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out his Sikha—Only one notice in the Vēdas—A
father should not shave during the six months
preceding the child's birth-First hair cutting-
In fulfilment of a vow the first hair cutting may be
at a place of pilgrimage-If the pilgrimage cannot
be made, a portion of the hair if preserved to be
taken to the shrine when opportunity offers-
Venkatēshvara at Tirupati in North Arcot-Also at
Dvāraka Tirumala in the Godavery District-The
real tonsure is at Upanayanam- A description of
the ceremony-The whole ritual elaborated from an
obscure mantram- A further ceremony at a temple
-Kākapaksham or hair beauty patches-Hindus
do not wear beards-Yogis suffer all their bair to
grow-The Sanyasi gets rid of all his hair-Hindus
generally wear the moustache-Exceptions to this
rule; the Dāsaris, Rāmānujas, Vaidikis, Achāryas.
-A clean shaven face as a sign of mourning-The
Pushkaram festival; Widows have the head clean
shaven-Pilgrims are shaved after a bath in a sacred
river- A woman sometimes allows a portion of her
hair to be cut off to bring blessings upon her hus.
band-Vows at times of sickness—No one should
shave himself-The village barber-Days and sea-
sons when shaving should not be done-Whether
Christians may wear the sikha.

94-108

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CHAPTER VIII,

HINDU MARRIAGES.
This not an account of the institution, but a des-
cription of the ceremonies.—No “old bachelors," or

old maids”—More freedom of choice in Vedic times
-European choice of a wife contrasted-Marriage
amongst Brahmins and Vaisyas cannot precede
Upanayanam-In certain sects, the choice is very
limited-Manu on the kind of wife to be chosen
Polyandry and Polygamy-Polygamy legislated for
by Manu-In these days a man cannot marry even
a second wife other than of his own caste-Under
what conditions a second wife is usually taken-
Unusual for a Hindu to have more than one wife
The custom of Mēnarikam-Younger brother or
sister cannot marry until the elder ones are married;
Mere infants are sometimes married-The horos-
cope-Money sometimes given to the father of a
young girl to persuade him to give his daughter in
marriage, especially if the would-be bridegroom is
an old man--Such gratuities are unlawful-Ins-

tances of such cases—This unlawful custom chiefly Pages.
amongst Brahmins-The Kistna District Association
on the sale of girls, and excessive expenditure at
marriages-A Pariah girl passed off as a Brahmin
girl-The Prathānam This not necessarily a
binding ceremony

109–120

CHAPTER IX.
HINDU MARRIAGES.-(Continued).
Fondness of Hindus for marriage festivities—Time
chosen for actual marriage-Preliminary, prepara-
tions--The bridegroom and his party arrive at the
bride's home-If a Brahmin, the bride's father
ceremoniously plants nine kinds of grain in five
vessels-The formal welcome-The actual hour for
marriage fixed-The Mangalasnānam-The Punya-
hāvachanam ceremony-The Bride's parents invest
the bridegroom with the complement of his Yajno-
pavtam-, curtain is fixed up concealing the bride
--Mathuparkam - Kanyādānam-The couple are
tied together by means of the Brahma knot-
Presents given to the bride- The bride's father
washes the bridegroom's feet—He then pours water
over the clasped hands of the couple, repeating man.
trams—The curtain is removed and the young couple
see each other- The ox yoke ceremony.-The Man-
galasūtram-This is fastened round the neck of the
bride by the bridegroom-This custom retained in
the marriages of native Christians—The Mangalā-
shtakam-Throwing coloured rice–The Bhāshikam
-Mutual placing of rice, steeped in milk, upon
each others heads by the couple-Did the modern
English custom of throwing rice at weddings origi-
nate from these customs-X hõmam sacrifice by the
bridegroom-The Saptapadi—This the most import-
ant ceremony, and really the binding one-Marriage
song by those present. The lamp hymn to Rāma
The Sthālipākam ceremony. Arundhati— The couple
take food together—The marriage feast—The second
day; the couple go in procession, both morning and
evening-Husband and wife never mention each
other's name-Singing songs ; A Kistna Lullaby-
The third day; the couple again go in procession-
Fun and frolic-The fourth day; passed much the
same as the previous day-The bridegroom pretends
sulks-Tricks played at the house whilst the proces-
sion

goes on-The fifth day; Shēsha hūmam-In the
evening the Nākabali ceremony-Throwing upon

B

CHAPTER · X.

UNORTHODOX HINDU MARRIAGES.

Numbers of nominal Hindus who are really not

followers of the Brahminical religion- This fact

appears in their marriage ceremonies - The Malās

as representing a medium between the orthodox

and those who are entirely outside Hinduism-A

Māla betrothal-The marriage takes place at the

young man's home-The ceremony is performed by

night-If by day, a young bull must be set free as

a kind of forfeit-The Dāsari, or Mala priest - The

Arivāni pots—The Panta bangāram-The pandal

and pendli arugu-The bāsikam-The nails of the

couple both of hands and feet pared-Coloured rice

applied to the forehead-The Brahma knot-The

temporary screen-A silver ring is placed on the

second toe of each foot of the bride by one of the

musicians—The cloth is held horizontally as a screen

and coloured rice poured into the hands of the couple

by the priest-Green-leaf bracelets tied on-The

Mangalasūtram is produced-Tied on to the neck

of the bride whilst the Dāsari repeats a blessing-

The Dāsari's blessing-This the binding ceremony

- The couple pour rice over each other's head

Presents are given-The fathers of the both parties

walk round the pendli arugu each carrying an arivēni

pot-Arundhati-The couple join hands by holding

each other by the little finger-Song, unbolt the

closed door-The Arivēni song-By day light, now

when they go in procession through the village

This followed by a feast-The Dēgāta game-The

final ceremony and declaration-Marriage rites of

Madigas. Of the Yeruklas-The Kārakat Vellālans

-The Maravans.—The Kallans—The Tottiyans-

The Poleiyans-The Todas-The Kotas--The

Kurumbas-The Irulas-The Badagas

141-154

CHAPTER XI.

HINDU DIET.
In Vedic times more latitude allowed in diet Pages.
The dietary of Manu much allied to that of Moses-
The wisdom of some of the restrictions-Instance of
rigidity of brahmanical rules of diet- A Vegetable
diet suited to India-Hare considered "varmint"
by some English peasants Economic wisdom of
abstaining from beef-The Hindu dietary not to be
despised for quality or variety-Details of dietary
-Sudras though not vegetarians do not uniformly
eat flesh-Reasons for this-True Hindus are
water drinkers--It is only low-castes and outcastes
who drink intoxicants-A hint to temperance
orators-Hindus generally have not more than two
meals a day-An early morning light meal is taken
by low-castes and outcastes-Universal hospitality
to travellers—This enjoined by Manu-Choultries
- The broad division of things cooked in water and
those cooked dry, or in ghee-Dietary of the out-
castes-Carrion eaten by the Panchamas-These
welcome such food through poverty-Carrion for-
bidden to Christians by the Missionaries-Reasons
for Europeans and Christian converts not having the
same privileges as Muhammadang-The teaching of
Christ and the New Testament as regards defile-
ment

155-169

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CHAPTER XII.

HINDU FESTIVALS.
Origin and uses of festivals-Number of Hindu
festivals-In one sense festivals answer to the sab-
bath-Even natives do not often know the origin
of particular festivals--The native almanac-
Varieties of festivals--According to the Purānas
there should be 400 festivals during the year ;-
Different systems upon which almanacs are drawn
up-Twelve festivals are chosen as representative
---Sankrānti; three days-Also called Pongul-
The way of celebrating this festival-The first day
called Bhögi-An oil bath-Origin of the word
pongul-Mahā Sivarātri; one day-Not observed by
strict Vaishnavas-Sivarātri pilgrimages and their
observances—The Rudrapādam; Nandi! Hara !
Hara!-Method of worshipping the Lingam-
Māra Sivarātri-Holi; 15 days—The festival of the

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