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more common, having been discovered at Powerscourt waterfall, and in several spots of the romantic parts of Kerry. On shady banks and rocks exposed to the spray of the waterfall above Turk Cottage, Killarney, growing with the very rare Jungermannia Hutchinsix. Mr. Mackay. E.)
MUSCI. SPHAG’NUM.* Barr. Fl. club-shaped : Anthers flat: Caps.
on the same plant, sessile : Mouth smooth, covered with
a lid, without any entire veil. S. PALUS'TRE. Branches bent downwards, (swollen: leaves ovate,
blunt, ventricose. E.) Hedw. Th. 12. 42 to 45, and 13. 46. 47, Hist. i. 1. l, Ib. ii. 3. 9–(E.
Bot. 1405—Musc. Brit. iv. E.)—Vaill. 23. 3-Dill. 32. 1-Fl. Dan. 174 -Schmid. 58. 5—Pluk. 101. 1-Scheuch. It. i. 5, 4, at p. 38-Lob. Ic. ii.
242. 2-Dod. 472. 1-Ger. Em. 1559. 1-Park. 1306. n. 1. The capsules burst with a cracking noise. Linn. Stems growing many
together, from three to twelve inches high, upright, sometimes divided. Branches at short distances, two, three, or four from the same part, heavy and hanging down from abundance of moisture. Leaves white, egg-shaped, concave, soft, tiling the branches. Capsules at first sessile, but afterwards they attain short fruit-stalks. Dill. Involucrum scaly. Capsules nearly globular, when open urn-shaped, generally several to
gether at the top of the stem. Lid convex, pointed, deciduous. GREY BOG-Moss. (S. latifolium. Hedw. Sm. Purt. S. obtusifolium. Hoffm. Hook. Grev. E.) Common peat bogs.
P. July-Aug. Var. 2. The whole habit more slender, more branched; capsules smaller. Schmid. 58. 6~Dill. 32. 2–Hedw. Hist. i. 3. 3—Mapp. at p. 200. C.-E.
Bot. 1406-Musc. Brit. iv. E.) (S. capillifolium. Hedw. Sm. S. acutifolium. Ehrh. Hook. Grev. E.) Var. 3. Whole plant of a beautiful peach colour. On Bogs in the New Forest, Hants. In var. 1, the leafits are concave, oblong, blunt; in 2, flat, awl-shaped,
sharp. S. ALPI'NUM. Somewhat branched, upright: (leaves bristle-shaped,
straightish : capsule somewhat ovate, furrowed: stalk zigzag : veil fringed. E.)
* (A name adopted from Pliny by Dillenius and Linnæus ; but to what kind of Moss it was originally applied cannot now be ascertained, aby more than its correct significátion. E.)
+ (Mr. W. Curtis obtained the reward of the Society of Arts for his valuable application of this Moss to the packing of young trees for exportation. It should be laid in courses between the trees, and being wonderfully retentire of moisture, and seeming to possess an antiseptic property, which totally prevents fermentation or putrefaction, regetation actually proceeds during the time the trees remain enclosed. Montb. Mag. vol.28. 309. Used by the Lapland women to wrap their children in : cradles thus lined affording an excelleot defence from cold. This genus of plants is singularly elegant, even to the naked eye, but far more interesting when its beauties are displayed under the lens. E.)
(E. Bot. 1491—Musc. Brit. ivi-Dill. 32. 3 and 47. 33. E.) Of a beautiful green colour. Capsules egg-shaped. Leaves strap-speare
shaped, pointing three ways. Neck. In a dense compact tuft, about a finger's length, sometimes dividing in the middle into two or three branches. Leaves a splendid intense green, long, narrow-pointed, straight, stiff. (Mr. Griffith brought from Snowdon plants of S.alpinum, and placed them under a waterspout, where they soon became Bryum fleruosum. Its luxuriant growth in bogs accounts for its want of capsules. When this plant is moist, Mr. Griffith observes, the capsules lie concealed amongst the leaves by a singular hygrometric quality in the fruit-stalk ; but as the moisture exhales, they become nearly upright by several spiral revolutions from right to left. In B. (Mnium) heteromallum the
revolutions of the fruit-stalk are reversed. E.) (ZIGZAG BOG-moss. Dicranum flexuosum. Hedw. Sm. Hook. Grev. Purt.
also Bryum flexuosum. Linn. Huds. Lightf. Dicks. With. to Ed. vii. Turf bogs and wet rocks, on high moors, rare. Pentland Hills. Grev. Edin. High ground in Ragley woods, Warwickshire. Purton. E.) Bogs on Cader Idris, and Snowdon. Dillenius. But I have never found it there
in fructification. Mr. Griffith. S. ARBOʻREUM. Branched, creeping; capsules lateral, pointing one
way. See Fontinalis secunda. (S. cuspidatum. E. Bot. 2392. Branches attenuated ; leaves lanceolatosubulate, lax, Musc. Brit. iv. Hooker suspects it may prove only a var.
of S. palustre. E.) PHAS'CUM. Capsule egg-shaped, furnished with a veil, but
without a lid, or only an imperfect one which does not fall off.
(1) Capsule sessile. P. ACAU'LON. (Stemless : leaves egg-shaped, hair-pointed, concave, the
upper ones folding over each other: capsule broad-oval. E.) Schreb. Phasc. 1. 1 and 2–Curt. 276—(E. Bot. 2025—Musc. Brit. v. E.)
Dill. 32. 11-Fl. Dan. 249. 3— Happ. ii. Phasc. 1. d.-Neck. Meth. 1. 1,
at p. 273, a veil magnified-Pet. i. 95. 14. A few lines in length, growing in clusters, assuming rather a globular shape
from the convergency of the leaves, which are rather broad, membranous, concave, soft, nerveless, green, delicate, ending in a short hair which is more conspicuous in the dry plant. Capsule little larger than the poppy seed, so concealed within the middlemost leaves as to be more readily felt than seen. Dill. Although there is no proper lid to the cap
sule it opens at the top. The veils incline to one side. (SHARP-LEAVED DWARF EARTH-moss. (P. cuspidatum. Hedw. Gmel.
Sm. Hook. Grev. Purt. E.) Heaths and ditch banks, garden walls, especially in a sandy soil, not uncommon; but on account of its minuteness, and the leaves secreting the capsules, it is generally overlooked.
A. March. P. MUTICUM. Stemless : leaves egg-shaped, concave, converging, not
terminating in hairs. Schreb. Phasc. 1. 11 and 12–(E. Bot. 2027. E.)-Dill. 32, 12-Vaill. 27. 2.
Whole plant smaller than the preceding, capsules rounder and more shining,
red yellow; leaves paler, not ending in a grey hair. Capsules ripe a
month sooner. Dill. (BEARDLESS EARTH-MOSS. E.) P. acaulon B. Linn. Garden walks, hedges, ditch banks.
A. Jan.-Feb. SUBULA'TUM. Stem short: leaves spear-strap-shaped, upper ones
bristle-shaped, broad at the base. Hedw. Stirp. i. 35—(Schmid. 58.1-Curt. 275-E. Bot. 2177—Musc. Brit.
v. E.)-Fl. Dan. 249. 2-Happ. ii. Phascum. 1. b.-Dill. 32. 10—Vaill.
29. 9. Capsules continuing all the summer, reddish and yellowish, in autumn
ripening, turning brown, and opening. R. Syn. So minute as hardly to be visible if it did not grow in patches; from two to three lines high. Weis. Shoots not branched. Veil covering the capsule, conical, scored, blunt, of short duration. Neck. In a rich soil sometimes half an inch high, and with two or three branches towards the top. Barren flower in the bosom of the leaves. Lid none. Hedw. Only three or four lines high, but growing in patches is readily found, and the capsules not larger than a seed of tobacco, are very visible on account of the slenderness of
the leaves. Dill. They frequently fall off without opening. AWL-LEAVED EARTH-Moss. Heaths in a sandy soil ; ditch banks; not
A. March--Aug. P. SERRA'TUM. Shoots thread-like, jointed, branched ; leafits of the
involucrum spear-shaped, serrated. Dicks.
Dicks. 1. 1-Schreb. p. 8. t. 2-E. Bot. 460—Musc. Brit. v. E.) Extremely minute, at first sight resembling a thread-like Byssus, and would
scarcely be obvious to the naked eye if it did not grow in patches. It seems a link which connects the Musci and the Algæ, partaking of Phase cum and Conferva. It consists of numerous green filaments, which through a glass appear creeping, cylindrical, branched, jointed like a Conferva, the interstices pellucid, the joints darker green. Branches alternate, forked, awl-shaped at the end. Capsules egg-shaped, pointed, sessile irregularly on the sides of the shoot near its base: tawny when ripe. It has no lid which separates. The involucrum consists of three or four spear-shaped leaves, pointed and serrated. Schreber and Weber seem not to have been aware that the jointed shoots belong to the plant. Dicks. (The veil is described as small, and of a pale brownish colour. Proba
bly the most diminutive of British Mosses. E.) (SERRATED OR CAPILLARY-BRANCHED Earth-MOSS. E.) On the north
side of Muswell Hill, near Highgate. Dickson. (Moist banks. Braid Hill marshes. Mr. G. Don. Grev. Edin. E.)
April. (P. stoloniferum. Dicks. 7. 2. E. Bot. 2006. and With. to Ed. vii. is now
considered a var. of this species ; but rather larger, the shoots longer, the space betwixt the joints longer, and the leafits bluntly toothed and reti
culated. Growing on clay near Walthamstow. E.) P. ALTERNIFOʻLIUM. Fertile stem short : barren stems taller, upright:
leaves alternate, awl-shaped. Dicks.
Dicks. 1. 2–(E. Bot. 2107—Musc. Brit. v. E.)
Barrèn shoots undivided, thread-shaped, fully half an inch high. Leaves very short, awl-shaped, alternate, rather bulging at the base, expanding at the ends. Fertile shoots undivided, one-eighth of an inch high. Leaves awl-bristle-shaped, as long again as the capsule. Capsule, one at the end of each shoot, single, sessile, buried in the leaves, inversely egg-shaped,
pale yellow. Dicks. ALTERNATE-LEAVED Earth-Moss. Bogs. Gamlingay Bogs, Cambridge shire. Mr. Griffith.
April. (2) Capsule on a fruit-stalk. P. CURVICOL'LUM. Stemless : fruit-stalks crooked : leaves spear-shaped,
taper-pointed, expanding. Dicks. 1. 3—Hedw. Stirp. i. 11—(Hook. Fl. Lond. 5tMusc. Brit. v.
E. Bot. 905. E.) Plant extremely minute, hardly visible to the naked eye, unless growing in
clusters and bearing its swollen capsules. Involucrum, leaves straight, strap-spear-shaped; the other leaves egg-spear-shaped. Fruit-stalks very much bowed. Capsules egg-shaped, brown and mottled when ripe. Veil very small. Lid with a short beak. Often mixed with Bryum are genteum. Ripens in May. Hedw. Leaves mid-ribbed, as long as the
fruit-stalk. CROOKED-STALKED Earth-moss. In barren grassy places near Croydon.
Dickson. (On banks near Clapham, Bedfordshire. Near Findon, Sus
sex; and Beverley, Yorkshire. Bot. Guide. E.) P. PILIF'ERUM. With a stem : leaves egg-oblong, upright, hair-pointed : (capsule globose, upright. E.)
Schreb. Phasc. 1. 6 to 10–(E. Bot. 1888. E.) (This plant is remarkable for it hoary appearance occasioned by the long
white filiform extremities of the leaves, which are generally short and
obtuse. E.) (Bearded Earth-moss. P.cuspidatum, var. Musc. Brit. P. acaulon of With.
April. E.) P. AXILLA'RE. With a stem : capsules not taller than the leaves :
leaves awl-shaped, keeled, somewhat fasciculated. Hedw. Stirp. i. 34-Dicks. 1. 3.–(E. Bot. 1036—Musc. Brit. v. E.) Exceedingly small; about one-eighth of an inch high, upright, sometimes
sending out one or two branches at the base. Leaves, slender, bristleshaped, surrounding the stems and rising above the ends. Capsules, egg-shaped, taper-pointed, on short fruit-stalks, sometimes from the sides of the stem and bosom of the leaves, but mostly terminal, solitary, or in pairs, naked or distinct, though the leaves extend beyond them; when ripe brownish. Dicks. LATERAL-FRUITED EARTH-MOSS. P. arillare. Dicks. i. 2. Sm. Hook.
Grev. P. nitidum. Hedw. With. to Ed. vii. By Hooker identified also with Dickson's P. strictum, though somewhat different to the fig. E. Bot. 2093. E.) Bogs on heaths.
Sept. P: REC'TUM. Stemless: fruit-stalk thrice the length of the leaves :
leaves spear-shaped, mid-ribbed, fine-pointed, VOL. III.
(PLATE XVIII. f. 1-Hook. Fl. Lond. 54-E. Bot. 330-Musc. Brit. . E.) Differs from F. curvicollum in having beardless, though pointed leaves, a longer and nearly upright stalk, and longer-pointed capsule. E. Bot. E.) Fruit-stalk and capsule a rich chesnut red. Fruit-stalks straight, sometimes two from the same root. Leaves five or six.' Whole plant the
twentieth of an inch in height. Capsule not wrinkled. (LONG-STALKED EARTH-MOSS. E.) Specimens from J. W. Griffith, Esq.,
who found it amongst trees in the front of Garn House, very neart the road leading to Henllan. (Frequently found in fields that have lain untilled one or two years, together with Weissia Starkeana. Hooker. E.)
April-May. FONTINA'LIS.* Capsule nearly sessile, furnished with a veil,
and surrounded by a tiled involucrum.
Barr. Fl. bud-like, axillary; on the same plant. Obs. Differing from Hypnum chiefly in the capsule not being sup
ported on a fruit-stalk. Weis. F. ANTIPYRE'TICA. Capsules lateral ; - leaves acute, keeled, doubled
together, disposed in three rows. Dill. 33. 1–(E. Bot. 359—Mus. Brit. xxii. E.)- Vaill. 33. 5-H. Ox. xv.
6. 32-Kniph. 12-Buxb. iii. 69. 2-Mich. 59. 9-Schmid. 58. 4-Hedw.
Hist. i. 6. 27. ü. 9. 53. 54. 55. and 1. 5. Shoots a foot long or more, branched. The primary shoot sends out lateral
and terminal ones, and these branch out again. Neck. Floating in water, Leaves two or three lines long, and half as broad, very entire at the edge. Capsules lateral, in the bosom of the leaves, on very short fruit-stalks, inclosed in a leafy scaly involucrum. Veil conical. Lid conical, blunt, starting with a spring from the ripe capsule. Fringe surrqunding •
central point. Seeds green. Dill. GREATER WATER-Moss. Upon rocks and roots of trees, in brooks, rivulets,
slow streams and ponds. (Delights in the neighbourhood of cataracts, and flourishes most where the stream is most turbulent. Drummond. E.)
P. June-Sept. + F. MI'NOR. Capsules terminal ; leaves egg-shaped, acute, concave;
pointing three ways; always in pairs.
(Hook. Fl. Lond-E. Bot. 557—Dill. 33. 2–Musc. Brit. xi. E.) Leaves doubled together and keeled, on the thicker branches in pairs. Linn.
*Shoots four inches long, in rapid streams half a yard or more, very much branched. Branches three-sided, ending in a sharp point. Capsules eggshaped, on short fruit-stalks. Web. Shoots shorter, more branched, and
leaves smaller, thicker, and blunter, than in F. antipyretica. Dill. LESSER WATER-Moss. (F. minor. Linn. Trichostomum Fontinalioides.
• (From its natural station being in fresh springs and rivulets. E.)
+ The specific name was given to this plant in allusion to its being employed by the Swedes to fill up the spaces between the chimney and the walls, and thus, by excluding the air, preventing the action of the fire. (The pale' reddisb tufts of the minute Conferva nana, Dilw. 80, may sometimes be observed parasitically attached to tbis species in alpine rivers, Gray. E.)