-ground, the lower part of which we found to manner unknown in any other institution." of salubrity and beauty, for all around, the cleared be occupied as a museum and a receptacle for garden It is customary in some of the best continental fields descend to distant vales and meadows, which tools ; in the floor above was a cabinet-making shop, boarding-schools for the boys to proceed on excursions are backed by sheltering hills and woods ; and from gaged in making articles according to their own taste, attended to at Hofwyl. A certain number of boys

where several young gentlemen were at the time en- annually with their masters ; and this is particularly various parts of the grounds are seen the long ridgy under the direction of a professed workman. Passing are placed under the charge of a trusty master, and peaks of the Bernese Alps. A few minutes served to a place for gymnastic exercises, we now went to the set out on a tour in the month of August, in a direccarry us up to the place, where we were received with house containing the intermediate classes, at which, tion previously determined. The journey is on foot, the greatest politeness and attention by M. de Fellen- in a lower hall, eighty lads were at the time at dinner, and each carries a knapsack, furuished with a few

under the superintendence of their masters. Next, articles of clothing. Thus the squad march over hill berg, one of the most venerable men whom it was

we adjourned to the extensive suite of buildings con and dale, visit places of historical interest, picturesque erer my fortune to meet ; and his son, a young gentle. nected with the dairy and operations of the farm, scenes, ruins of old castles, and towns of commercial man who is now taking a large share of the burden which stood on the northern slope, and a little aloof note. It need hardly be mentioned that these journeys,

which last for several weeks, are of great use in openof the establishment. As it is my desire to give as from the main cluster of the establishment. Here a exact an idea as possible of Ilofwyl and the plans of closed to us. In a series of lower offices stood seventy- advantages which may be derived from physical exer-'

most extensive system of rural management was dis- ing up the minds of the youths, independently of the its proprietor, I hope to be excused for going a little two cows, beautiful large animals, which I was told cise. A boy at a school of this liberal kind, in the into detail.

were occasionally, for the sake of exercise, employed course of a few years, has perambulated the north of M. de Fellenberg is by birth a Swiss, having been in drawing the plough-a, practice to which nothing Italy, the Tyrol, a portion of Germany, and best part born in the canton of Berne, in the year 1771. His could reconcile either the ladies of the party or myself. of Switzerland, and is able to converse in several lanimmediate ancestors were of the patrician or privileged in the upper part of the cow-house was a barn of guages ; while a boy at an English boarding-school

has seen nothing, can with difficulty translate a few class, which late events have levelled with the ordinary shown a large array of agricultural implements

, quite words of Latin, and speak only his own vernacular citizens of the country; by the mother's side, he is a new, and ready for use—the preparation of these tongue. descendant of the Dutch admirals Cornelius and Van articles on the most improved plan forming a part of I learned from M. de Fellenberg that he has taken Tromp. The excellent example and admonitions of The dairy, the places of residence of the boys of the pure moral atmosphere, to exclude evil influence and

M. de Fellenberg's widely comprehensive schemes. every possible care to surround the institution with a his parents had a happy influence upon his early lower school, and other departments, were shown, but example, and thus, as far as possible, control whatever years, and induced that strong devotion to the in- require no notice. After seeing every thing here, we evil passions the pupil may naturally possess. Boys terests of his country and of mankind at large which were led by a pathway down the sloping field to a who are restive under the mild system of discipline has distinguished him through life. While still a pond 90 feet in diameter, neatly paved, and sur which is established are removed. It is not every young man, he had the sagacity to form the conclusion rounded by a tall hedge, with a dressing-house. The one who will be admitted. The place is not a refor that no species of political reform in the affairs of water is kept ever fresh by a spring. This is the matory or penitentiary; neither is it a place in which Switzerland could be of any use unless preceded by a bathing pond for the boys, and here they learn to there is any attempt at proselytising. In the course reform in education. To satisfy himself on this point, swim.

of religious instruction, nothing beyond the general he travelled all over Switzerland, the Tyrol, and Ger We were conducted over these various outlying principles of Christianity are taught; and on Sunday, many on foot, everywhere acquainting himself with parts of the establishment by young M. de Fellenberg, the boys of each sect attend chapel at certain hours, the state of the people, residing in the villages and who has been in England, and clearly explained every when a clergyman of their own creed is in attendance. farm-houses, and mingling in the labours and hearing thing to us in our own tongue. Returning with him The chapel is a large apartment, which we were the sentiments of the peasants. On the invasion of to the grande maison, we again sat down by the side of shown in making the round of the premises. It is Switzerland by the French in 1798, he took an active the venerable founder of the institution; and what plainly furnished with benches, and has at one end an part in opposing them, was proscribed, and fled to betwixt his own and his son's observations, I really object which I took to be a closed cupboard ; pointing Germany. He was soon after recalled to his native believe little was left to be told. The manner and to it, M. de Fellenberg observed that it was " lautel country, and employed on a political mission to the conversation of M. de Fellenberg were exceedingly pour la messe,” which was shut up when the place was French Directory; but the prevailing disregard of all pleasing. In his appearance is embodied all that we used for the reformed worship. Notwithstanding the principle gave him a distaste of diplomacy, and he can conceive of an estimable old man-a most bene presence of this dangerous piece of furniture, there resigned his office. He then filled a public station at volent cast of countenance, silver white hair, and the never has been known an instance of a conversion to home, and, fully impressed with the belief that the sober dress of a recluse. He spoke in French, and so Roman Catholicism in the school, neither has there only resource against the revolutionary horrors he slowly and distinctly that there was no mistaking his been an instance of a change from Roman Catholicism had witnessed was to be found in education, he re- meaning. German is the common language in this I to Protestantism, M. de Fellenberg is not a propa.

« AnteriorContinua »