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with only a scarf or shawl lightly protect- cannot be prevailed upon to sit either to ing their fair shoulders. Doña Mer- an artist or to a photographer. Whenever cedes looks charming in a pink grenadine the subject is broached by me, El Rey del dress, and with her luxuriant black hair Orden grins, shakes his head knowingly, tastefully arranged, as a Cuban señora and observes, in the only English with alone knows how. Each lady adopts her which he is conversant: most insinuating manner in order to dis- "Oh ye-s; vary vel, no good, good pose of her twisted tickets, the greater mornin'.' portion of which contain, of course, blanks, Pancho is a genuine white man, but age or a consolatory couplet like a motto in a and exposure to the sun and wind have cracker, for the gratification of the un- bronzed him to a mulatto colour. He has successful purchaser. There is loud cheer- a picturesque Saint Francis beard, and a ing when a prize is drawn, especially if benign, strongly marked countenance. He it happen to be of importance, like the wears a coat of many shaded cloths, which, 'grand prize," which consists of a prettily buttoned up to his neck, gives him a miliworked purse containing six golden onzas tary appearance, while it economises his (twenty pounds sterling).
linen. Upon his head is a tall beaver hat, Crowds of beggars are assembled within which has seen better days, but which the range of the plaza, and some of them occa- Order King is careful to keep well brushed. sionally invest in a medio or peseta's worth | Pancho is slightly crazed in his intellect, of tickets, but as coloured people are never and his monomania consists in the belief permitted to mix with white folk in public, that he is not a beggar, but a benefactor their tickets are handed to them by officials to his country. With this notion, no perappointed for that purpose. Some of those suasion will induce him to accept a donablacks are
retired" slaves : in other tion in the shape of coin. Those who are words, negroes who have become free, acquainted with Pancho's weakness, and either by devoting their savings of many are desirous of relieving his wants, must years to the purchase of their liberty, or do so through the medium of stratagem. by having the latter left them as a legacy If they succeed in imposing upon El Rey by an indulgent master. Those who have del Orden by prevailing upon him to ability and industry make the most of their “ borrow” food or raiment, they consider precious gift by devoting their energies themselves amply rewarded for their act to trade or to music, for which accomplish- of charity. The only article which the ment negroes have often a natural inclina- King of Order will deign to accept is foolstion; but the infirm or the inactive—and of cap writing-paper, because he believes that these there is always a majority—are re- the use to which he applies it will be beneduced to penury, in which condition they ficial to mankind in general, and to Cuba fall naturally into begging ways, and pros- in particular. He fills his foolscap with per accordingly.
correspondence, which he addresses to the That intelligent-looking black who craves highest authorities; the favoured recipients of me a peseta in order to buy a small being his excellency the governor, the bundle of tickets for the raffle, is a well- alcalde mayor, and members of the town known beggar. His name is Roblejo, and council. Whenever any political or social he owes his freedom to the publication of question is raised, the Order King is sure a book of poems written by himself. As- to despatch an important document bearsisted by a benevolent littérateur, Roblejo ing his opinion and advice. His majesty was enabled to transfer his poetic lucu- is usually his own letter-carrier, unless he brations into readable form, and the novelty can meet with a trustworthy messenger in taking the public fancy, subscribers were the shape of a priest, an officer, or a policefound sufficient for the purpose of printing man. The matter contained in these mothe book, and effecting the author's eman- mentous memorials occupies from eighteen cipation.
to twenty closely written sheets, and is ""Holá, Don Pancho! How goes it with always prefaced with the imposing headthec ?" The individual whom I address ing: “Yo, el Rey” (I, the king). is probably the most popular beggar in the Pancho's indigence and infatuation have town. His real name is Pancho Villergas, a romantic origin. This old, shabby-lookbut he is com mmonly known as El Rey del ing object before me was at one time a Orden (the Order "King). I have often well-to-do planter, and held a high position endeavoured to secure à faithful likeness among merchants. One fatal day he beof this illustrious gentleman, but Pancho came enamoured of a Creole coquette, who cruelly jilted him. The disappointment a conquered town. One of these regiments turned his brain. People attributed his was posted in Castle William (afterwards harmless insanity to eccentricity, and mer- Fort Independence), on Castle Island, chants transacted business with him as of nearly three miles south-east of Boston. old, till one heartless scoundrel, taking On the arrival of these troops the comadvantage of his misfortune, swindled him missioners, who had retired for several ont of a large sum of money, and this deed months to the castle, returned to the town, eventually led to Pancho's insolvency and as if no longer afraid of open violence. utter rnin.
The men of Boston quickly chafed
under these restraints, and complained OLD STORIES RE-TOLD.
that troops had been forced upon them
contrary to the spirit of Magna Charta “THE BOSTON MASSACRE."
and the letter of the Bill of Rights, which The natural discontent produced in forbids the raising a standing army in America by the unwise Stamp Act passed times of peace without the consent of par. in 1765, culminated in 1775 by the break- liament, and, above all, in the very face of I ing ont at Lexington of the War of In- an Act of Parliament against the quarterdependence. But the first blood actually ing of troops in America. shed in the lamentable conflict was in Unconscious of the powder magazine on March, 1770, when an affray took place which they stood, the commissioners, backed between the English soldiers and the up by the troops, now treated matters with colonists, which American historians have a high hand. Governor Bernard, without ever since dignified with the title of the consulting the council, gave up the State “ Boston Massacre." The very full details | House to the troops, who at once occupied of this collision, contained in an official re- the Merchants’ Exchange on the lower floor, port transmitted to the Duke of Richmond, and the various chambers where the reBenjamin Franklin, and various members presentatives of the province and the of the English Opposition, enable us to give courts of law held their meetings. The a very graphic picture of colonial life at council chamber alone was left to the agthe time of the outbreak of the war, and to grieved citizens. The governor, also, by show very minutely the state of irritation every means but force, endeavoured to that then prevailed in New England. occupy an old manufactory (the site of
The repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766 Hamilton - place), belonging to the prowas unfortunately followed by measures vince, as a barrack. He besieged it with that still more aggravated the oppressed soldiers, who maltreated the occupants, colonists. In 1767, five commissioners but did not obtain possession, owing to the were therefore sent out to Boston under resolute resistance of the keeper. Greatest the pretence of relieving and encouraging insult of all, he posted a main guard, with American commerce, but really to aid the two field-pieces, only twelve yards from the local government to repress all opposition. State House, as if to overawe the local The commissioners, eager to gratify the legislature. The general court, highly reministers at home, at once threw them- senting this open attempt at intimidation, selves on the side of Governor Bernard, refused to sit, and were in consequence and began by dismissing from office a adjourned to Cambridge (the well-known member of the local parliament who suburb), to the inconvenience of many opposed their views. The difficulty of members. Respectable inhabitants were access to them, and their arrogant be- vexed and insulted by the repeated chal. haviour, made the five commissioners still lenging of insolent sentinels posted in all more obnoxious to the people. In October, parts of the town at the doors of officers' 1766, at the representation of these in- lodgings. Captain Wilson, of the Eightytruders, the home government sent out ninth, had, it was generally reported, four regiments, which were landed under excited negroes to join his regiment and cover of the cannon of several vessels of desert their masters, and, as some said, war lying in the harbour with springs on urged them to cut their masters' throats their cables, and guns loaded, ready to and steal their property; but this was, no open on the town in case of resistance. doubt, exaggeration. Further irritation, The soldiers landed without molestation, however, was produced by several magisand yet marched on to the common trates being attacked by parties of soldiers, with muskets charged, bayonets fixed, and by the rescue of riotous men from the peace drums beating, as if taking possession of officers, by a musket being fired in the streets, and by frequent wounds received at a door in a passage leading from Atkinby citizens in scuffles with the strangers. son-street, called out to
the gigantic Matters could not long continue in this drummer, “You black rascal, what have way. Rough words preceded rough blows, you to do with white people's quarrels ?" and Boston mon were not the sort of people On which the drummer replied, “I to be cowed by the sight of a red coat, a suppose I may look on." cocked-hat, or a bayonet. On the 22nd Soon after this negro cut Feriter over of February, 1770, some boys appeared in the head with his cutlass. Hill, interfering the streets carrying coarsely painted cari- to save a rope-maker, who was down, and catures of the obnoxious, and, as they were being beaten with clubs by two or three generally considered, unpatriotic importers soldiers, was himself struck at. Then of British goods. A Custom House in- came a rush of more rope-makers, and the former passing by endeavoured to prevail soldiers were again driven back down the on a countryman to destroy the boy's pic- passage by the tar-kettles. tures. The man refusing, the informer The next day the soldiers were seen busy attempted himself to tear them down. A in the barracks shaping clubs, and a party mob soon collected. The informer, getting of them went to M`Neill's rope-walk, chal. violent, threatened to prosecute some of the lenged the workmen, and struck several of citizens who abused him, but the boys them, but were soon driven away. On the hustled him, and followed him to his house Monday morning Colonel Carr and some with laughter and reproaches. Angry and officers forced their way into Gray's ropealarmed, the moment he reached home he walk, declaring they were searching for a snatched up a gun and threatened the lads, sergeant of their regiment, who had been who, nothing scared, still pelted the house murdered. On Mr. Gray complaining of with snow-balls and stones. The informer, this, Colonel Carr told him he was daily frantic with rage, then fired from one of losing his men, that three grenadiers had the windows, and a poor boy of eleven fell been beaten by the rope-makers, and that dead on the pavement below. A great one of them was dying. excitement was produced among the people From many hints of the soldiers, the by this wanton act, and the funeral of “The Boston people began to foresee riot coming. young martyr in the cause of liberty," as On the next Sunday evening a soldier he was called, was attended by an immense called on Mr. Charles Thayer, a carpenter, concourse of inhabitants.
and said to Miss Thayer:
"Your brother On Friday, the 2nd of March, 1770, a is a man I have drank with, and have a swaggering soldier of the Twenty-ninth great regard for, and I came here to desire Regiment, armed with a club, came to Mr. him to keep out of harm's way, as before John Gray's rope-walks, and, looking into Tuesday night at twelve there will be a one of the windows of the long shed, great deal of blood shed, and many lives called out to a man named Feriter :
lost.” “ By - I'll have satisfaction; d- A man named Broaders the same evenme, I'm not afraid of any one in the rope- ing heard a Sergeant Daniels say in conwalks!”
versation : “ The 'soldiers won't bear the Feriter, instantly stepping out of the win- affronts of the inhabitants any longer, but dow, knocked up the bully's heels, and his resent them, and make them know their coat flying open in falling, a naked sword distance. I'd like to make the plumbs fly appeared, which a rope-maker, named about their ears, and set the town on fire Wilson, carried off as legitimate spoil. round them, and they'd know who and Soon after, the man, with eight or ten who were of a side.” comrades, returned blustering to the ware- About the same time a soldier named house, and challenged all the rope-makers Rumbly was heard swearing in Boston to to come out and fight. The warehousemen his comrades. passing the word for all the hands to come “If there's any fuss," he cried, over his up, thirteen or fourteen men, with their cups, “the grenadier company will march wouldring-sticks, soon came running, and up King-street, and if any of the inhabibeat off the soldiers. In a few minutes tants join the mob the women will be sent thirty or forty more red-coats, armed with to the castle. I've been in many a battle, clubs and cutlasses, came rushing from and I don't know but I shan't be in one Green's Barracks, headed by a tall negro here; and if I am I shall level my piece drummer, with a cutlass chained to his so as not to miss, for the blood will soon waist. A constable named Hill, standing run in the streets of Boston.”
On which a brutal soldier's wife said, young ensign ran to the barrack gate and “If there is a riot in the town, and any called to the maddened men, “Turn out, of the people are wounded, I'll put a stone and I'll stand by you. Kill them, stick in my handkerchief and beat their brains them, knock them down, run your bayonets out, and plunder the rebels.”
through them." Another day four soldiers, walking be- The officers came out, and again intertween the market and Justice Quincey's, fered, but again the ensign led the men were heard saying: “There are a great forth, sword in hand. Soon after, a party many that will eat their dinners on Mon- of soldiers came rushing from Green's day next that will not eat any on Tues- Barracks in Atkinson-street, crying, “This
is our chance," and seemed so greedy for An officer's servant on the Monday blood, that the sergeants could hardly morning was heard from an open window keep them in their ranks. A citizen telling to
say that “ he hoped he should see blood a soldier, who was flourishing a cutlass in enough spilt before morning.” A man an alley that led from Cornhill to Brattlenamed Adams going to the house of Cor- street, that it wasn't clever to carry such poral Pershall, of the Twenty-ninth Regi- a weapon in the night without it was in ment, near Quaker-lane (now Congress- a scabbard,” the ruffian swore at him, street), was desired, with great earnestness thrust his cutlass at a young man near, and by the corporal, to go home as soon as struck at him. Some lads then collecting possible to his master's house, and not at a halloo from near the Town House, venture abroad that night, for that the drove back the clump of soldiers to the soldiers were determined to be revenged barracks. A few moments after, however, on the rope-walk people, and much mis- more of the English poured out with cutchief would be done.
lasses, clubs, tongs, bayonets, and shovels, It was evident that the soldiers were crying, “Where are the Yankees!” determined to drive the citizens to retalia- One of the soldiers being knocked down by tion, and then to take a cruel and desperate a citizen whom he threatened, struck the revenge. About nine o'clock on Monday, man, and broke his wrist. Near the Liberty the 5th of March, large parties of riotous Tree, also, several citizens were hustled and soldiers came pouring out of Murray's struck by the soldiers. A citizen named Barracks in Brattle-street (the site of the Appleton, standing at his own door in CornCity Tavern) armed with large naked cut- hill talking with Deacon Marsh, with diffilasses, and, on some boys shouting, began culty saved himself and friend from the cutting and slashing at everybody that soldiers' cutlasses. Soon after, Appleton's came in their way, and also stabbed at son, a boy of twelve, came running in, pale several inoffensive persons with their and scared, and said that he had just met bayonets.
A sailor" named Atwood, of some soldiers with drawn cntlasses. One Welfleet, seeing this, went up to a party of them struck at him, upon which he of the ruffianly soldiers and asked them cried, “ Pray, soldier, save my life.” The if they intended to murder people.
soldier replied, “No,
you! I will kill -" they cried, * root and you all,” and struck him down; but provibranch-here is one of them.” At the dentially the sword glanced on the boy's same time three of the soldiers struck the arm, and he was only bruised. man with clubs, and partly disabled him. A A serious conflict between the soldiers few steps off, meeting two officers, Atwood and the people was now inevitable, and it said, "Gentlemen, what is the matter?” soon took place. An apprentice named They replied, “You will see by-and- Broaders, on his way with a barber's lad
Soon after he heard a cry at an to an apothecary's, began talking to the officer's door, “Turn out the guards !" and sentinel at the Custom House steps. The the soldiers were shouting, “Where are barber's boy called out to the soldier that the cowards ! where are your liberty a captain of the Fourteenth, then passboys!"
ing, was so mean a fellow as not to pay Two officers came out of Murray's his barber for shaving him. Upon this the Barracks as the soldiers were rushing sentry, in a rage, left his post, and followthrough Boylston's-alley into Cornhill, and ing the boy into the middle of the street,
My lads, come into the told him to sho him face. The boy barracks, and do not hurt the inhabitants.” replied saucily, “I am not afraid to show But the moment the two officers had re- my face to any man.” Upon this the tired into the mess-house a hot-headed sentry gave him a sweeping blow on the
said to the men,
head with his musket, which made him bystanders, afterwards taken down by the reel, stagger, and scream. Broaders, en- Boston justices. raged at this cruelty, asked the sentry what William Wyat, of Salem, coaster, dehe meant by this. The soldier replied, posed: “ Then the said officer retired from “Your blood ; if you don't get out of the before the soldiers, and, stepping behind way,
I will give you something." And them, towards the right wing, bid the then fixing his bayonet, made a drive at soldiers fire; they not firing, he presently the lads, who both ran away. A crowd again bid 'em fire. Then the second presently collected, and more soldiers came man on the left wing fired off his gun; running up. Thirty or forty boys and then, after a very short pause, they fired youngsters then assembled round the Cus- one after another, as quick as possible, tom House, gave three cheers, began to beginning on the right wing; the last throw snow-balls at the sentinel, and told man's gun on the left wing flashed in the him to fire if he dare. The sentinel then pan; then he primed again, and the people went up the steps of the Custom House, being withdrawn from before the soldiers, loaded his piece, and first striking the butt most of them further down the street, he of it on the steps, presented it several times turned his gun toward them, and fired at the people, who were now only about ten upon them. Immediately after the prin. feet off. A man named Knox, who had cipal firing, I saw three of the people fall crossed from the Royal Exchange to Quaker- down in the street; presently, after the last lane, seeing the sentry snap his piece, told gun was fired off, the said officer, who had him if he fired he would be killed. The commanded the soldiers (as above) to fire, sentry growled out that he did not care, and sprung before them, waving his sword or if any one touched him he would fire. The stick, said, “Damn ye, rascals! what did boys shouted again, “ Fire and be —-" In ye fire for?' and struck up
of one the mean time the fire-bell had begun to of the soldiers, who was loading again, ring, and was rousing the mob who had whereupon they seemed confounded, and been fighting with the soldiers near Justice fired no more. I then went up behind Quincey's. The crowd then drawing nearer them to the right wing, where one of tho the sentinel, he knocked at the Custom people was lying, to see whether he was House door, and spoke to a servant who dead, where there were four or five people came out without a hat, his hair tied and about him, one of them saying he was dead. hanging down loose.
And I remember, as the said officer was The last fatal act of the tragedy was fast going down with the soldiers towards the approaching. In about five minutes a party Custom House, a gentleman spoke to him, of seven or eight soldiers, headed by a and said, 'Captain Preston, for God's sake Captain Preston, came from the main guard keep your men in order, and mind what directly through the crowd with loaded you are about.' And further I say not." muskets and fixed bayonets, pushing A man named Hickling stood close to roughly to and fro, and shouting, “ Make several of the poor fellows who were killed. way!” When they got abreast of the Custom His account of what he saw is very House they drew up in a line from the minute and apparently truthful. “At that corner of the Royal Exchange-lane to the instant Mr. Richard Palmes came up and sentry-box at the Custom House door. At asked the officer if he intended to fire upon this crisis Knox took Captain Preston by the people? He answered, “By no means.' the coat, and begged him for God's sake Palmes asked if the guns were loaded ? to take his men back again, for if the men Preston answered in the affirmative. Palmes fired, his (Preston's) life would have to further asked, “With powder and ball ?' answer for the consequences. The captain Preston answered they were. The soldiers replied he knew what he was about, and during this conversation assumed different seemed agitated. There were only about postures, shoving their bayonets frequently seventy or eighty people then, who were at the people, one in particular, pushing throwing snow-balls, shouting, whistling against my side, swore he would run me boa tswain's calls, and waving sticks. The through; I laid hold of his bayonet and soldiers struck some of the citizens with told him that nobody was going to meddle the butt-ends of their muskets, upon which with them. Not more than ten seconds an officer cried out, “Why don't you prick after this I saw something white, resembling the beasts!" The most graphic view of the a piece of snow or ice, fall among the solsad seqnel of this affray may, however, be diers, which knocked the end of a firelock given by the evidence of two or three of the to the ground. At that instant the word