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near to S. urceolatum, from which it differs in the habit of its leaves, its
šlender and almost cylindrical receptacle. Dicks. SLENDER Gland-moss. Smith was of opinion that S. purpureum, With.
Ed. iii. belonged to this species; but Hooker decidedly refers it to S. Mnioides. "On Ben Lawers in the Highlands. On cow-dung about Llyn Idwell. Mr. Griffith. E.)
P. June-July. (S. LINGULA'TUM. Leaves lingulate, rounded at the top, their nerve
disappearing below the summit: capsule obovate: apophysis ob
conical : lid convex, acuminulate. Hook. Fl. Lond. 192—Musc. Brit. xiv. (except peristome ;)-Dicks. Crypt.
t. 10, f. 6–E. Bot. 2095. Mr. Arnott observes that this plant has each of the sixteen teeth geminate;
a character which connects it with the genus Splachnum, and which is not to be found in any other Weissia. Its columella is also that of a Splachnum. But Prof. Hooker states that there are sixteen distinct equidistant teeth; each, indeed, having an evident line, and ereni a slight furrow down the centre, but it is never split nor perforated. Stems two to four inches and more in length; below generally decumbent, (from the usual current of water,) and simple, with numerous downy radicles, blackish ; above erect, branched, deep green. Leaves deeply imbricated, Jerecto-patent, oblongo-lingulate, very obtuse, entire, somewhat undulated, reticulated with oblong areolæ, furnished with a nerve of the same colour which disappears below the apex; the lower ones, as if from decay, of a blackish brown colour; uppermost ones deep green.
Fruit-stalk flexuose, deep red. TONGUE-LEAVED GLAND-Moss. S. lingulatum. Dicks. Sm. Brid. Weissia 4. Splachnoides. Hook. Tayl. This Moss has attracted much atten
tion, both from its rarity, and the difficulty in determining its genus. It was first discovered in Scotland by Mr. Dickson: has since been found on Ben Lawers by Mr. G. Don; on Ben Lomond by Mr. D. Dop; and by Prof. Hooker in muddy declivities, in profusion at the foot of Ben Cruachan, between Craigalleach and Meal-greadba, in Aug. affording a spectacle such as few Muscologists have had the opportunity of
witnessing. E.) S. FRELICHIA'NUM. Capsule a club-shaped termination of the fruitstalk : leaves battledore-shaped.
Hedw. Stirp. iii. 40. Leaves folded when dry; with much moisture they lose their colour at the
edges, thence attaining a membranous appearance. The nerve or keel does not extend to the extremity of the leaves. Fruit-stalks pale upwards, of a fine pink colour near the base. Capsule a continuation of the fruit-stalk, inversely egg-shaped. I have not observed any teeth. Griff. Plant about an inch high. Leaves of a beautiful green, broadest at the end ; mid-rib indistinct, hardly discernible in the lower leaves. Fruit-stalks half an inch long. Receptacle very short, and only to be distinguished from the fruit-stalk and capsule when the latter is ripe. Hedwig says the mouth of the capsule has eight pair of teeth, which
always stand upright and never expand, as in the other species. (FRELICHIAN GLAND-MOSS. E.) Specimens sent me by J. W. Griffith,
Esq. who first discovered it growing on the eastern side of Snowdon, about one hundred and fifty yards from the summit. P, Autumn.
POLYTRICHUM.* Capsule with a veil: outer fringe with
thirty-two, (or sixty-four incurved teeth ; inner, a flat undivided membrane. E.) +
Barr. Fl. a circular bud, on a different plant: terminal. P. COMMU'NE. Stem simple, proliferous: leaves strap-spear-shaped,
serrulated : capsules oblong, four-sided : veils woolly. (E. Bot. 1197—Musc. Brit. X.-Schmid. 59. E.)- Dill. 54. 1-Happ. i.
Polytrich. 1-Mich. 59. 1. I, E, M,0, P, Q, R.-Blackw. 375–Vaill. 23. 8-Ger. 1371. 3-Gars. 129--Fuchs. 629. 1-Trag. 528. 1–J. B. iii. 760. 1-Lon. i. 222. 3—Dod. 475. 2-Ger. Em. 1559, right hand fig. of the 3 lowermost-Bart. 251. 3-Kniph. 12-Trag. 946, the tallest of the figures, rising from a bed of Hypnum sericeum.--Park. 1052, right hand fig. of the two uppermost-Lob. Obs. 645. 2. Ic. ii. 245–Ger. Em. 1559. 2-Ger.
1370. 2-Park. 1307. 3. Stems several inches high, seldom branched. Leaves near half an inch
long, slender, pointed, turning back, finely serrated. Fruil-stalks tere minal, solitary, two to four inches long, surrounded by an involucrum at the base. Capsule four-sided ; mouth fringed. Veil very hairy, hanging down below the capsule, ragged. Weis. From four to twelve inches
high, stiff, straight. Fruit-stalk golden red. Veil tawny. Dill. (Common HAIR-MOSS. E.) Great Golden MajdenHAIR, or GOLDI
LOCKS. Woods and moors in wet boggy places. P. May-June. I (This very fine Moss appears to be subject to considerable variation. In
Musc. Brit. under var. Attenuatum,“ stems three or four inches in height;
(From modus, many; and 7pixos, hairs ; alluding to the bairiness of the veil, or, as some have imagined, to the setaceous supporters of the capsules. E.)
+ (Greville observes that “ the membrane which closes the mouth of Polytrichum is not merely stretched across it, but passes to the base of the outer teeth, and lines them to the very apex, and thus forms a real membranaceous inner peristome. In P. alpinum the above structure is extremely evident.”
+ (“Never was the bountiful provision of Nature more wonderfully evinced, than in tumishing mankind with bed and bedding in the savage wilderness of Lyckselle Lapland. The Oreat Hair-moss, called by the Laplanders Romsi, grows luxuriantly in their damp forests, and is used for this purpose. They choose the starry-headed plants, out of the tufts of which they cut a surface as large as they please, for a bed and bolster; separating it from the eartha beneath : and although the shoots are scarcely branched, they are nerertheless so much entangled at the roots, as not to be separated from each other. This mossy covering is very soft and elastic, not growing bard by pressure; and if a similar portion of it be made to serve for a corerlet, nothing can be more warm and comfortable. If it becomes too dry and compressed, its former elasticity is restored by a little moisture. Nature, in providing for the wants of man, has not forgotten to defend the capsule of the Hair-moss from the injury of the weather. It is covered with an umbrella, in the form of a cone, which, as the seeds begin to ripen, loosens from the capsule to which it bad before adhered, and at length falls off. The stem which supports the seed-vessel previously recorers its position, and turning the capsule towards the earth, completely empties the seeds as from a pitcher." Wonders of Veg. Kingdom, p. 164. Bears also collect this useful little plant for like purposes, and birds line their nests with it." In Hampshire," says Mr. White, "our foresters make little neat besoms from the stalks, which they call silk-wned. When this Moss is well combed and dressed, and divested of its outer skin, it becomes of a beautiful bright-chesnut colour; and being soft and pliant, is very proper for the dusting of beds, curtains, carpets, bangings, &c. These pretty implements of housewifery are worthy the attention of the brusbmakers in town." E.)
leaves shorter, their margins pellucid ; capsule obtusely quadrangular; apophysis indistinct;" is included é. aitenuatum, E. Bot. 1198, and
P. gracile, E. B. 1827. E.) Vár. 2. Leaves shorter and less flexible. Dill. (Musc. Brit. x.-E. Bot. 1200. E.)-Dill. 54. 2–Vaill. 23. 6—Fl. Dan.
295—H. Ox. xv. 7. 6 and 8-Lob. Ic. ii. 243. 1-Ger. Em. 1563. 14
Park. 1308. 9. Whole plant smaller than the preceding, except the veil, which is larger
and more pyramidal. Stem seldom more than one inch high, seldom branched. Dill. Fertile plant with one single tuft of leaves at the top of the stem, the lower part of which is naked. Receptacle orbicular. Veil single. Lid acutely conical, hanging over the capsule. Barren, about an inch of the stem covered with leaves, and supporting at its top a tiled
receptacle, in the hollow of which are the filiform barren organs. Stackh. (P. Juniperinum. Willd. Sm. Hook. We can perceive no other difference
þetween P. strictum, E. Bot. 2435, and P. Juniperinum, than that the former is branched, while the stems of the latter are undivided, and we therefore cordially assent to the opinion of Mr. Turner, who considers
them as the same species. Musc. Brit. E.) On hills, dry or wet.
P. May-June. Var. 3. Linn. Leaves terminating in hairs. (Musc. Brit. X.-.. Bot. 1199. E.)-Happ. i. Polytr. 2-Dill. 54. 3-Vaill.
23. 7—Buxb. i. 62. 3, a barren plant. Stems not more than half an inch long, simple, leafless below. Leaves
entire at the edges, ending in grey hairs. Fruit-stalks terminal, about one inch long. Weis. Leaves bent inwards a little, not serrated, tera minating abruptly in a long whitish hair. Fruit-stalks and their sheathing
involucrums purple. Dill. Barren and fertile plants in distinct patches, (P. piliferum. Schreb. Sm. Hook. Purt. E.) Dry woods and sandy barren heaths.
Spring. P. SUBROTUN'DUM. Shoots simple: leaves strap-spear-shaped, indis
tinctly serrated upwards : capsules roundish. Hedw. Știrp. i. 13—Curt. 102–(E. Bot. 1624. E.)-Dill. 55. 6-H. Os.
xv. 1, row 2. 7–Pet. Mus. f. 22–Vaill. 26. 15, veil wanting. Veil open, larger than the capsule. Linn. Leaves obscurely serrated.
Capsules roundish, pendent. Hedw. Leaves somewhat slightly serrated
towards the point. Capsules nearly as broad as they are long. (Dwarf ROUND-HEADED HAIR-Moss, E.) Mnium Polytrichoides. Linn.
P. Polytrichoides. Huds. 470. P. nanum. Hedw. Heaths. Muddy soil and moist banks.
P. May (The authors of Musc. Brit. concur in uniting P. nanum, xi. E. Bot. 1625,
with the present species. E.) P. Alor'des. Shoots simple : leaves spear-shaped, rigid, serrated at
the end : capsules cylindrical, oblique : veil woolly. Hedw. Stirp. i. 14—(É. Bot. 1649–Musc. Brit. xi. E.)-Dill. 55. 7
Burb. i. 63. 1-Vaill. 29. 11. Stém near half an inch high, seldom branched. Fruil-stalks growing to the
length of an inch, fixed rather below the top of the stem. Capsule cylindrical, upright, but leaning as it becomes older. Veil larger than
the capsule. Weis. Leaves awl-shaped, serrated, opake, reddish near the point, with an appendage somewhat broader than themselves. Cape sule contracted beneath the rim, tapering at the base. Griff. Leaves serrulated at the ends and also on the back of the mid-rib. Capsules
twice as long as broad. (Dwarf LONG-HEADED HAIR-MOSS. E.) P. nanum. Huds. 470. P. Aloides. Hedw. Heaths. Moist banks and muddy soil.
P. March-July. Var. 3. Leaves strap-shaped, serrated, pellucid, with an appendage of the
same width; capsules roundish, not tapering at the bottom. Fertile plants grey green. Barren darker-coloured; they grow in distinct patches. Leaves hair-pointed. Fruit-stalk and veil orange-coloured.
Barren flowers tiled, cup-shaped, sessile, terminal, red. Stackh. Ditch banks and road sides about Henllan, Denbighshire. Mr. Griffith. Hills in Cornwall, common. Mr. Stackhouse.
Spring (Hooker and Taylor include under this species, as var. a. major. "fruits
stalks two inches long; stems usually simple:" P. rubellum,, E. Bot. 1939; also as var. B. “ fruitstalks very short; stems branched with inno
vations ;" P. Dicksoni, E. Bot. 1605. E.) P. HERCY'NICUM. Shoots rarely branched: leaves spear-shaped, fleshy :
capsules urn-shaped, upright : veils with scattered hairs.
Hedw. Stirp. i. 15—(Musc. Brit. X.-E. Bot. 1219. E.) Stem upright, undivided, one inch long. Leaves strap-shaped, keeled, very
entire, bowed in, alternate, nearly upright, pointed, naked. Fruit-stalk terminal, solitary, upright, an inch long. Veil conical, pointed, pale. Capsule upright, oblong or cylindrical, the mouth between toothed and fringed. Lid conical, somewhat pointed. Huds. Mouth fringed with thirty-two short teeth, connected at the base. Hedw. Stars or male buds formed of five spoon-shaped pointed leaves. Griff. (Root densely woolly. E. Bot. E.) Capsule urn-cylindrical, rather narrower in the
middle. (Incurved Hair-Moss. E.) Bryum incurvum. Huds. On the mountains of Scotland and Wales.
P. June-Oct. P. ALPI'NUM. Shoots very much branched : leaves spear-shaped,
toothed : fruit-stalks terminal: capsules egg-shaped. (Musc. Brit. xi.-E. Bot. 1905. E.)-Dill. 55. 4-Hal. Enum. 3. 6, at p.
109–Hist. 46. 6, at iii. p. 56—Fl. Dan. 296. Shoots from half to two inches long; very much branched. Leaves slightly
toothed. Capsules egg-shaped, leaning when ripe. Lid conical, beaked. Mouth with a ring; fringe fine, short, upright, white. Web. Capsule unequally distended, green, blackish when old. Lid saffron colour, its point white. Dill. From two to three inches high. (The narrow leaves will distinguish this species from P. urnigerum, as the branched and
somewhat fastigiate stems will from P. commune. Musc. Brit. E.) (ALPINE HAIR-MOSS. E.) Mountainous heaths in the north of England, and mountains of Wales and Scotland.
P. June-Aug. B. Huds. P. urnigerum, which see. P. VRNI'GERUM. Shoots very much branched : leaves spear-shaped,
tooth-serrated : fruit-stalks axillary : capsules cylindrical.
(E. Bot. 1218-Musc. Brit. xi. E.)-Dill. 55. 5–Vaill. 28. 13—Fl. Dan.
297. Two or three inches high; with lateral branches somewhat forked, rising to nearly an equal height. Fruit-stalks lateral, two or three inches high. Involucrum red. Capsule cylindrical, egg-shaped, tawny, upright, leaning as it ripens. Lid yellow, beak white. Mouth with a ring, and covered by a white membrane. Receptacle none. Barren shoots unbranched, two inches high, stellated at the ends. Leers. Beak of the lid very slender. Grif. (Leaves of a singularly glaucous green hue, (reddish only through age,) by which it may be distinguished at first sight. Musc.
Brit. E.) (URN-BEARING HAIR-MOSS. E.) At the foot of Cader Idris. Dillenius.
At Roslin, Rivelstone, and other places near Edinburgh. Frequent by road sides in the north of Ireland ; also in the Highlands of Scotland. Mr. Brown. (On Gateshead Fell, near Newcastle. Mr. Winch. E.) Near the road side between Denbigh and Voylas, by the rivulet before you arrive at a place called Pennsylvania ; and on Cader Idris, with the shoots hardly half an inch high, fruit-stalk as tall as usual. Mr. Griffith.
P. June-Aug. (P. SEPTENTRIONA'LE. Leaves linear-subolate, obtuse, their margins,
especially towards the top, involute, subserrulate: capsule ovate, subangulate, furnished with a minute apophysis : lid conical, acuminate.
Musc. Brit. X.--Hedw. 22-E. Bot. 1906. Remarkable in the form of its leaves, which are very obtuse, curled when
dry, so convex behind as to be semi-cylindrical. NORTHERN HAIR-MOSS. P. septentrionale. Sw. Hook. Menz. P. seran
gulare. Sm. Brid. P. Norvegicum. Hedw. P. crassisetum. De Cand. Discovered on Ben Nevis, by Messrs. Turner and Hooker, in 1808. In fruit on Brae Reach, and Ben-y-Mach Duich, the highest of the Cairne
gorum range of Grampian mountains. Musc. Brit. E.) MNI'UM.* Capsule with a veil : Fringe with sixteen teeth,
sometimes, though rarely, with four.
(1) Capsules upright, cylindrical. M. ACICULA'RE. Capsules slender : lid needle-like: leaves spear
shaped, upright, mostly pointing one way. Dicks. H. S.-Hedw. Stirp. iii. 33—(Musc. Brit. xix.-E. Bot. 1978. E.)
-Dill. 46. 25. One inch or one inch and a half high. Branches upright. Leaves crowded.
Fruit-stalks near an inch high, dark red; on the ends of the younger branches. Dill. Leaves spear-shaped. Fruit-stalks not half an inch higher than the tops of the shoots.
(Adopted by Dillenius from the Greeks, whose unicy is supposed to be synonymous with Moss, E.)