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upon him, but spends the best part of the Night in such Amusements, tho' they had little more Knowledge of the Lady than Don Quixot had of the celebrated Dulcinea.
The Spaniards are inchanted with their Bull-feasts : However these Entertainments are not exhibited so frequently as formerly.
CURIOSITIES.) In the City of Granada is a large sumptuous Palace of the Moorish Kings, said to contain Lodgings and Accommodations for near Forty thousand People; the Walls whereof are lin’d with Jasper, Porphyry, and other beautiful Marbles, which form a sort of Mofaic Work, with Abundance of Inscriptions in Arabian Characters.
Of PORT U G A L. CLIMATE.] THE Face of this Country is very rough, and
the Mountains are some of the most barren in that Part of the Continent; however, towards the Bottoms of them, they are well planted with Vines, which yield excellent Wines. Portugal produces Abundance of Olives, Oranges, Lemons, Citrons, Almonds, Chesnuts, Figs, Raifins, Pomegranates, and other Fruits common to us; but they are not reckoned fo good as those in the Southern Provinces of Spain.
GOVERNMENT.] This Kingdom, after several surprising Turns of Fortune, was seized upon in the Year 1580 by Philip II. King of Spain, and it continued a Spanish Province till 1640. The Spaniards having been weakened by a long War with France, and the Revolt of the Catalonians, the Portuguese had a fair Opportunity of delivering their Country from an intolerable foreign Yoke; and as the Duke of Braganza was the next in Blood to their former Princes, they made him an Offer of the Crown, which he accepted; but much Blood was ihed to maintain him in it afterwards. The King of Portugal is an absolute Monarch, and his Crown hereditary. The Civil Government of Portugal and Spain have a great Refemblance; for the Portuguese endeavour to imitate their Neighbours in all public Affairs.
Revenues.] The King of Portugal's Revenues arise chiefly from the Goods exported and imported: The whole clear Revenue, upon a moderate Computation, is about 1,200,000l. Sterling.
Forces.] The Forces of the King of Portugal, according toʻthe best Account, do not amount to 20,000; nor can they well be thought to man and pay 30 Men of War of the Line.
Deg. Miles. Min.
Deg. Miles. Min. Equator. 52 37 00
32 53 36 09
73 17 32
32 55 34 24
75 15 32 56 33 32
32 57 32 40
78 12 32 59 31 00
79 II 28 60 30 00
80 IO 24 29 04
20 27 12
07 25 26 16
12 65 25 20
05 I 2
12 22 32 88 02
04 69 21 32
89 OI 70 20 32
90 00 00 71 19
83 84 85
S. What is that Position of the Globe denominated a right. Sphere?
M, The Inhabitants of the Earth are sometimes distinguished according to the various Position of their Horizon, as they are situate in a right. Sphere, a parallel Sphere, or an oblique Sphere. Vide Plate 3. In a right Sphere the Equator passes thro' the
A right Zenith and Nadir, and the parallel Circles fall Sphere. perpendicularly on the Horizon, which is the Case of those people who live under the Equinoctial Line. In a parallel Sphere, the Poles are in the Zenith
A parallel and Nadir; the Equator is parallel to, and coin- Spbere. cides with the Horizon, and the parallel Circles are parallel to the Horizon, which can only be said of People under either Pole. In an oblique Sphere, the Inhabitants have one
An obligus of the Poles above, and the other under the Ho- Spbere. rizon, and the Equator and parallel Circles cutting the Horizon obliquely, as is the Case of all People that do not live under the Equinoctial or the Poles.
S. How is the Globe to be rectified in order to find the true Situation of any Place upon it?
If they have this Number of Ships, a Squadron of English, or Dutch, of half the Number, would not be afraid to engage them. They serve chiefly for Convoys to their Brasil Fleets, and are very often used as Merchant-ships to import Goods or Treasure from their foreign Settlements.
RELIGion. ) The Tenets, grosieft Errors and Corruptions of the Church of Rome are embraced by the Portuguese, who, like the Spaniards, are exceedingly devoted to the Clergy.
Customs.] The Customs are in a manner the same with those in Spain.
CURIOSITIES.] In a Lake on the Top of the Hill Stella in Portugal are found Pieces of Ships, tho'it be distant from the Sea more than twelve Leagues. Near to Roja there is a Lake remarkable for its rumbling Noise, which is commonly heard before a Storm, and that at the Distance of fifteen or fixteen Miles. About eight Leagues from Coimbra is a Fountain, which swallows up, or draws in, whatsoever Thing only touches the Surface of its Waters; an Experiment of which is often made with the Trunks of Trees.
CLIMATE.] THE Air of this Country, in general, is . THE
very temperate, pleasant, and healthful ; the Soil extremely fruitful, particularly in Corn, Wine, and Fruits.
GOVERNMENT.] As to the form of Government of France, the legislative, as well as the executive Power, is vefted solely in the King: His Edicts are of the Force of Acts of Parliament with us, and he appoints the Judges and Officers who are to put them in Execution.
The Crown of France is hereditary ; but all Females are excluded by the Salique Law.
Revenues.] The Taxes usually levied in France are, the Taille, or Land-tax, the Taillon, the Subsistence-money, the Aides, and the Gabelles. By the Aides are understood all Duties and Customs on Goods and Merchandizes, except Salt. The Gabelles are Taxes arising from Salt. The other Taxes are, the Poll-tax; the Tenths of all the Estates of the Kingdom ; the Fiftieth Penny, or the Fiftieth Part of the Produce of the Earth ; the Tenths and Free Gifts of the Clergy. From these, and the Revenues arising from the Crown Lands,
Fines, &c. and from the high Duties imposed on all Provifions brought into Paris, arise Fifteen Millions Sterling, and upwards, annually, to the Government. I cannot forbear mentioning those violent Methods sometimes practised by the French Court, in order to raise Money, to support her Projects and vast Armies ; which are, raising the Value of the Coin, and compelling the People to take Paper for their Money, and then compounding with them to take Half, or perhaps a Quarter, of their respective Debts, when they come to be paid : And it is supposed, that the King makes as much by these oppressive Methods as the above annual Revenues.
Forces.] The Armies of France were never so numerous as in the Reign of Lewis XIV. In the War which preceded the Peace of Utrecht, they amounted to near 400,000 Men; and, 'tis said, they are not much less at present, when the Regiments are compleated.
RELIGION.] The established Religion in France is that of the Roman Catholic; but the Gallican Church pretends to enjoy greater Liberties and Privileges, and to be less subject to the See of Rome, than any other Christian State of that Communion. The Nation is divided into two great Parties, one of them zealous in defending the Rights of the Gallicar Church against the Encroachments of Rome, and the other no less zealous in asserting the Pope's Supremacy. The Proteftants (commonly called Huguenots) were formerly allow'd the public Profession of their Religion, by several Edicts granted by the French Kings : But the Repeal of these refpective Édicts occasioned Civil Wars; and, at laft, Lewis XIV. ordered all their Churches to be destroyed, and violently presecuted the Protestants ; which forced great Numbers to leave the Kingdom, and seek for Shelter in foreign Parts.
Customs. ] The usual Diversions of the French are, either Plays, Gaming, Walking, or Taking the Air in Coaches. Their Opera's in Paris are fine, and the Mufic admirable. The Tuilleries, where Company walk in the delightful Gardens of that Palace, are very beautiful.
The French do not eat that Quantity of Flesh that we do, nor do they often dress' it in the Dict. fame Manner : Soops, Fricassées, Ragouts, and Hashes, disguis’d with Onions, Herbs and Spices, are preferred before whole Joints boild or roasted. They hang up their Meat also before it is dress’d, till it is so very tender,