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which mora is echoed by ora, flendo by the second line of each couplet, so as to endo, spero by ero, and solamen by amen. produce repetitions or reverberations, such If skilfully constructed, such verses read as the following : esempio-empio; amori agreeably enough; the echo is really an —mori; mio-io; clamore-amore; dama echo or repetition of the ending of the ama; viaggio—aggio; profonde-onde; previous word, and not a copy of the entire altramente-mente, &c. word ; it is at once a better echo and a In the early part of the reign of Charles better rhyme. In most instances, however, the First, a curious translation was pubthe rhymester shuns any very rigid rules of lished of a Latin composition on the right construction. Erasmus wrote a dialogue Course of possessing Life and Health; toin which the nymph Echo was a good gether with Soundness and Integrity of linguist; she gave her echoing answers in the Senses, Judgment, and Memory. It Greek, Latin, or Hebrew, according as the is in the form of a dialogue between exigencies of the rhyme best suited her a glutton and Echo. The reader will at purpose.
once see which is the echo part of each comThe sixteenth century produced many bination, without italics or special notificaspecimens, some written by court flatterers, tion: some by men whose names will not die. “My belly I do defy." In one of the masques represented before Queen Elizabeth during her numerous
“Who curbs his appetite's a fool.”
“Ah, fool!" progresses, Master Gascoigne holds a con- “ I do not like this abstinence." versation with Echo, in which the illus
“ Hence!" trious sovereign is flattered in a way quite “My joy's a feast, my wish is wine !"
6 Swine !" customary in those days:
“We epicures are happy truly."
" You lie!" “ Well, Echo, tell me yet, How might I come to see
“Who's that which giveth me the lie ?"
“What, Echo, thou that mock'st a voice ?"
" A voice!" By me, ob, were that true,
May I not, Echo, eat my fill?"
“Wilt hurt me if I drink too much?”
“Much!" “Her grace." "Well, then, if so mine eyes
“Thou mock’st me, nymph, I'll not believe it."
" Believe it." Be such as they have been, Methinks I see among them all
“Dost thou condemn then what I do ?” This same should be the queen.”
“I do !" "I grant it doth exhaust the purse.".
“ Worse!" Ben Jonson, about the same time, or somewhat later, made use of the machinery of
"Is't this which dulls the sharpest wit ?". the echo verse in his Cynthia's Revels,
"Is't this which brings infirmities ?". much more gracefully than the poet of the
“It is !" above effusion :
“Dost thou no glutton virtuous know?" “Where may I direct my speech that thou may'st
“Wouldst have me temp'rate till I die ?" “Here!”
“I!” “So nigh ?”
“Shall I therein find ease and pleasure ?" “Aye!"
“ Yea, sure!" “ Nay, but hear
“But is't a thing which profit brings ?” “ Jove calls thee hence, and his will brooks no stay."
"It brings !" “ To mind or body, or to both ?”
“O, stay!" “Know you from whom you fly, or whence p”!
“Will it my life on earth prolong ?”.
“Hence!" “Make not so fast away."
“Wilt make me vig'rous until death?”.
“Away !" Early in the seventeenth century some
“Wilt bring me to eternal bliss ?”
“ Yes!" echo verses were published in Italian, under the title of Echo in Versi pari : Cosa molto
"Then sweetest Temperance, I'll love thee.” bella e sententiosa. The construction is I'll be a belly god no more.” rather singular.
There are forty-nine couplets, or pairs of lines, and the echo
"If all be true which thou dost tell, rhymes with the last word or syllable of
They who fare sparingly fare well."
“ Best wit!"
“ Till death!"
"I love thee!"
“ No more!"
During the mutual recriminations be- some real echoes with which we are all tween the Cavaliers and Roundheads, a familiar: comedy was acted at Cambridge, the savour
“Echo, tell me while I wander of which is sufficiently denoted by such O'er this fairy plain to prove him, echo verses as the following:
If my shepherd still grows fonder,
Ought I in return to love him ?” Now, Echo, on what's religion grounded ?"
“Love him, love him!” “ Roundhead !"
"If he loves as is the fashion, “Who its professors most considerable ?”
Should I churlishly forsake him; " Rabble !"
Or in pity to his passion, " How prove they themselves to be the godly P”
Fondly to my bosom take him ?"
" Take him, take him!” "How stand they to the government civil ?”
“ Thy advice, then, I'll adhere to, « Evil!”
Since in Cupid's chains I've led him,
And with Lubin shall not fear to " But to the king they say they are most loyal ?"
" Lie all!"
Marry if you answer, ' Wed him.”
"Wed him, wed him!” " Then God keep king and state from these same men!"
Later in the century a rhymester brought A few years later, when the fortunes of satire and punning to his aid in an echo Charles the First had become dark and song, which certainly breathes but little of threatening, another royalist echo was put
the pastoral spirit: forth, similar in construction and in senti- “If I address the Echo yonder, ment to the foregoing :
What will its answer be, I wonder P”.
“I wonder !" “What wants thou, that thou art in this taking p"
“Oh, wondrous Echo, tell me, bless 'ee,
Am I for marriage or celibacy ?”. " What made him first remove hence his residing?"
* Silly Bessy!” Siding !”
“ If then to win the maid I try, “ Did any bere deny him satisfaction ?”
Shall I find her a property ?". “ Faction !"
“ A proper tie!” “Tell me whereon the strength of faction lies ?”
If neither being grave nor funny, “ On lies!”
Will win this maid to matrimony ?" “What didst thou when the king left his parliament ?"
“Try money!" “ Lament !”
“If I should try to gain her heart, “What terms wouldst give to gain his company ?”
Shall I go plain, or rather smart ?" 'Any !"
“ Smart !" “What wouldst thou do if here thou mightst behold "She mayn't love dress, and I, again, then, him po?
May come too smart, and she'll complain then.” “ Hold him!”
“Come plain then !" "Wouldst thou save him with thy best endeavour?"
“Then if to marry me I tease her, “Ever!" “What will she say if that should please her?”
“Please, sir !" “But if he comes not, what becomes of London ?"
“When cross nor good words can appease her,
What if such naughty whims should seize her ?” In the time of the De Witts, when
“ You'd see, politics ran high in Holland, there was a “When wed she'll change, for Love's no sticker, sarcastic and satirical echo song which dis
And love her husband less than liquor !".
" Then lick her!" played much ability ; but the echoes are
“To leave me thus I can't compel her, not easily translatable into English. Some
Though every woman else excel her!" what after the time of those Dutchmen our
“Sell her!" Samuel Butler wrote his Hudibras; in which, although regular echo verses do not
In 1807, a bookseller at Nuremberg, occur, there are bits of echo to be met with named Palm, published an echo song, in several passages ; as for example:
terribly sarcastic upon the Emperor Napo
leon. Marshal Davoust, who held sway Quoth he, “Oh whither, wicked Bruin, Art thou fled to my
in Germany at that time, made short work “ Ruin!”
of the matter; he tried Palm by military · Who would grudge to spend his blood in law, and had him shot. A translation of His honour's cause?” Quoth she,
“A pudding !"
it was composed; but, like most translaIn the reign of Queen Anne an echo tions, it fails to give the full spirit of the song was published, the words of which original. Napoleon is supposed to be holdare attributed to Addison. It was of the
ing a colloquy with Echo :
"Alone, I am in this sequester'd spot unheard !" pastoral kind, in which lovers are conven
“ Unheard !" tionally supposed to be shepherds and shep
“S'death! who answers me? What being is there nigh?” herdesses; and the echo is double, like
“Now I guess; to report my accents Echo has made of the humorists of the day asked Echo her task!”
" Ask !"
what she thought of the matter: “Know'st thou whether London will henceforth con
“What are they who pay three guineas tinue to resist p”
To hear a tune of Paganini's P” « Resist!"
“Pack o' ninnies." " Whether Vienna and other courts will oppose me always p"
WANTED IN CLERKENWELL,
“Always !" What, then, must I expect after so many reverses ?” « Reverses !” SINCE the repeal of the paper
and news“What! should I like a coward vile to compound be paper stamp duties, a number of journals reduced ?”
have sprung up in London of a totally “Reduced !"
different character from the cosmopolitan “After so many bright exploits be forced to restitution P"diurnals which we are wont to designate
as the daily press. The sheets we refer to, “Restitution of what I've got by heroic feats and martial address !"
some of them published daily, but most at
“Yes !" longer intervals, concern themselves wholly “What will be the fate of so much toil and trouble?" with the news and business of certain
“Trouble!" localities. London is a country in itself, “What will become of my people, already too un- and its districts have each its own local happy?”
These " What should I then be, that think myself immortal?” London-provincial journals, as we may term
which it specially restricts itself. “ The world is filled with the glory of my name, you them, report vestry meetings at length, know."
fulminate against local nuisances, and are “No!"
great on the subjects of local paving and * Formerly its fame struck the vast globe with terror.” drainage. They must supply a felt want,
else they could not exist, and that they “Sad Echo, begone. I grow infuriate, I die !".
must do a considerable amount of good * Die !"
can hardly be questioned. One of their The late Archdeacon Wrangham, who most important offices is the publication of penned many graceful witticisms and lively advertisements at a rate so moderate as to effusions, wrote an echo song on the same induce people to advertise in them with subject as that which prompted Palm, regard to matters that would hardly bear Napoleon; but he infused a peculiar spirit the higher charges of the advertising into it by mixing up together English, media commanding a wider area ; and one French, Italian, and Latin. There are or two of them, by reason of their copious fourteen echoes belonging to as many display of what may be termed petty advercouplets; the following are some that illus- tisements, have attained a wide circulation trate the odd polyglot mode of construc- outside their own immediate districts. A tion :
glance at the advertising columns of the
Clerkenwell News gives a curious glimpse “ Tell me of what com'st the heart of Gaul?"
of insight into the manner of life, the
wants and wishes of our London middle“Dic mihi quæso virum, vitus qui tot bona parte ?"
“ Bonaparte !"
lower and lower classes. In these columns “Can George, then, thrash the Corsican ?”
are to be found few announcements of new “ He can!"
public companies. The gorgeous “Jeames “Again I call, sweet maid, come echo me.”
of Buckley-square" evidently does not con“Eccomi !"
sider the Clerkenwell News an eligible “Il reste donc à souhaiter que la France lui désobeit.” medium for offering himself, his powdered
“ So be it !”
head and shapely calves, to the notice of a “Ma sotto i rè erano sempre allegri.”.
discriminating aristocracy. We find in it
"All agree! no advertisements of “a charming country “ T'unlock our India, France would make of Turkey"
“ Her key!"
residence to be let, standing in its own “Wretches as changeful as the changing ocean.
grounds, and within reach of four packs of “0, chiens !" hounds," or of “a noble West-end mansion
for sale, with five reception-rooms, and About forty years ago, when Paganini every accommodation for the family of a was fiddling into his pocket the large sums nobleman or gentleman of position." The of money which his admirers were willing constituency of Clerkenwell is not to be to pay for the pleasure of hearing him, one found among the clubs, nor, should we imagine, do its readers drive their car- there are but two advertisements from riages, unless a light trap, adapted for general servants in want of places, and not multifarious uses, can be called one's own a girl, person, or woman proclaims through carriage.
this medium her anxiety to obtain employByron wanted a herom" an uncommon ment. The truth is, that an immense want;' it seems evident that a far more number of the women of London are becommon want among us at the present day coming too independent for service, as well is a “general servant.” Any one answer- as too independent when in service. Other ing to this description-in itself somewhat kinds of employment, often very wellvague, but sufficiently well defined by con- seldom very badly-paid, present themventional usage-must be hard to please if selves in competition with domestic sershe cannot find a place to her liking out of vice; and imposing as they do less restraint the hundred and forty which are advertised on personal liberty, are better liked by very as open to suitable applicants. “General many. The girl who “works at a trade,” as servants" are evidently at a premium just it is called, has her evenings to herself, can now, and must be wooed by the enuncia- choose her own lodgings, do what she likes tion of some special attractions. These with her Sundays, and carries her characusually take the form of “good wages or ter at her fingers' ends. How multitu“liberal wages,” and “all found,” “no dinous are these occupations for girls, the children," "family small and quiet,”“wash- advertisements in the Clerkenwell News ing put out,” “no baby,” “a comfortable tell us. Artificial florists are in extensive home for a clean, tidy girl," and so forth. request, whether they be “leaf hands, But the advertisers for “ general servants,” | “preparers,” common hands,” “imwhile spreading these nets in the eyes of provers,” “pattern makers," or "cutters;" those whom they desire to attract, are, for whether in-door or out-door, it is all one, the most part, staunch sticklers for “ a and there is not a word about character. good character." Some demand a "good Constant employment appears to await any personal character," which seems a dis- number of fancy box-makers, whether their tinction without a difference; others go still forte be“ glue work, scoring,” “ lining," further, and stipulate for "respectability or “gold-edging;” braiders and button-hole in addition to the character. Some there makers, and chenille net-makers are eagerly are, but very few, who do not seem to re- inquired for. If anything like decent wages gard character as the sine quâ non, and, as are to be made at chenille net-making, it is a a compensation for this concession, seem to wonder half the world does not take to it, consider themselves entitled to make various for it seems that a competent knowledge of stipulations as to the qualifications of the the handicraft is to be taught in an hour, presumably characterless, to the effect that and then abundance of work is guaranteed. they must “cook nicely,” “ take a child Contrary to general belief, crinolines are not three hours a day,” or be “active, indus- yet extinct, for we find crinoline makers trions, and clean. There seems as great advertised for, and also “good steelers.” a demand for “ girls” as for “ general ser- Plenty of employment is open in the dyeing vants," but the inducements offered to the business, whether for "fur hands,” “ feaformer are not proportionally great. The ther hands,” or “ironers.” An epaulette usual tariff of wages for a girl under sixteen, embroiderer, if a first-rate hand, need not used to house work, seems about one shil- be out of work an hour; and offers to ling and sixpence or two shillings per week envelope folders and cementers are neither -in many cases with her tea” is added ; few nor far between. A glossary is needfrom which it may be inferred that other ful when we light upon advertisements for meals have to be found by the girl out of “floss vulture” hands, and for a forewoman her wages. Nearly all the girls are desired over “rose hands,” but there is no amto be “ respectable," and a large proportion biguity in the one which offers employment must be “strong, clean, and active." Then to“ frizette and head-dress hands.” Is there are the “persons,” the greater num- another red-shirt legion being organised, ber of whom seem to be desiderated as that we read of “Garibaldi hands being coffee-house attendants; and the “women,” wanted ? And if so, what is the hidden one of whom must be “Christian,” and meaning of the mysterious word "print" another respectable old.” If advertise- that follows within brackets ?
“Half-cap ments are any test, it seems abundantly hands ”—who make the other halves ?plain that the laws of supply and demand “hat sewers," “infants' millinery hands," are out of gear as regards servants, for "imitation infants' leghorn hat hands,” “in
fants' blond loop front hands," "ironers, some very pregnant with signs of the and “knickerbocker hands,” are all in re- times. Look at this one, for instance: quest ; “fifty ladies' hat hands” are wanted “Employment wanted; tall, active, gentlein one batch, and the wrath of male tailors manly man; rapid writer; age twenty-five, ought to be stirred up by an advertisement wages one pound per week ; understands for a young lady to learn the “best waistcoat books.” Tall, active, and gentlemanlymaking' As to some desiderated“ mack- pricing himself at one pound a week, and intosh hands," there is no stipulation that ready, probably, to jump at an offer of they should be clanswomen from the High- fifteen shillings ! Never learnt a trade, you lands of Inverness, and “night-cap hands” see, but took the other line-run off the are not called upon to state whether the rails somehow, and the “gentlemanly man," materials they habitually use are lawn or who is a rapid writer, and understands hot grog with lemon and nutmeg. When books, is eager for half the wages that big
are advertised for, it seems Jack, the navvy, who puts his cross on the superfluous to add "needle and thread” pay-sheet instead of his name, is tearing within brackets, but no doubt the seeming out of the earth with pick and spade. redundancy has some trade meaning of its Boys are in very active request, for the own. In connexion with shirts, there is no most part at what seem fair wages ; but mystery about a demand for“regatta hands,” some of the employments for which they but what branch of shirt-making comes are required are not easily intelligible except within the sphere of good toppers, indoor” to experts. We start as we read the follow. is as difficult for an outsider to the pro- ing: “Boy wanted, used to vice,” but light fession to comprehend, as it is to know is let in by the sequel—"and hammer.” what“ fanners” have to do with stay-mak. Can this be a cracksman who is advertising ing. The tie trade seems to be very short for a “boy used to filing and drilling"? handed, and to have numerous ramifica- There is an advertisement for a “lad who tions. We find under this head advertise- has been on the bench,” and another for a ments for “slip-stitchers,” for “band and “youth who has been at the bar;" but we front hands," "" knot hands,” “Pall Mall fail to find one for a youngster who has hands,” “ Beaufort hands,” Regent hands,” been “in the dock.” Surely a covert insult “Brother Sam hands," " reversible hands," to the profession lurks in this advertise“eureka hands;" and one for “those who ment: " Boot trade-a youth wanted for can take all parts." Then there are adver- the press.” Is it possible that a zeal for tisements for umbrella hands who must be economy has led the Lords of the Admigood "tippers and bracers;" for valentine ralty to advertise under a feigned name for hands, who, if accustomed to sachets, can a "monitor, from five shillings weekly" ? earn, it seems, ten shillings to twelve shil. Monitors, we know, are not thought much lings per week; wax-flower hands, and mil- of now as war vessels; but then look at liners, dressmakers, and tailoresses, general the figure ! and special, for a column and more. Ad- It is inexplicable that we should ever vertisements under the heading of “ sewing hear of any one being out of business, machinists, &c., wanted,” take up another unless by reason of absolute distraction at column. It seems tweed hats can be made the plethora of eligible chances offered to with the sewing machine ; and an adver-the public, in some cases for making a tisement for an “excelsior embroiderer" fortune at a stroke, in none for doing worse is surely calculated to stimulate a keen than gaining a comfortable livelihood. A curiosity to see the aspiring damsel ful- free beer-house may be had for thirty filling such
a remarkable requisition. pounds, "all at,” whatever may be the Female labour is certainly in greater de- meaning of that spasmodic ellipsis. A mand than male, if we are to accept the butcher may have the best opening in advertising columns of the Clerkenwell as Bayswater” for the value of the fixtures ; any criterion. A column and a half suffice and we find “a cat’s-meat walk for sale
, to set forth the requirements under the doing six cwt. per week.” There can be heading "mechanics, &c., wanted,” and a no mistake about this earthly paradise : good many of the advertisements are not “ Fish-shop (neat little fried and dried) to particularly inviting. Similarly, under let : shop, parlour, two bedrooms, back the heading “situations and employment wash-house, &c.; coming in five pounds wanted,” very few women are found ad- and there is a touch of genuine pathos in vertising, while there are quite two columns the statement that “the cause of letting is of what me may call male advertisements, through ill-health of the wife.” This is