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that an Englishman would think it fit for the Dunghil. But if the French eat lefs Meat than we do, they are perfect Devourers of Bread, which is generally exceeding light and good. They have also great Variety of Wines, which are their ordinary Drink, and are supposed to contribute to that Sprightliness and Vivacity so remarkable in the French. Cyder is pretty much drank in the Northern Parts of France,
which yield little or no Wine. This Nation is Dress. much more extravagant in their Dress than in
Eating and Drinking. An Italian Painter, being desired to draw a Frenchman, represented him with a Pair of Sheers and a piece of Cloth, intimating, that he was ever cutting out something new. This Levity in Dress is despis’d by their nearest Neighbours the Italians, Dutch, and Spaniards, who seldom alter the Fashion of their Cloaths,
TAL Y is compos'd of several independent States, which
we shall therefore mention separately, and then say a few Words of the Whole.
The four first Divisions of Italy belong to the King of Sardinia. The first is Savoy. 2. Piedmont. 3. Montferrat. 4. Nice. The Revenues of the King of Sardinia are about 500,000l. he keeps a good Body of Troops in Time of Peace, and can raise upwards of 30,000 good Soldiers. The Inand of Sardinia, (belonging to the Duke of Savoy) one of the largest Islands of the Mediterranean Sea, is 171 Miles from North to South, and 96 from East to West. There are 44 little Inands dependent on it, of which S. Antioco, S. Pietro, Travolara, and Asinara, are the chief; many of the others are uninhabited. Sardinia was given to the Duke of Savoy, and the Title of King, in lieu of Sicily, which was given him by the Treaties of Utrecht and Baden, and taken from him in 1718. The Soil of this Island is fruitful, when it is manur'd ; the Air in Summer is hot and sultry, and reckon'd very unhealthful. There are but few Towns of any Note, and but thinly peopled; and the Natives are an unpolished Generation. The Face of this Island is very rough. 5. Genia, a Republic. The Government is committed to the Doge or Duke, chosen every two Years, but lodg’d in the Senate. Revenues 200,000 1. 20,000 Forces. Navy 6 Gallies. 6. Milan, Dutchy. The
Government is lodg'd in the Senate, subject to the Controul of the Emperor. Revenues about 300,000 l. The Forces that can be raised are near 30,000. 7. Mantua, Dutchy, Government under the Emperor. Revenues about 80,000!. 8. Modena, Dutchy. The Revenues of this Duke, who is absolute, amount to near 100,000l. 9. Parma, belongs to the Infant Don Philip of Spain. Revenues near 100,000 l. 10. Venice. The Venetian Governinent is lodge ed in the Nobility ; but conditionally committed to the Doge, who keeps this post for Life. Revenues are 1,200,000 l. Forces, 24,000. Navy, 30 Men of War, and 100 Gallies. 11. Tuscany : divided into 1. the Florentine; 2. the Pisan; 3. the Siennois. Subject to its own Duke. Revenues are 500,000l. Forces, small. Navy, 12 Gallies. 12. Lucca, Republic, to Spain. 13. Delli Presidii, to Spaiņ. 14. Piombino, to Spain. 15. S. Marino, Republic. 16. Pope's Dominions. Government as absolute as any in Europe. The Revenues of his Holiness are very considerable. Forces; scarce worth Notice. Navy, about 20 Gallies. 17. Naples, Naples and Sicily were both given to Don Carlos, with the Title of King, in the Year 1736. His Revenues, 1,000,000 l. Forces, about 20,000. Navy, about 20 small Men of War. 18. Sicily, which lies in a very warm Climate, but healthful Air, being refresh'd with cool Breezes from the Seas and Mountains. There is not a Country in Europe whole Hills and Plains are more fruitful than those of this Ifand, which has now the same Sovereign with Naples. 19. Corsica. 20. Malta; (subject to its own Grand Master) is a small Island, about 20 Miles in Length, and so in Breadth, nearly of an oval Figure; and of a white soft Rock, covered with a foot of Earth, or thereabouts. The Air is generally clear and healthful; but exceflive hot, when it is not refresh'd with cool Breezes from the Sea; the Soil fruitful enough. The Iand is stock'd with loose Women from Greece, who resort hither to accommodate the unmarried Knights, and others who despise a conjugal Life. Their Language is a barbarous Arabic.
CLIMATE.] The Air of Italy is generally pure, temperate, and healthful, except in the Campania about Rome, where it is very unhealthful from June to September ; and upon the Appennine Mountains it is exceeding cold; on the South Side of them, especially the South of Naples, the Heats are troublesome; the North Side of them is more healthful, as well as cooler, than the Provinces on the South ; but here also are some unhealthful Spots. Vol. I,
olber Coun. tries,
Trade.] Italy takes from England Broad-cloth, Longells, Bays, Druggets, Calimancoes, and divers other Stuffs;
Tin, Lead; great Quantities of Fish, as Pilchards, England.
Herrings, Salmon, Newfoundland Cod, &c. Pep
per, and other East India Goods. The Commodities England takes from them, are Raw, Thrown and Wrought Silk, Wine, Oil, Soap, Olives, fome Dyers Ware, Anchovies, Marble, &c. Formerly we received a confiderable Balance from them ; but the French now supplying them with very great Quantities of Woollen Manufactures, and also having got Part of the Newfoundland Trade, and as we import great Quantities of Thrown and Raw Silk from thence,
to carry on our Manufactures, it is thought the Trade wirb
Balance now against us is considerable. The
Foreign Parts, are chiefly Corn, Wine, Rice; Silks, Velvets, Taffaties, Grograms, Fustians, their own Manufactures ; Gold Wire, Alum, Armour, Glasses, &C.
CHARACTER.] The Italians excel in a complaisant, obliging Behaviour to each other, and Affability to Foreigners, observing a Medium between the Levity of the French, and the starch'd Gravity of the Spaniards, and are by far the foberest People that are to be found in the Christian World, though they abound in Plenty of the choicest Wines; nor is there any thing like Luxury to be seen at the Tables of the Great. They are generally Men of Wit, and have a Genius for Arts and Sciences; nor do they want Application. Music, Poetry, Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, are their favourite Studies; there are no People on the Face of the Earth that have brought them to greater Perfection.
RELIGION.] The Italians are zealous Profeffors of the Doctrine of the Church of Rome. The Jews are here tolerated in the public Exercise of their Religion. The Natives, either out of Fear of the dreadful Inquisition, or in Reverence to the Pope, or by being industriously kept in Ignorance of the Protestant Doctrine, entertain monstrous Notions of all the Distenters from the Roman Church.
CURIOSITIES.) The Curiofities of this country are chiefly these following. In Rome are Ampitheatres, particularly that begun by Vefpafian, and finished by Domitian : Triumphal Arches, as that of Conftantine the Great, erected to him in Memory of his Victory obtain'd over the Tyrant Maxentius, with this Inscription, Liberatori Urbis, Fundatori Pacis; that erected to T. Vefpafan, upon his taking the City, and spoiling the Temple, of Jerusalem ; add the Triumphal
Bridge, Bridge, whose Ruins are still visible near Port Angelo, lo much reputed formerly, that, by a Decree of the Senate, none of the meaner People were suffered to tread upon the same : Baths of Antoninus Pius, which were of prodigious Bigness ; those of Alexander Severus, the magificent Ruins whereof are near the Church of St. Euftachio : The Pillar erected by M. Aurelius Antoninus the Emperor, in Honour of his Father Antoninus Pius, being as yet 175 Foot high; another Pillar in Honour of Trajan; another in Honour of Julius, upon his Naval Victory over the Carthaginians; to these add the two Oblisks formerly belonging to the famous Circus Maximus, begun by Tarquinius Priscus, augumented by 7. Cæfar and Auguftus, and adorn'd by Trajan and Heliogabilus ; add the three Pillars of admirable Structure, which formerly belong'd to the Temple of Jupiter Stator, built by Romulus, upon his Victory over the Sabines : The Ruins of Templum Pacis, built by Titus Vefpafian, adorn'd with some of the Spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem: Lastly, the very Plate of Brass, on which the Laws of the Ten Tables were written, is still to be seen in the Capitol. In the Kingdom of Naples are the Remains of a fair Amphitheatre, and Cicero's Academy, near Puzzuolo ; also, between this place and Baia, are the Arches and Ruins of that prodigious Bridge, being three Miles long, built by Caligula. The Ruins of Nero's Palace, with the Tomb of P. Virgilius Maro, in the Gardens of S. Severino, near the Entrance of the Grotto of Pausilipus, near Naples; which Grotto is a large Cartway, about a Mile long, cut under Ground quite thro’a Mountain. To these we may add that Prodigy of Nature, the terrible Volcano Vesuvius, about 7 Miles from the City of Naples. The very Stone upon which Julius Cæfar stood, when he made an Oration to his Men, persuading them to pass the Rubicon, and advance strait to Rome, is to be seen at Rimini. Amongst the famous Roman Causeways, we may reckon that of Flaminius, reaching from Rome to Rimini, being
Of G E R M A N Y. CLIMATE.)
HE Soil of the Netherlands is, in general,
so fertile, in Grain, Roots, and many Sorts of Fruits, that 'tis hardly to be paralleld by any Spot of Ground in the same Climate. Towards the North of Germany it is very cold in Winter, but in the Southmoft Provinces the Air is very temperate; and the Soil of Germany, in gr neral, is very fertile. The Air of Hungary is, by many, reckon'd very unhealthful; which is chiefly occafioned from the great Quantity of moorish Ground, and the many Lakes, with which this Country abounds. However, the Soil, in general, is very fruitful in Corn, and various sorts of pleasant Fruits, and also affords excellent Pasturage. Hungary produces valuable Mines of Copper, Iron, Quicksilver, Antimony, and Salt.
GOVERNMENT.) The Power of the German Emperors hath not been at all Times the fame : For Charlemain, who Faid the Foundation of this Empire, enjoy'd great Part of Germany, France, and Italy, of which he was absolute Monarch, and took the Liberty of disposing his Dominions to his Successor at his Death, as many fucceeding Emperors did afterwards. The first Occasion of electing a King of the Romars proceeded from a Contrivance of some Emperors, to secure the Imperial Crown to their own Families; they, making use of their Authority while they were in Poffeflion of the Throne, easily influenced the Eleétors to chuse a Soir, a Brother, or a Relation, to be crown'd King of Hungary, afterwards King of Bohemia, and then King of the Romans. By this Custom the Empire feem'd to be intail'd on the Males of the Austrian Family, it having been much the same thing to elect a King of the Romans as to chuse an Emperor. But Leopold, the late Emperor's Father, form’d a Design to fettle the Succession in the Female Line, on the Failure of a Male Iflue; which Scheme, about fifty Years ago, was communicated to the Diets of the Empire, where it receiv'd all the Validity they could give it, and was called the Pragmatic Sanction. The principal Members of the Empire, after the King of the Romans, are the Nine Electors, of whom the Three first are Ecclefiaftical, viz. the Electors of Mentz, Triers, and Cologn; the King of Bohemia, the Duke of Bavaria, the Duke of Saxony, the Marquis of Brandenburg (King of Prufia), the Prince Palatine of the Rhire, and the Duke of Brunswick (King of England). Every Elector is Sovereign in his Dominions ; they can make Laws, establish Courts of Justice, coin Money,