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had preserved his crew's health so well as simple ceremonial as was practicable. Thus Cook had during such prolonged voyages; died the brave and clever Captain James and his account of the methods he had Cook. The Sandwich Islanders earned followed was read with great interest by for themselves a long-enduring reputation the Admiralty and by ship-owners. Once for bloodthirsty cruelty, not in accordance again Cook started off, and again in the with their known general habits. Resolution, fitted out this time to bear The missionaries, who have so bravely the buffetings of the icy regions of Kamts- borne up against hunger, exhaustion, chatka and Behring's Straits. It was in disease, and every form of privation, in the 1776 that this third voyage commenced, fulfilment of the duties which they have and many thousands of leagues were undertaken, have their own group of nartraversed before the day of his death. ratives to tell, concerning the death of Cook discovered the Sandwich Islands, earnest-hearted men at the scene of their went northwards to Behring's Straits, labours. One of the best of these was John reached a latitude where a compact wall Williams, who in 1816 entered the service of of ice forbade further advance, made nu- the London Missionary Society. He went merous discoveries on the north-west coast out to the Society Islands, where he soon of America and the north-east coast of learned to talk with the natives in their own Asia, and again reached the Sandwich language. Then he voyaged to the Hervey Islands, which he was destined never again Islands, where he went through the surto leave. His death was (if such a term prising work of translating the whole of may be used) most vexing; seeing that it the New Testament into the Raratonga arose wholly from a misconstruction of in- language-till then quite unknown to tentions. While anchored off Owhyhee or Europeans; and he prepared books in the Hawaii, the ship often lost articles which same language for teaching in schools were pilfered by natives in their frequent which he established. He returned to visits ; and one fatal day, February the England after sixteen years' absence, and 21st, 1779, Cook resolved to go on shore was received with the warm welcome and compel restitution. The natives put which he deserved. Williams strikingly a worse interpretation on the landing of showed, as Livingstone has shown more the captain and a few men, believing recently, how much the value of a misthat he meant a
war of extermination. sionary is increased if he be a skilful man They gradually approached in great num- in any of the practical arts of life. Livingbers, conferred, armed themselves with stone was a piecer in a Lanarkshire cotton spears, clubs, and daggers, and a de factory when a boy; an occupation which fensive armour of mats. Cook, uneasy made him familiar with the appearance at the hostile manifestion, soon returned and action of machinery; while in later to the beach, but before he could step years he picked up some acquainance with into the boat, he was struck by a stone Latin and Greek at an evening school ; thrown by a native. Cook knocked the acquired a fair knowledge of remedies for fellow down with a musket; and then an bodily ailment by attending a course of affray began. The boat's crew fired on the medical lectures at Edinburgh University ; natives, but were gradually driven into the and fitted himself for such surveying and water and into the boat, leaving the cap- astronomical operations as are necessary tain alone on the beach. Before Cook for fixing the geographical positions of could reach the edge of the water, a newly discovered places. How this native struck him on the back of the knowledge has increased the value of head with a club; he staggered, fell on Livingstone's labours is known to those who his hand and one knee, and dropped his have paid any attention to his works. But masket. Another native now stabbed him mechanical skill is also full of importance in the neck with a dagger ; he fell into a to a missionary, as Williams well "showed. pool of water, and looked yearningly for In early life he was apprenticed to an ironsome aid from the boat-party, who, un- monger, and obtained an extensive knowfortunately, were unable to render it. ledge of the mechanical arts. His success Another tremendous blow from a club put at the Society Islands was greatly due to an end to his existence; after which the the appreciation by the natives of the pracnatives mangled and mutilated the body tical value of his skill. Wishing, some in a shocking manner. Some fragments years afterwards, to return from the island of his poor remains were afterwards mourn- of Raratonga to that of Raiatea, and finding fully consigned to the deep, with such no vessel or boat available, he built one with his own hands. He first made the These two intrepid men reached, by an tools, and then shaped timbers to his entirely new route, one point of the Niger. need ; he built a vessel sixty feet long by The privations were so varied and inceseighteen feet wide, secured the seams with sant that Clapperton, sinking under them, oakum of banana stumps and cocoa-nut died in the arms of his faithful servant on husks, made sails of native matting, and the 13th of April, 1827. Richard Lander cordage of the bark of the hibiscus. So made his way back alone to the coast, seaworthy was this little craft, that it with a firmness, endurance, and intelliserved him during four years' voyages gence that gained for him well-earned rebetween and among the various groups nown. Meanwhile, Major Laing, another of islands in the vast Pacific, then more explorer, crossed the desert from Tripoli; usually known as the South Seas. Poor but on his way he was attacked by a band Williams! He was one of those whose of wild Tuaricks, and prostrated by no less fate it was to “die in harness,” to fall in than twenty-four wounds. Wonderful to the midst of his work; but it is sad that relate, he recovered, although many porsuch a man should die such a death. In tions of broken bone had to be removed November, 1839, when out on a second from his head. He reached Timbuctoo, but expedition, he visited Erromanga, one of was murdered soon after quitting it; and the New Hebrides ; there he was murdered no papers came to light to show how far or by the natives, and his body in greater part how much he had contributed to the diseaten.
covery of new regions. Richard Lander and Adolph Schlagintweit was one of those his brother John were aided in an expedition who have lost their lives in Asiatic explo- to finish the work which Clapperton had ration. Three hardy brothers, Adolph, begun. They started from the Guinea Hermann, and Robert Schlagintweit, left Coast in 1830, followed Clapperton's route their homes in Bavaria in 1854, to ex- to the Niger, and, to their infinite credit, plore almost unknown regions north of the they persevered against all obstacles until Himalayas. Taking Egypt by the way, they they traced the great river down to its visited many parts of India; worked their real outlet in the Gulf of Guinea. Richard way northward; explored Sikhim, Bhotan, Lander was destined to die, as his former and Assam ; penetrated into Ladakh, Cash- master had died, in the wilds of unhealthy mere, and Baltistan; and reached the Africa. He joined a trading expedition, Kuenluen Mountains. Adolph, hoping to fitted out from Liverpool in 1832, in two do what no one else had up to that time small steamers; but malaria destroyed effected, started off to cross the mountain four-fifths of the crews, and Lander was barrier between the Indian, Chinese, and killed by hostile natives. Russian dominions. He was never again Captain Allen Gardiner was one of those seen by a white man. The truth was after who are lost for a time and then come to wards known that he had been murdered light only too late for the saving of life. in August, 1857, at Kashgar, by a ruthless A pious man, he combined missionary chieftain named Waller Khan.
enterprise with the duties of captain of a Captain Clapperton, Major Laing, and merchant ship. At length he determined Richard Lander perished while endeavour to become a missionary altogether, and to ing to solve the mystery of the Niger. go among the Patagonians and Terra del Clapperton, accompanied by Major Den- Fuegians of South America. With six ham and Doctor Oudeney, started in 1822 companions, two large launches, and two from Tripoli, crossed the Great Desert of dingies or luggage-boats, he landed on the Sahara, entered the kingdom of Bornou, frigid and inhospitable shores of Terra del and discovered the finest sheet of water in Fuego, on the 5th of December, 1850. No Africa, Lake Tchad; but they failed to civilized man ever again saw those hapless hit the Niger by this route. Clapperton adventurers alive. Thirteen months afterand Denham returned safely after three wards, Her Majesty's ship Dido landed a years' wanderings; Oudeney perished boat's crew at that same spot; and there through disease and privation. Clapperton, they found-first, a direction rudely written ! not many months afterwards, resolved to on a rock; then a boat lying on the beach attack the problem from the west coast, at the mouth of a small river; then the starting from the Gulf of Guinea. The unburied bodies of Captain Gardiner and ! party comprised many explorers, all of Mr. Maidment, a missionary who had whom gradually perished, except Clap- accompanied him; then a packet of papers perton and his servant Richard Lander. and books; then the shattered remains of
another boat, with part of her gear and Mishaps befel them from the beginning. stores, and various articles of clothing; then A quarrel arose; most of the men returned two more dead bodies; and lastly, the to Melbourne, taking many of the stores graves of the remaining three members with them. The remaining four, Burke, of the party. From the documents found, Wills, King, and Grey, pushed onward, it at once appeared that the enterprise had with one horse, six camels, and three been marked by a series of mishaps months' provisions. They missed two or throughout. Both luggage-boats were lost three supply parties, which were to have in a storm, with all their contents; the been ready at certain spots reached from anchors, spars, and timbers were lost in the east coast at Sydney, and were thus another storm; they had left all their driven to obtain food as best they could gunpowder behind them, and bad not after their store was exhausted. Grey wherewithal to kill birds for food; one of died of privation on the way; but the their boats, called the Pioneer, was wholly other three succeeded in reaching the Gulf lost in a third storm; and now they had of Carpentaria, on the north coast. They only the Speedwell left. So far from worked their toilsome way back to a spot converting to Christianity the barbarous called Cooper's Creek-horse and camels. Terra del Fuegians (who pelted and dead, clothes ragged, provisions exhausted, robbed them wherever they appeared), strength gone. Two of them did not live their whole time was spent in a struggle to see their homes again. The authorities for very life. Scurvy, scanty food, and the at Melbourne, uneasy at the long silence, rigours of winter told upon them slowly and apprehensive of disaster, sent off an exbut surely. They were all put upon short ploring party, in September, 1861, headed allowance in May; in June one of the crew by Mr. A. W. Howitt (son of William and died of scurvy ; in July a dead fox, a half- Mary Howitt). The explorer, having some devoured fish thrown up on the beach, and idea that Cooper's Creek was the important six mice, were enumerated among the locality, searched closely, and found King articles of food in store; in August two living with some friendly natives. The other of the crew died, and their com- tale he had to tell was a sad one. From panions went nearly mad at losing them; the preceding April, the three men had early in September Maidment died; about been living most precariously, being too the 6th Gardiner sank under the accumu- utterly exhausted in strength to push on lated effects of illness and starvation, from Cooper's Creek to any of the settleafter scrawling a few lines on a piece of ments. Sometimes they obtained a little paper; and the remaining two, Mr. coarse food from the natives; sometimes
a surgeon, and Pearce, a boat- they gathered seeds of a plant called man, are supposed to bave succumbed nardoo, pounded them, and baked them abont the same time. Captain Moorshead into cakes. One day, having seen none of of the Dido, who had called there at the the friendly natives for some time, Burke earnest solicitation of Gardiner's friends in and King' tried their strength in a walk England, paid such tribute of respect as to find them. They took two pounds of he could to the remains of the seven mem- nardoo with them, and left a small store bers of this ill-planned and ill-starred expe- of it with Wills, who was too weak to
accompany them. Poor Burke weakened Never did gallant men bear up more every hour; on the second day he threw bravely against accumulated sufferings than away everything he was carrying. They Burke and Wills, in their journey across supped that night on some nardoo, with Australia. They were lost, but their bodies the welcome addition of a small bird which were found under very affecting circum- King shot. It was Burke's last night. stances. In 1860, Mr. Robert O'Hara Burke The following morning he was speechless, was placed in command of an expedition, to or nearly so, and about eight he expired. start for Melbourne, plunge into the heart King, desolate and sorrowful, gave up any of the continent, and, if possible, reach the further attempt to search for the natives; Dorthern coast, thereby giving additional he looked out for nardoo and birds, huscompleteness to the previous discoveries of banded his strength, and returned to the Leichhardt, Sturt, Eyre, Mitchell, and place where Wills had been left. Here
He had with him Mr. William another sorrow awaited him. “I found John Wills, about a dozen other persons, him,” he says in his narrative, “lying dead and a good store of camels, horses, instru- in his gunyah (a rude sort of hut), and ments, provisions, and camp baggage. the natives had been there and taken away
some of his clothes. I buried the corpse command pity whithersoever he wanders. in sand, and remained there some days; But he is impudent, and a boisterous, but finding that my stock of nardoo was swaggering fellow.
Hear him as he derunning short, and being unable to gather mands compassion, with his swarthy, fat it, I tracked the natives who had been to face upturned to the blazing sun, and with the camp by their footprints, and went a long cigar between his bulging lips. some distance down the creek, shooting " Ave Maria! here's the poor blind crows and rooks on the road. The natives, man; poor fellow! Give him a medio (a hearing the report of the gun, came to threepenny-piece) somebody. Does nobody meet me, and took me with them to their hear him, el pobrecito? Come, make haste ! camp, giving me nardoo and fish. They Don't keep the poor fellow waiting. Poor took the birds I had shot, cooked them for Cara Catambungo! He is stone blind, me, and afterwards showed me a gunyah poor fellow, and his feet are blistered and where I was to sleep with three of the single sore. Misericordia, señores. Barajo! why men. The following morning they began don't somebody answer ? Which is mi talking to me; putting one finger on the s'ñora Mercedes' house? Will somebody ground and covering it with sand, at the lead me to it? Mi s'ñora Mercedes !" same time pointing up the creek, saying, Catambungo knows most of his patrons * White fellow!' which I understood to by name. Doña Mercedes appears at her mean, one white man was dead. They iron-grated window, through the bars of then asked me where the third white man which the benevolent lady offers a silver was, and I made the sign of putting two coin and a small loaf. fingers on the ground and covering them “Gracias mi s'ñora; Dios se la pague with sand.” And so King remained with merced ! (May Heaven reward your worthese kindly aborigines (savages we some- ship.) Who's got a light for the poor times call them !) till Howitt's party ciego ?” arrived.
Somebody favours the ciego with a light, These are some of the best known cases and Cara Catumbungo goes on his way of lost explorers whose fate was not long in smoking and humming a tune, and predoubt. The long-lost, those whose deaths sently harangues in another street. were not known for a long series of years, Will it be believed that this wanderer or are even still unknown, form a group has a farm in the country, with slaves which must be treated separately.
in his employ, and hundreds of dollars in his exchequer ? When not on beggar
beat, Catambungo retires to his possesCUBAN BEGGARS.
sions, where he lives luxuriously. Like
some of his begging fraternity, the negro That apparently hapless mendicant occasionally varies his mendicant by shuffling along the white, heated road of offering for sale lottery-tickets bearing à narrow street, is a blind negro, with the what he calls “lucky numbers.” The imposing nickname of Cara Catambungo. Havannah lottery is a great institution in He is attired in a clean suit of brown Cuba, and has an extraordinary fascination holland, and he wears a broad-brimmed for rich as well as poor. Each ticket panama. His flat, splay feet are bare, ex- costs seventeen dollars, and is printed in hibiting where one of his toes has been such a form as to be susceptible of division consumed by a nigua, a troublesome insect into seventeen parts, so which introduces itself into the foot, and, pockets. The prizes vary from one hun, if not eradicated in time, remains there to dred to one hundred thousand dollars, and vegetate. Across his shoulders is slung a there are two “sorteos,” or draws, monthly. huge canvas bag for depositing comestible Our friend Catambungo often invests in alms, and in his hand is a long rustic staff. fragments of unsold tickets, and on one Charity with a Cuban is a leading principle occasion he drew a prize to the value of of his religion, and to relieve the indigent seven hundred dollars, which good luck, --no matter whether the object for relief together with his beggar savings, enabled be worthy or not—is next in importance him to purchase a farm and to hire a few to disburdening the mind to a father-con- labourers to work it with. Whether from fessor. Mindful of the native weakness habit or from love of gain, Catambungo in this respect, Cara Catambungo bears his never forsook his favourite vocation, but sorrows from door to door, confident that continued to bear his sorrows from door to his affliction and his damaged foot will door, as if they still belonged to him.
as to suit all
In Cuba, at least, beggars may be said the town at night, the total absence of to be choosers. Saturday is the day which anything like proper drainage, are farourite they prefer for transacting their business, topics with these open-air orators. because it precedes Sunday, when the Our Beggars' Opera concludes with a faithful attend high mass in the church, brilliant chorus of mendicants, who, at and go to confess. Except on Saturday, twelve o'clock, visit their patrons in large and on some festive occasions, it is a rare companies. At that hour, one of Don event for a beggar to be seen asking alms Benigno's slaves enters with a large flat in the public streets.
basket containing a quantity of small twoEvery Saturday morning I pay my re- penny loaves, which the negro places upon spects to Don Benigno and his amiable the marble floor in front of the open door. señora, Mercedes, who, like most of their Soon a crowd of beggars of all shades and hospitable neighbours, keep open house in castes, wbo, during the last half-hour, more than one way: the huge doors of have been squatting in a row under the their habitation being ajar at all hours. broad shade of the opposite houses, apAs I sit chatting with my worthy hostess, proach, and, without bidding, help to empty the street door—which has direct com- the capacious bread-basket.
Further up munication with the reception room—is the street they go picking up more crumbs boldly thrown open, and a white lady, at- at rich mansions, whose owners occasiontired in well-starched muslin, and adorned ally vary their entertainment by providing with jewels, enters. I rise, in accordance for their vagrant visitors a little ajiaco, or with the polite custom of the country, native soup. while Don Benigno offers the visitor a Cuban people are not fond of bestowing rocking-chair. The conversation proceeds their charity through the medium of a pubon subjects of general interest, in which lic institution. The only place of the kind the visitor joins. Curiously, I am never in that part of Cuba which I am describing introduced to the lady in muslin ; but the is called the Beneficencia, or almshouse, unusual behaviour of my host is soon ac- which is under the superintendence of the counted for After a few minutes the Sisters of Charity. Wealthy ladies constranger señora rises, and approaching tribute largely towards the support of this Doña Mercedes, offers her hand. Doña establishment, but, in order to provide Mercedes does not take the proffered palm, funds, public raffles are indispensable. but simply places upon it a piece of silver Nothing succeeds in Cuba so well as somecoin of the value of a franc.
thing in which chance or 'luck, combined “May Heaven reward you,” says the with amusement, is the inducement of the lady-beggar, and takes her gift and her venture, and a raffle in aid of funds for leave without another word.
the famished is always popular. Something like a Beggars' Opera may Doña Mercedes, the most benevolent of be realised whilst sitting before Don Be- ladies, tells me that she and the prosperous nigno's huge window on Saturday morn- señoras already referred to have in project ing, and watching the thriftless performers a grand bazaar for the benefit of the poor, as they pass. The entertainment “opens to which everybody is expected to conat the early hour of six A.M. ; from that tribute. The articles received for the time till the Cuban breakfast-hour of purposes of the bazaar are to be exhibited eleven, we are treated with begging solos in one of the big saloons of the governor's only: mendicants who stand and deliver house, which overlooks the Plaza de Armas, monologues like Cara Catambungo or and they will be raffled for during three Muñekon — an equally popular beggar. special evenings. For weeks Doña MerSometimes the applicant for charity an- cedes and her charitable sisters are busy nounces himself with a bold bang on the collecting and numbering the contributions door, followed by the pious ejaculation, as they arrive, or twisting the paper
Ave Maria !” The lame, or otherwise chances into the form of cigar-lights. afflicted, are content with simply directing The military square presents an aniattention to their misfortune, while the less mated scene on the evenings of the raffle. “ favoured” attract public regard by hum- Twelve tables, bearing rich cloths and silver ming a wild air, to which a gibberish candelabra, are distributed about the broad libretto is attached, or by descanting upon promenade of the plaza. Around each table social and political matters. The ill-paved are seated a score of the fairest of Cuba's condition of the Cuban streets, the ineffi- daughters, elegantly attired in evening cient supply of water, the bad lighting of costume, without any head-covering, and