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to express their Character ; when he calls the Tuscan, the gigantic ; the Doric, the Herculean ; the Ionic, the matronal; the Composite, the heroic; and the Corinthian, the

virginal. To give a general Idea of the Orders; it must be observed, that the whole of each Order is composed of two Parts at the least, viz. the Column and Entablature; and of four Parts at the most, when there is a Pedestal under the Column, and an Acroter, or little Pedestal, atop of the Entablature : that the Column has three Parts, viz. the Base, the Shaft, and the Capital; the Entablature has three likewise, viz. the Architrave, the Frieze, and Cornice : which Parts are all different in the several Orders.

Tuscan Order is the first, most simple, and solid : its Column is seven Diameters high ; and its Capital, Base, and Entablature, have but few Mouldings, or Ornaments. See the Plate Fig. 1.

Doric Order, is the second, and the most agreeable to Nature. It has no Ornament on its Base, or in its Capital. Its Height is eight Diameters. Its Frieze is divided by Triglyphs and Metopes. See the Plate Fig. 2.

Ionic Order is the third ; and a kind of mean Proportional between the solid, and delicate Manner. Its Capital is adorned with Volutes, and its Cornicc with Denticles. See the Plate Fig. 3.

Mich. Angelo, contrary to all other Authors, gives the lonic a single Row of Leaves at the Bottom of the Capital.

Corinthian Order, invented by Callimachus, is the fourth, the richest, and most delicate. Its Capital is adorned with two Rows of Leaves, and eight Volutes, which fustain the Abacus. Its Column is ten Diameters high, and its Carnice has Modillions. See the Plate Fig. 4.

Composite Order, the fifth and last, (though Scamozzi and Le Clerc make it the fourth) is so called, because its Capital is composed out of those of the other Orders ; having the two Rows of Leaves of the Corinthian, and the Volutes of the Ionis. It is also called the Roman, because invented

among that people. Its Column is ten Diameters high ; and its Cornice has Denticles, or simple Modillions. See the Plate

Fig. 5.

There are several Arts fubfervient to Architecture, as Carpentry, Masonry, Paving, Joinery, Smithery, Glaziery, Plumbery, Plastering, Gilding, Painting, &c.

In Building there are three Things chiefy in View, viz. Conveniency, Firmness, and Delight.-To attain these Ends,


Sir Henry Wotton considers the whole Subject under two Heads, viz. the Seat or Situation, and the Work or Structure.

For the Situation of a Building, either that the Whole is to be considered, or that of its Parts. As to the first, regard is to be had to the Quality, Temperature, and Salubrity of the Air; the Conveniency of Water, Fuel, Carriage, & c. and the Agreeableness of the Prospect.

For the second, the chief Rooms, Studies, Libraries, &c. are to lie towards the East: Offices that require Heat, as Kitchens, Distillatories, Brew-houses, &c. to the South : those that require a cool fresh Air, as Cellars, Pantries, Granaries, &c. to the North : as also Galleries for Painting, Museums, &c. which require a steady Light.--He adds, that the ancient Greeks and Romans generally situated the Front of their Houses to the South: but that modern Italians vary from this Rule.--Indeed, in this Matter, Regard must still be had to the Country; each being obliged to provide against its respective Inconveniencies : so that a good Parlour in Egypt, might make a good Cellar in England. - The Situation being fixed on, the next thing to be considered is the

Work or Structure of the BUILDING, under which come first the principal Parts, then the Accessories, or Ornaments.

To the Principals, belong first, the Materials; then the Form, or Disposition.

The Materials of a BUILDING, are either Stone, as Marble, Free-stone, Brick for the Walls, &c. or Wood, as Firr, Cypress, Cedar, for Posts and Pillars of upright Use ; Oak for Beams, Summers, and for joining and Connection.

For the Form or Disposition of a BUILDING, it must either : be fimple or mixed.The simple Forms are either circular or angular : and the circular ones are either compleat, as just Spheres; or deficient, as Ovals.

The circular Form is very commodious, of the greatest Capacity of any; strong, durable beyond the rest, and very beautiful, but then it is found of all others the most chargeable; much Room is lost in the Bending of the Walls, when it comes to be divided ; besides an ill Distribution of Light, except from the Center of the Roof: on these Confiderations it was, that the Ancients only used the circular Form in Temples and Amphitheaters, which needed no Compartition.-Oval Forms have the same Inconveniencies, without the same Conveniencies; being of less Capacity.

For angular Figures, Sir Henry Totton observes, that Building neither loves many, nor few Angles: the Triangle, v. gr. is condemned above all others, as wanting Capacity and Firmncis; as also, because irresolvable into any other re


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gular Figure in the inward Partitions, besides its own.-For Figures of five, fix, seven, or more Angles, they are fitter for Fortifications than civil Buildings. There is, indeed, a celebrated Building of Vignola, at Caprarola, in Form of a Pentagon ; but the Architect had prodigious Difficulties to grapple with, in disposing the Lights, and saving the Vacuities. Such Buildings then, leem rather for Curiosity than Conveniency: and for this Reason, Rectangles are pitched on, as being a Medium between the two Extremes. But again, whether the Rectangle is to be just a Square or an Oblong, is disputed ? Sir Henry Wotton prefers the latter, provided the Length do not exceed the Breadth by above one third.

Mixed Figures, partly circular and partly angular, may be judged of from the Rules of the simple ones; only they have this particular Defect, that they offend against 'Uniformity. Indeed Uniformity and Variety may seem to be opposite to each other: But Sir H. Wotton obferves, they may be reconciled; and for an Instance, mentions the Structure of the human Body where both meet.—Thus much for the first grand Division, viz. the Whole of a Building.

The Paris of a BUILDING; Baptista Alberti comprises under five Heads, viz. the Foundation, Walls, Apertures, Compartition, and Gover.

For the Foundation, to examine its Firmness, Vitruvius orders the Ground to be dug up; an apparent Solidity not to be trusted to, unless the whole Mould cut through be found folid: he does not indeed limit the Depth of the Digging ; Palladio limits it to a sixth Part of the Height of the Building: this Sir Henry Wotton calls the natural Foundation, whereon is to stand the Substruction, or Ground-work, to support the Walls, which he calls the artificial Foundation : this then is to be the Level; its lowest Ledge, or Row, of Stone only, close laid with Mortar, and the broader the better ; at the least, twice as broad as the Wall: lastly, some add, that the Materials below should be laid just as they grow in the Quarry; as supposing them to have the greatest Strength in their natural Posture. De Lorme enforces this, by observing, that the breaking or yielding of a Stone in this part, but the Breadth of the back of a Knife, will make a Cleft of above half a Foot in the Fabric above.-For Pallification, or piling the GroundPlot, so much commended by Vitruvius, we say nothing ; that being required only in a moist marshy Ground, which should never be chosen : nor perhaps are there any Instances of this Kind, where it was not Necessity that drove them to it. VOL. I.


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