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once established, the great advantages of the practice of the neighbourhood. The the new market will soon be made mani. sale of these small wares is not effected fest.
without protracted negotiations, torrents I wonder what the effect of such a of chaff, and so much wild vociferation change will be on the manners and cus- (richly garnished with potent adjectives), toms of the whilom frequenters of Billings-. that the exhausted purchasers are often regate! Will the refining and elevating in- duced to the necessity of making straight fluence of an Italian Gothic building do for the nearest public - house, then and aught to remove that singular loudness of there to recruit their exhausted energies tongue and asperity of manner for which with “a drain.” Numerous idlers are Billingsgate is justly notorious ? Will vouchsafing the sanction of their prethat fine old vernacular, rich in exple- sence-members, mostly, of that mystetives, apt for repartee, become, like ancient rious class defined in the police-sheet as Cornish, one of the lost tongues? Will labourers—labourers who, most probably, the rough tongue of the ancient dweller have been out of work for the last twenty in the fish market wax smooth and soft, years or thereabouts. under the shadow of Mr. Darbyshire's One of a group clustered on the pathairy spires and graceful arches ? It will way outside a public-house near this market afford an interesting study for Professor once gave the writer a wondrous surprise. Max Müller to watch the gradual softening This ill-favoured loafer detached himself of the coarser oaths at present in use to the from his “pals," and followed me through mild or Mantalini style of execration, and, all my peregrinations among butchers' finally, to note the entire extinction of shops and toffy stalls, till I began to weary
cussin" generally, thanks to the happy of his undesirable attention. When I application of æsthetic architecture. stopped to observe a knot of old women
In Church - street, Marylebone, over haggling over a shawl, and handling that against the Marylebone, or Royal Alfred rather tender garment so roughly as to Theatre, is held on Fridays, not the largest, render imminent an immediate solution of but certainly the most miscellaneous mar- continuity, he stopped also. While I was ket in London. Such a wonderful om- attentively considering the singing-birds, nium gatherum of all imaginable articles he was attentively considering me. Having necessary or unnecessary, useful or per- up to the moment of writing escaped innicious, does not exist within the bounds carceration for any penal offence, I was at of our wide metropolis.
a loss to imagine where I could have met Provender for man and beast-sweet- my too persistent follower—he haunted me smelling hay and prime marbled wing-ribs like a very ill-looking shadow, and pursued of beef, second-hand clothes and saddles me even along Church-street itself. Reof mutton, Cheshire cheese and rusty iron- solved to shake him off
, I quickened my mongery, crisp, curly savoys and blonde pace, and suddenly missed my escort-he chignons, mellow pears and second-hand had disappeared—not into a gin-shop, but stew pans, white-hearted celery and black a bookseller's. He presently emerged with American or pink Chinese radishes, water- a paper in his hand, and walked rapidly cresses and fireworks, humming-tops, ripe away. Mechanically I felt my pocketsapples, bows and arrows and blacking, conscious as I was of their emptiness, and rump-steaks, needles, and fire-irons, candles then, being suddenly attacked with a fit and crockery, fresh butter and the last of curiosity, plunged into the bookseller's popular ballad, hoop-skirts, eggs and arti- and inquired what work my burglariousficial flowers, boots, bulbs, and piping looking friend had purchased. It was The bullfinches, hot sausages and pea-jackets, Christian Year! pens, paper, envelopes, and hair brushes, virgin vinegar and vermin-destroyer, quaint beer jugs, green broom, wooden skewers,
TAKEN ON TRIAL. looking-glasses, chickweed and groundsel for your singing-birds, chairs and Any one who has once passed through the corduroys, pigeons and potatoes, geese, principal streets of Southampton need have green sage and ropes of onions, mutton no difficulty in predicting the style of perpies and Dundee marmalade, pictures and sons certain to be found therein on the pickles, tripe, trotters, and teetotal tracts occasion of his next visit.
The floating -the latter, it may be remarked, incul-population there varies daily, but it has cating principles much at variance with always the same characteristics, and it must continue to retain them, until, in the course ing Hythe and Netley, and emerging into of events, the great commercial maritime something like blue water when Calshot companies select some other port as the spot Castle is at our backs, and the glorious whence their splendid steam fleets shall be Wight before us; as we inhale the delicious despatched, where their vast stores shall be fresh air, mark the dancing waves, see the warehoused, and where the large contin verdure-clothed cliffs, and the trim villas gent of men and women of all ranks who dotted here and there amongst them; orglide are dependent on them shall be quartered quickly past the beach where the bathers, and domiciled. Until that day arrives you the sand-diggers, and the promenaders can shall continue, even in the short time oc- be discovered engaged in their holiday cupied by your transit from the railway to pastime, we begin to think that there may the docks, to meet with brown-faced ayahs be in life even a greater pleasure than shivering with the cold, and staring wildly drawing legal deeds, there may be in Engabout them; with blonde, blue-bloused land a more picturesque spot than BrickTeutons, with their frousy wives and dirty court, Temple. All the Londoners present children, emigrating to America, as deck seem to be of similar opinion. The chairpassengers, in one of the steamers of the man of the company, whenever he is not North German line; with jabbering Jew engaged in courteously attending to his slop-sellers, jewellers, outfitters, and pawn- guests, seems bent upon inhaling through brokers, who, if one may judge from the mouth and nostrils every possible particle of number of Hebraic names, more or less health-giving ozone. The directors, stern, disguised, to be met with throughout the unbending men of business in the City, town, must do a large business in South- pillars of the Stock Exchange, fathers of ampton. Nor will you fail to find many Lloyd's, elder brothers of the Trinity House, officers of the commercial marine, stalwart, have put on wideawake hats which do not bronzed, and trim; many A. B.'s very much fit them, and borrowed telescopes, through décolletés, with hats so far on the back of which they see nothing but one round their heads as to give the appearance of a white disc; while some of the boldest among nimbus as seen in the old pictures of saints, them are actually smoking. The two with
very loose trousers and rolling gait; newspaper reporters who have been sent many smart yachtsmen, who are to the down "to do the trial" seem to be old sailors what all amateurs are to all pro- acquaintances of the purser, under whose fessionals, as mock turtle to real; a few auspices they are already engaged in drinksoldiers, and many loungers and loafers of ing brandy and soda-water, a process which the usual pattern. Make your way through they humourously designate as “splicing the this heterogeneous multitude, pass through mainbrace," and in talking over their recent the dockyard gates, keep clear of these and prospective engagements. The rest rolling tubs, which are viscous and sticky, of the company are dispersed about, some and probably full of palm-oil just brought sitting under the awning reading the mornhome from Africa, put your best foot for- ing papers; some, under the guidance of the ward and make for yon flight of steps, at officers, making a tour of inspection of the the top of which are standing some of the ship, peering into and praising the neatly friends who are about to take us on trial, appointed little sleeping-rooms (all the the trial on which we are to be taken time inwardly congratulating themselves being the trial trip of the screw steamer that they are not going to occupy them), or Hooghly, just built for the Peninsular and looking at the enormous engines, ever oscil. Oriental Company by Messrs. M'Whirter, lating, leaping forward, and drawing back, of Greenock. Salutations are exchanged, ever threatening to crush the shiny-faced, we and our fellow-passengers in the same greasy-jacketed man, who, with oil-can in carriage from London descend into a small one hand and flannel swab in the other, boat, and five minutes after pushing off walks unharmed among them, ministering from the shore, we are ascending the to their necessities and tending them as lowered gangway of the Hooghly as she though they were human creatures in whom lies in mid stream in Southampton water, he had an interest. Meanwhile, the captain, with her steam up, ready for a start. the chief engineer, the Southampton super
As the splendid ship glides through the intendent, and the Admiralty officials, are smooth water, leaving the “two friendly gathered together in a little knot on the spires of Southampton,” the sight of which bridge, and are interchanging mutual conmade Major Dobbin's heart beat so wildly gratulations, for the Hooghly has run the on his return from India, far behind, pass- measured mile at Stokes Bay at more than the average speed; her build, engines, and nine handred and ninety horse - power ; appointments are all pronounced to be first steam-tugs measuring nine hundred and class, and leaving Spithead and Portsmouth sixty-four tons and three hundred and Harbour behind us, she is steaming away thirty-three horse-power; sailing transports, for her pleasure trip round the Isle of store and coal ships, measuring five thouWight. Soon in the distance we see the sand four hundred and eighty-two tons; pier at Ryde, gay with brilliant parasols also property on shore consisting of freeand female finery, and while we are strain- hold and leasehold houses, offices, docks, ing our eyes to catch the first glimpse of wharves, coaling depôts, factories and reShanklin Chine, the word is passed round pairing establishments in this country and that dinner is ready, and the company at Bombay, Hong-Kong, Shanghai, Singagenerally adjourns below. Ah! the enor- pore, Calcutta, Point de Galle, Aden, Suez, mous joints of cold roast and boiled, the Alexandria, Malta, and other places; and meat pie, manufactured especially by the stocks of coals, and marine, victualling, and cook of the Nubia, who happens to be on other stores in depôt and in transit to these shore, and who is such a hand at such con- stations, the whole showing a value of upfection. Ah! the curry, staple dish in the wards of three million five hundred thousand P. and 0. cuisine, with its rice so deftly pounds, as stated in the last annual report. boiled, and its sauce so cunningly con- In order that this vast amount of capital cocted, that one ceases to wonder of what may be properly applied, and to provide for animal its component parts ever formed a the due superintendence and execution of the portion! Ah! the speeches after dinner, work undertaken by the company, fourteen the parliamentary-like eloquence of the principal and subsidiary establishments chairman, the bland suavity of the govern- have to be kept up. Many of these are ment officials, and the broad Scotch accent in parts of the world unfavourable to the in which at immense length Mr. M‘Whirter health of Europeans, and the rates of rewill give details of the building of the ship. muneration to the superintendent, clerks, Then, the cigar on deck in the calm even- storekeepers, engineers, and artisans of all ing, the charming view of Alum Bay and trades are high in proportion. the Needles, and the return to Southampton At the present time the company have in time for the last train to town.
in active service: Go, my friend, but let me linger! Of
On shore : an inquisitive turn, I have been chatting Agents and super. Brought forward with the superintendent, who has given me intendents
26 European a certain amount of information about the
chanics and assistants 194 labourers
378 affairs of this company, whose guests we Native clerks
55 Native have been, and has promised to initiate
chanics Carried forward
labourers 1084 me into some of the mysteries of the manner in which its enormous organisation is satis
Total 1737 factorily managed and controlled.
Commanders Enormous organisation, truly, for the
55 Brought forward 2099 Officers
229 Carpenters Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Surgeons...
43 Company possesses a fleet far superior to Pursers
26 Quartermasters Clerks in charge
145 that of many a so-called maritime power,
Pursers' clerks 17 Able seamen undertakes and carries through successfully Engineers
253 Ordinary seamen vast contracts which government would
Boiler-makers 31 Native seamen...
European firemen 507 European stew. infallibly bungle, has, at every eastern port Native
473 of any consequence, depôts and stations,
Native stewards each manned by a large and thoroughly
Carried forward 2099
Total 5231 trustworthy staff, all dependent on the
Afloat general supervision of Leadenhall-street, and all working in one harmonious whole.
Total The amount of capital with which in shares and debentures the P. and 0. Company has The above takes no account of the coal to deal, is between three and four millions. labourers and coolies employed at various Its property consists of a fleet of steam- stations in coaling operations. ships forty-six in number, measuring by The consumption of coal necessarily Customs register one hundred and two forms a conspicuous item in the company's thousand seven hundred and three tons, and accounts. A return extending over ten fitted with machinery of nineteen thousand years, 1856 to 1865, both inclusive, showed
470 277 1387
that the enormous sum of five millions and expended from September, 1864, to the same a quarter was paid for fuel only during month in 1865, we find a total in weight that period, or on the average five hun- of fourteen million six hundred and two dred and twenty-five thousand pounds thousand five hundred and fourteen pounds. per annum.
It must be remembered that of this total, bread, flour, &c., represented the tendency of price during the last few one million two hundred and sixty-two years has been, and is still, to advance, and thousand four hundred and eighty-one that coal deteriorates very much in hot pounds, vegetables two millions five climates, where, as stated by a competent hundred and ninety-three thousand three witness, “it is very difficult to keep it so hundred and ninety-seven pounds, and ice useful and so good, and it must be calcu- three millions forty-six thousand and four lated that we require one-fourth more coal pounds. This last item is one which to do the same quantity of work.” An demands special mention. Of ice, the average number of one hundred and company now consumes between fourteen seventy sailing ships is engaged annually in and fifteen hundred tons per annum, conveying coal to the company's stations. costing in manufacture or by purchase
The commissariat is another department between seven and eight thousand pounds. which has to be anxiously looked after, Twenty years ago this luxury was not and which, more than any other, affords a looked for on board ship, and the Indian fertile source of complaint. The manner passenger would gladly have paid liberally in which a ship should be handled is a for a supply. He now expects his cool technical matter, and there is probably not beverage as a matter of course, and the one in a thousand of the company's pas- 1 exhaustion of the ice-house, on a voyage, is sengers in a position to comment upon the made a matter of grievous complaint. seamanship displayed by the captain or the Going back to our summary we find that
But there is no outgoing“ griff," during the year we have quoted the conno home returning “Qui-hi,” who does sumption of wines, spirits, beer, &c., was not feel himself not merely competent to one million three hundred and one thousand judge of, but bound to find fault with, the six hundred and eight bottles. Of these food placed before him, and who complains beverages, pale ale was by far the most most bitterly if on board ship he does not popular, the consumption being five hunmeet with all the delicacies of the season, dred and twenty-four thousand two hunjust as they would be served to him at dred and fifty bottles; then came porter, the “Rag,” in London, or the Byculla one hundred and sixty-six thousand one Club in Bombay. One of the greatest dif- hundred and nine bottles ; soda-water, one ficulties in providing a proper commissariat hundred and thirty-two thousand four hunarises in the immense length of the com- dred and twenty-eight bottles ; claret, one pany's lines. A steamer leaving South hundred and twenty-three thousand and ampton for Alexandria can take in live and fifty-nine bottles; sherry, one hundred and dead stock, poultry, fish, &c., of the best two thousand seven hundred and eleven quality, and passengers will be struck with bottles. In the same year nearly six hunthe style of table which a clever purser, dred oxen, one thousand four hundred assisted by good cooks and experienced sheep, four hundred pigs, and one hundred stewards, is able to keep. But on the other and seventy thousand head of poultry, were side of the Isthmus of Suez, three-fourths sacrificed for the consumption of the comof the stores have to be sent from England pany. and kept in depôt before they are issued to Although the head-quarters of the Peninthe steamers. *Live stock (sheep excepted) sular and Oriental Company are, and have and poultry are very inferior, and passen- been, since its establishment thirty years gers whose appetites have been destroyed ago, situate in London, the focus of its by many years residence in the tropics, are business may be said to be at Southampton. scarcely to be tempted even by the best of There its steamers arrive, and thence they preserved meats, fish, and vegetables. It depart; there are its stores, warehouses, artiwill scarcely be believed that by the P. and sans' shops, and depôts for the heterogene0. Company alone upwards of ten thousand ous mass of articles with which its stations persons are fed daily on board ship, but throughout the eastern hemisphere have to when that is taken into account, the enor- be supplied. Under the guidance of the mous amounts included in their annual superintendent I go through these various summary of stores will not appear ex. establishments, which are situate in the cessive. Under the head of general stores, immediate vicinity of the docks, and am made acquainted with the manner of their stitched, and fitted. Next to the pattern organisation and administration.
And, shop, where are the gauges for the differ"first, we are taken to the linen stores, ent ships, templets, paddle-centres, valves, through which all linen, whether new or serving mallets, teeth for cog-wheels, and old, belonging to the company, must pass fire-bars of all sizes. But it is in the marinebefore it is sent out to the ships. New store shop, which we visit next, that we linen, coming straight from the manufac- find the most miscellaneous collection. turer, towels, pillow-cases, sheets, table. Here are immense rolls of canvas, stocks cloths, and napkins are all sent here to be of fire-irons, enormous coils of fire-hose, stamped with the company's well-known thousands of gallons of paint, kettle-handles, cipher (the rising sun with the “Quis se knobs, spouts, and ears, barometers, sheetparabit” motto), a process which is so glass, grindstones, handspikes, curtain-rings effectually performed that even when the and rods, hammocks, disinfecting fluid, ink has worn away the mark of the stamp emery-powder, mops, oars, torches, rat-traps, still remains. Then, tied up in bundles, it mast-head and bull's-eye lamps, draweris sent down the lift into the carts ex- knobs, ropes and hawsers of all sizes, pigpecting it in the yard below, and carried to iron in hundredweights, locks in hundreds, Shirley, a village a few miles off. Returned nails in thousands, all kinds of bunting and thence duly washed, the linen is placed in special flags, cork fenders, lamp-wicks, and the drying-room, where it is thoroughly a curious composition known as “soojee aired by means of the hot-water pipes with muttee.” When a ship arrives in harbour, which the apartment is permeated, and application for whatever she wants is made thence distributed to the ships from which to the marine-store shop, whence it is issued application for it has been received. Here over the counter, after being subjected to in this linen-room things are on a no less a double system of check and countergigantic scale than in the other portions check. And it is a noticeable portion of of the establishment. The superintendent the plan in operation here, that none of showed me an estimate of the quantities the packages in which articles of whatever of material, linen, calico, huckaback, &c., kind are originally supplied to the P. and which would be required during the coming 0. Company are retained by them. They year to supply the foreign agencies, and are sent back whence they came, and are five new ships, and the amount was close returned re-filled. This is advantageous upon one hundred and thirty-three thou- to both parties, the company not having to sand yards. When a ship arrives in port, all provide space for use of lumber, and the its linen is at once sent to the store, where suppliers having constantly renewed use of it is opened and examined, to see what their property. repairing is required. There are three or In addition to what I have already menfour women always employed in darning, tioned, there are pursers' supply stores, and nearly a score in hemming and pre- where are to be found in stock all the paring the new linen for the ships. It is glass and china, knives and forks, cruets, done up in bundles, two hundred and fifty together with oats, barley, bran, peas, preof each article in every bundle, and stored served meats, soups, &c., for the ships' away in an enormous closet fitted with supply; the joiners' shop, where are manuracks. Here I was shown two thousand factured the towel-borses, the bed-posts, table-napkins, which had just arrived from the chairs, staircase rails, &c.; the painters' Dunfermline, whence the table-linen is shops where they are painted and varnished; generally procured, the blankets and sheets the bonded warehouse, where are stored the coming from London. Now to the up- wines and spirits, the tea and sugar, in holsterers' store, where ten men and several bond; the cooperage and bottling esta
are constantly at work. Here blishment, and the sail-loft, where several are made up all the beds and the cabin old tars, who have spent the best part of sofas, the wool pinned and carded, the their lives in the company's service, are sofas stuffed with horsehair prepared at to be found mending the sails which their the company's own manufactory. Old successors are to handle. Throughout the sofas and beds are sent here to be pulled whole length and breadth of the establishto pieces and cleaned. New carpets and ment one cannot fail to be impressed with curtains (all carpets, curtains, stuffs, &c., the admirable system which prevails, and come from London, from certain houses, which seems to insure a maximum of and at certain prices, 'and are all of the result with a minimum of discomfort to same pattern) are sent here to be hemmed, those by whom the work is performed.