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For the Walls, they are either entire and continued, or intermitted ; and the Intermissions are either Columns or Pilasters.--Entire, or continued Walls, are variously distinguished ; by fome, according to the Quality of the Materials, as they are either Stone, Brick, &c. others only consider the Position of the Materials; as when Brick, or square Stones, are laid in their Lengths, with Sides and Heads together, or the Points conjoined, like a Network, &c.
The great Laws of Muring, are, that the Walls stand perpendicular to the Ground-work; the right Angle being the Cause of all Stability: that the maffieft and heavieft Materials be lowest, as fitter to bear than to be born; that the Work diminish in Thickness, as it rises ; both for Ease of Weight and Expence: that certain Courses, or Ledges, of more Strength than the rest, be interlaid, like Bones, to sustain the Fabric from total Ruin, if the under Parts chance to decay : and lastly, that the Angles be firmly bound; these being the Nerves of the whole Fabric, and commonly fortified, by the Italians, on each Side the Corners, even in Brick Buildings, with squared Stones; which add both Beauty and Strength.
The Intermissions, as before observed, are either Columns or Pilasters: whereof there are five Orders, viz. Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Composite;, each of which is delineated on the Plate annexed.
Columns and Pilasters are frequently, both for Beauty and Majesty, formed archwise.
For the Apertures, they are either Doors, Windows, Staircases, Chimneys, or Conduits for the Suillage, &c. Only with regard to the last, it may be observed, that Art should imitate Nature in these ignoble Conveyances, and separate them from Sight, where a running Water is wanting, into the most remote, lowest and thicket Part of the Foundation ; with fecret Vents, paffing up through the Walls like Tunnels to the open Air ; which the Italians all commend for the Discharge of noisome Vapours:
For the Compartition, or Distribution of the Ground-plot into Apartments, &c. Sir H. Wotton lays down these Preliminaries; that the Architect never fix his Fancy on a Paper-draught, how exactly foever set off in Perspective; much less on a mere Plan, without a Model, or Type of the whole Structure, and every Part thereof, in Pastboard or Wood; that this Model be as plain and unadorned as poflible, to prevent the Eye's being imposed on; and that the bigger this Model, the better.
In the Compartition itself, there are two general Views, viz. the Gracefulness, and Usefulness of the Distribution, for Rooms of Office and Entertaininent; as far as the Capacity thereof, and the Nature of the Country will allow. The Gracefulness will consist in a double Analogy, or Correspondency; first, between the Parts and the Whole, whereby a large Fabric should have large Partitions, Entrances, Doors, Columns, and in brief, all the Members large : the second, between the Parts themselves, with regard to Length, Breadth, and Height. The Ancients determined the Length of their Rooms, that they were to be Ohlongs, by double their Breadth ; and the Height by half their Breadth and Length added together. When the Room was to be precisely square, they made the Height half as much inore as the Breadth : which Rules, the Moderns take occafion to difpense with ; sometimes squaring the Breadth, and making the Diagonal thereof the Measure of the Height; and sometimes more. This Deviating from the Rules of the Ancients, is afcribed to M. Angelo.
The second Confideration in the Compartition, is the Usefulness ; which consists in the having a sufficient Number of Rooms of all kinds, with their proper Communications, and without Distraction. Here the chief Difficulty will lie in the Lights and Stair-cales: the Ancients were pretty easy on both those Heads, having generally two cloistered open Courts, one for the Womens Side, the other for the Men: thus the Reception of Light into the Body of the Building was easy; which among us must be supplied, either by the open Form of the Building, or by graceful Refuges or Breaks, by terrassing a Story in danger of Darkness, and by Abajours, or Sky-lights. - For casting the Stair-cases, it may be observed, that the Italians frequently diftribute the Kitchen, Pake-house, Buttery, &c. under Ground, next above the Foundation, and sometimes level with the Floor of the Cellar; raising the first Ascent into the House fifteen Feet or more: which, beside the removing Annoyances out of the Sight, and gaining so much room above, does, by elevating the Front, add a Majesty to the Whole. Indeed, Sir H. Wotton obferves, that in England the natural Hospitality thereof will not allow the Buttery to be so far out of light; befides, that a more luminous Kitchen, and a shorter Distance between that and the Dining-room are required, than that Compartition will well bear.
În the Distribution of Lodging-rooms, it is a popular and ancient Fault, especially among the Italians, to cast the Partitions fo, as when the Doors are all open, a Man may see
through the whole House; grounded on the Ambition of shewing a Stranger all the Furniture at once : an intolerable Hardship on all the Chambers except the inmost, where none can arrive but through all the rest, unless the Walls be extreme thick for secret Passages: nor will this serve the Turn, without at least three Doors to each Chamber ; a thing inexcusable, except in hot Countries : besides it being a Weakening to the Building, and the Necessity it occasions of making as many common great Rooms as there are Stories, which devours a great deal of room, better employed in places of Retreat; and must likewise be dark, as running through the Middle of the House.
In the Compartition, the Architect will have occasion for frequent Shifts; through which his own Sagacity, more than any Rules, must conduct him. Thus he will be frequently put to struggle with Scarcity of Ground; sometimes to damn one Room for the Benefit of the rest, as to hide a Buttery under a Stair-cafe, &c. at other times, to make those the most beautiful which are most in Sight: and to leave the rest, like a Painter, in the Shadow, &c.
For the Covering of the Building ; this is the last in the Execution, but the first in the Intention ; for who would build, but to shelter? In the Covering, or Roof, there are two Extremes to be avoided, the making it too heavy or too light: the first will press too much on the Underwork; the latter has a more secret Inconvenience; for the Cover is not only a bare Defence, but a Band or Ligature to the whole Building; and there requires a reasonable Weight. Indeed, of the two Extremes, a House Top-heavy is the worst. Care is likewise to be taken, the Pressure be equal on each side; and Palladio wishes, that the whole Burden might not be laid on the outward Walls, but that the inner likewise bear their Share.The Italians are very curious in the Proportion and Gracefulness of the Pent or Slopeness of the Roof; dividing the whole Breadth into nine Parts, whereof two serve for the Height of the highest Top or Ridge from the lowest: but in this point, Regard must be had to the Quality of the Region; for, as Palladio insinuates, those Climates which fear the falling of much Snow, ought to have more inclining Pentices than others.
Thus much for the principal or essential Part of a Building. -For the Accessories, or Ornaments, they are fetched from Painting and Sculpture. The chief Things to be regarded in the first, are, that no Room have too much, which will occasion a Surfeit; except in Galleries, or the like: that the best Pieces be placed where there are the fewest Lights: Rooms with several Windows are Enemies to Painters, nor can any Pictures be seen in Perfection, unless illumined, like Nature, with a single Light : that in the Disposition Regard be had to the Posture of the Painter in working, which is the most natural for the Posture of the Spectator; and that they be accommodated to the Intentions of the Room they are used in. For Sculpture, it must be observed, that it be not too abundant; especially at the first Approach of a Building, or at the Entrance, where a Doric Ornament is much preferable to a Corinthian one that the Niches, if they contain Figures of white Stone, be not coloured in their Concavity too black, but rather dusky; the Sight being displeased with too sudden Departures from one Extreme to another. That fine Sculptures have the Advantage of Nearness, and coarser of Diftance, and that in placing of Figures aloft, they be reclined a little forwards : because, the visual Ray extended to the Head of the Figure, is longer than that reaching to its Feet, which will of Necessity make that Part appear further off; fo that to reduce it to an erect Pofture, it must be made to stoop a little forwards. M. Le Clerc, however, will not allow of this Resupination, but will have every Part in its just Perpendicular.
As to the Stone and Stucco, used in Buildings, which are fresh and white at first, and are commonly supposed to be dilcoloured with the Air, Smoke, & c. the true Cause thereof is, that they become covered with a minute Species of Plants, which alter their Colour. A sort of Lichens yellowish, brownish, or greenish, which commonly grow on the Barks of Trees, do grow also on Stones, Mortar, Plaister, and even on the Slates of Houses, being propagated by little light Seeds, dispersed by the Wind, Rain, &c. The best Preservative known, is a Coal of Lime.
To judge of a Building, Sir H. Wotton lays down the following Rules. That before fixing any Judgment, a Person be informed of its Age; since, if apparent Decays be found to exceed the Proportion of Time, it may be concluded, without farther Inquisition, either that the Situation is naught, or the Materials or Workmaníhip too flight.- If it be found to bear its Years well, let him run back, from the Ornaments and Things which strike the Eye first, to the more effential Members; till he be able to form a Conclusion, that the Work is commodious, firm, and delightful; the three Conditions, in a good Building, laid down at first, and agreed on by all Authors.—This, our Author esteems the most scientifical way of judging
Vasjari proposes another ; viz. by passing a running Examination over the whole Edifice, compared to the Structure of a well-made Man: as whether the Walls stand upright upon a clean Footing and Foundation; whether the Building be of a beautiful Stature ; whether, for the Breadth, it appear well burnished; whether the principal Entrance be on the middle Line of the Front, or Face, like our Mouths; the Windows, as our Eyes, set in equal Number and Distance on both sides; the Offices, like the Veins, usefully distributed, &c.
Vitruvius gives a third Method of judging: fumming up the whole Art under these fix Heads : Ordination, or settling the Model and Scale of the Work; Disposition, the just Expression of the first Design thereof; (which two Sir H. Wotton thinks he might have spared, as belonging rather to the Artificer than the Censurer:) Eurythmy, the agreeable Harmony between the Length, Breadth and Height of the several Rooms, Gi. Symmetry, or the Agreement between the Parts and the Whole; Decor, the due Relation between the Building and the Inhabitant, whence Palladis concludes, the principal Entrance ought never to be limited by any Rule, but the Dignity and Generofity of the Master. And lastly, Distribution, the useful casting of the several Rooms, for Office, Entertainment, or Pleasure. These last four are ever to be run over, ere a Man may pass any determinate Censure: and these alone, Sir Henry observes, are sufficient to condemn or acquit any building whatever.
Dr. Fuller gives us two or three good Aphorisms in Build. ing; as,-1°. Let not the common Rooms be several, nor the several Rooms common : i. e. the common Rooms not to be private or retired, as the Hall, Galleries, &c. which are to be open ; and the Chambers, &c. to be retired. -2°. A House had better be too little for a Day, than too big for a Year. Houses therefore to be proportioned to ordinary Occasions, not extraordinary.—3". Country-houses must be Substantives, able to stand of themselves: not like City Buildings, supported and fheltered on each side by their Neighbours.--4". Let not the Front look asquint on a Stranger; but accost him right, at
s Entrance - 5o. Let the Offices keep their due Distance om the Manfion-house; those are too familiar, which are the same pile with it.
The Plan or Projection of an Edifice is commonly laid down on three several Draughts.
The first is a Plan, which exhibits the Extent, Division, and Distribution of the Ground into the various Apartments and other Conveniencies proposed,