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whether the insect elaborates it from the rived from those favoured insects. There pollen of flowers, or from an animal secre- are some indications of such a use of wax tion, we may leave naturalists to determine. as far back as the third century; throughThe wax is used by the bee to construct the out the whole history of the Roman Catholic honeycomb. When separated by pressure, Church the usage has been maintained. melting in hot water, subsidence, and cool. There was at one time in England a due ing, it presents itself as a softish yellow sub-called wax-shot or wax-scot, a gift of wax stance. By subsequent melting, stretching candles presented to churches three times out into a kind of ribbon, and exposure a year. What were called wax-rolls were to bleaching agents, it becomes white or pieces or cakes of wax, flat circular discs, bleached wax, more pure than the yellow, presented to churches, for the use of which and having a somewhat higher melting they were made into candles or tapers, and point. In making this substance into wax some other sacred things. It is known candles, several prepared wicks are sus- that in the Anglo-Saxon times, under pended over a vessel of melted wax, the Ælfric and Edgar, lights were used on the wax is poured to a sufficient thickness on altar during mass, while others were held the wicks by a ladle, and the candles when in the hands of attendants during the readcooled are made cylindrical and polished ing of the gospel ; and at all times since, by rolling on a smooth table.
the gift of candles, or of wax to make them, Wax lights were indispensable accom- was deemed an acceptable religious service. paniments to the other adornments of Several illustrations of this subject are the royal palace, the feudal castle, and the to be met with in Mr. Toulmin 'Smith's baronial mansion of the olden time. In recently published work, an antiquarian the Wardrobe Accounts of Edward the book almost as pleasant as a romance. Fourth, somewhat less than four centuries We mean the Original Ordinances of more ago, there is a curious entry to the follow- than One Hundred Early English Gilds. ing effect : “ William Whyte, tallough. There is a dispute as to whether we should chaundeller, for jij dosen and ix lb. of say gild or guild ; but this need not detain p's candell, for to light when the king's us here. Very nearly five hundred years highness and goode grace on a nyght come ago, a parliament held at Cambridge in the unto his sayd grete warderobe, and at other time of Richard the Second ordered that divers tymes." From other entries it ap- returns should be made to the king in pears that p’s was sometimes spelled peris, council as to the ordinances, usages, and sometimes pares, sometimes parys; it is properties of the English gilds. The rebelieved that the lights so used were called turns seem to have been duly made and Paris candles. In that singular forerunner forwarded ; and the original parchments on of our modern books of etiquette, called which many of them were written still rethe Boke of Curtasye, written about the main in the Record Office, where Mr. Toulsame period as the Wardrobe Accounts min Smith has ferreted them out by dint of above adverted to, there is distinct mention great industry and care. Wax candles, or of wax candles and Paris candles, but with wax to make into candles, are frequently out any notification as to the materials mentioned in the records, sometimes as whereof the latter were made :
presentations to churches, abbeys, and conIn chambre no lyght ther shalle be brent
vents, sometimes as forfeits or penalties. But of wax, thereto yf ye take tent:
The Guild of Garlekhith (near the present In halle at soper schalle candels brenne
Garlick-hill) had a rule that all the members Of Parys, therein that alle men kenne.
should meet four times a year, on pain of Here we are told of wax candles in the forfeiting a pound of wax; and the same chamber and Paris candles in the hall, the forfeiture was imposed on any member who former probably more delicate and costly neglected to attend the funeral of a brother than the latter
or sister of the guild. Many of the guilds, The use of lighted wax candles in cathe- of which this was an example, partook of drals, churches, and religious processions, the nature of our modern friendly societies, and in connection with funerals, can be but with a marked attention to the incultraced back through a long series of ages. cation and encouragement of piety and There is an old Welsh legend to the effect morality. So singularly was the purpose that wax lights are used on the altar carried out in the Guild of St. Katherine, because bees derive their origin from Para- Aldersgate, that each brother and sister on dise, and are especially blessed by the admittance was to kiss all present, in token Almighty; therefore mass ought not to be of love, charity, and fellowship. Five round performed without the aid of the wax de- | tapers of wax, of the weight of twenty pounds, were to burn on high feast days And the Christmas candles, which our boys to the honour of God, of the Virgin Mary, and girls still delight in, are they not relics of St. Katherine, and all saints, and to be of religious usages of old days? used to light round the body of a dead The usages and traditions connected brother, and in his funeral procession. The with Candlemas Day are associated with wardens of St. Botolph's Guild, Norwich, wax through the medium of the candles stated in their return that they had in hand into which it was fashioned. There is an twenty-six shillings and eightpence for the old Latin proverb to the effect that if the maintenance of a light. The Guild of St. sun shines brilliantly on Candlemas Day, George, in the same city, had in hand hard frost is coming. It got into English forty shillings for the support of a light form as a couplet, that after Candlemas and the making of an image. In relation Day the frost will be more, if the sun then to St. Katherine's Guild, another in old shines bright, than it has been before. A Norwich,“ of the chattel of the guild shall Norfolk saying tells us that: there be two candles of wax, of sixteen As far as the sun shines on Candlemas Day, pounds weight, about the body of the So far will the snow blow in afore May. dead,” whenever any brother or sister de- Another is couched in very strong 'lanparted this life. The Guild of Young guage, stronger, we will hope, than any Scholars at Lynn was established chiefly countryman would really use : to maintain an image of St. William, stand- When Candlemas Day is fine and clear, ing in a tabernacle in the church of St.
A shepherd would rather see his wife on the bier. Margaret, with six tapers of wax burning Another, in four-line stanza, goes a little on festival days. The Guild of St. Elene further into the weather-predicting line : at Beverley kept three wax lights burning
If Candlemas Day be fair and bright,
Winter will have another fight; every Sunday and feast day, in honour of
But if it be dark, with clouds and rain, St. Elene; while at the morning mass of Winter is gone and will not come again. Christmas Day thirteen wax lights were Another version, somewhat different in its barned. There must have been a goodly philosophy, is to the effect that whatever amount of wax consumed on the Feast of wind blows on Candlemas Day, will conthe Purification by the Guild of St. Mary tinue to blow for the next forty days. at Beverley'; for the brethren got up a Candlemas Day, our almanacks tell us, pageant, in which two youths representing comes on the 2nd of February, and is the angels carried a chandelier or compound anniversary of the Purification of the candlestick, containing twenty-four thick Virgin. On this day the Church of Rome wax lights; and the other members each directs the blessing of candles by the carried a wax light. In the Guild of the clergy, the distribution of them among the Resurrection of our Lord, at Lincoln, at people, and the carrying of the lighted the funeral rites of a brother, thirteen candles in solemn procession. The pope wax lights were burned in four stands. presides at a great ceremonial of this kind In the Guild of the Fullers of Lincoln, no in the chapel of the Quirinal, on Candlemember was permitted to teach the craft mas Day; and minor celebrations take to a learner unless the latter contributed place at other churches. The candle is "twopence to the wax," that is, to the used symbolically in reference to a passage fund for buying wax lights. The Guild in the Song of Simeon. Very little notice of Tailors, of the same city, imposed a of Candlemas, or of its origin, is now taken fine of a stone of wax for infringement of in England, beyond a few country customs one of the rules. As wax was sevenpence and proverbs. per pound in those days, representing a As far as possible remo
noved from the use manifold higher price now, this fine was of wax as a light-giving material, is its certainly a heavy one. In the Guild of St. employment as an impressionable subKatherine, at Stamford, a fine of one pound stance, a material that can be cast into of wax, plus twopence, was imposed on any moulds when melted, and impressed with member absent from the guild feast; and as a die or seal when in a semi-molten state. the feast itself was valued at twopence per The Greeks were familiar with this use of head, the absentee paid for a dinner which wax; they adorned their rooms with he did not eat, besides losing a pound of wax. statuettes, branches, fruit, flowers, and
The altar use of candles is mentioned wreaths, made of this substance. We by Wordsworth in one of his stanzas : are told that that very unrespectable genOur ancestors within the still domain
tleman, Heliogabalus, liked to tantalise his Of vast cathedral or conventual gloom, Their vigils kept: where tapers day and night
guests by setting before them dishes of On the dim altar burned continuously.
waxen luxuries, so cleverly imitative of the originals as to deceive all but the initiated. brated among artists in wax was Madame Wax is largely employed in producing imi- Tussaud, who, in the exercise of her art tations of anatomical specimens. One of eighty years ago, lived and worked during the palaces at Florence contains thirty the terrible scenes of the great French rooms filled with coloured wax imitations Revolution. She prepared waxen effigies of parts of the human body, and of vege- of the half-savage Marat, of his murderess table productions. This anatomical use of Charlotte Corday, of the beautiful Princess wax is said to have originated as follows: of Lamballe, of the arch-terrorist RobesNones, of Genoa, a hospital physician, in pierre; and was herself, on one occasion, the seventeenth century, wished to preserve in imminent peril of the guillotine. After a human body by embalming it; but not many trials and struggles she settled in being able entirely to prevent putrefaction, London early in the present century, and he considered whether he could imitate the here she made waxen celebrities for forty body in wax. The Abbate Zumbo, of Sicily, or fifty years. The old lady used to sit near imitated the head so perfectly, under the the entrance of her exhibition-room to redirection of Nones, that many persons be- ceive her visitors, until at length she died, lieved the coloured wax to be the real about twenty years ago, at the advanced head; and this led to the further cultiva- age of ninety. Her name is still given to tion of the art by a Frenchman named De- the establishment over which her descendlacroix. Anatomical wax preparations were ants or representatives now preside; but exhibited at Hamburg, iby Courège, in that is no more than we see in other cases ; 1721; and in 1737 others were publicly for who can tell us whether there is still a sold in London.
Day or a Martin at the blacking factory, Wax images and effigies have been more or a Pickford at Pickford's ? or less in favour for ages past. The wax Some of the waxen effigies produced effigies of the kings of England were and exhibited are made by modelling, some at one time borne in procession at their by casting. In the former case the wax funerals. There were wax effigies in West- is mixed with white turpentine and minster Abbey, and at St. Denis, in Paris. lard, forming a substance easily cut and There is a curious paper in the Tatler, by modelled with tools. In making the figures Steele, purporting to be an account of a by casting, molten wax is poured into a waxwork exhibition in Germany, represent- plaster-of-paris mould; and the mould ing the religions of Christendom. Seven being then taken to pieces, the wax cast figures were placed in a row, some decked is easily extricated. Sculptors sometimes ont fantastically; while behind them were form their first models in a composition of other figures moved by clockwork, repre-wax, Burgundy pitch, and lard; it works senting Persecution and Moderation, and easily, and is convenient under many cirso arranged as to play a kind of ecclesias- cumstances. tical drama. Steele describes it as having Taking an impression in wax is another been a show carried about Germany, but mode again of using this remarkable subnames and places are not mentioned, and stance. Lapidaries, gem cutters, and seal we are left to put our own interpretation engravers often want to ascertain how their upon it. The date would correspond very work, whether in intaglio or in camco, is well with the time of Conrège just men- progessing ; they mix some very fine wax tioned. Mrs. Salmon's waxwork exhibition with sugar-candy, burnt soot, and turpenwas a famous attraction in those days. In tine; they warm this mixture, and press Italy beautiful figures in wax were made the stone or gem upon it, by which a reby Ercole Celli, and by Giovanni and versed copy of the device is produced. Anna Manzolini. Many fine specimens Sealing-wax of the best kind is a misnomer; by these artists are preserved in the mu- it is not wax at all, being made of shellac, seums at Bologna, Turin, Paris, and St. Venice turpentine, and cinnabar or verPetersburg. Other famous Italian artists milion; in the black sticks ivory black is were Calzi, Phillippo, Balugani, Terrini, substituted for cinnabar. The cheaper kinds and Fontana, the last-named of whom em- are equally without wax, common resin ployed quite a staff of anatomists, model being used instead of shellac, common turcatters, wax-moulders, and painters. pentine instead of Venice turpentine, red
Pinson and Laumonier in France, and lead instead of cinnabar, and lampblack Vogt in Germany, were accustomed to illus- instead of ivory black. How beautifully trate their anatomical lectures by means defined are the impressions carefully taken of wax casts; and the plan has since been in good sealing-wax most persons know. extensively followed. Not the least cele- Those who have occasion to pass through that busy hive of lawyers, law stationers, the establishment, partly paralysed with and law writers, Southampton-buildings, horror, kept their mugs of beer suspended Chancery-lane, may once now and then in the air, as they listened to the footman's see a covered cart drawn up at a par- thrilling narrative of his discovery of the ticular doorway, and hundreds of bright tin body. True that Mr. Johnson, the butler, boxes removed from the cart into the build- had a select audience in the pantry of men ing to which the doorway leads. The boxes of his own standing, well-qualified judges are flat and circular, larger than snuff-boxes, of a bottle of excellent Madeira, which smaller than gentlemen's collar-boxes, say he had thought the solemnity of the occaabout as large as muffins. These boxes are sion warranted him in broaching. But the to contain wax seals, and they are being crowd of townspeople, which immediately delivered into the Patent Office, where so on the dreadful news being bruited abroad much money is spent every year by in- had come surging up from Springside and ventors of new machines and new pro spread itself round the house, standing at cesses. In the accounts submitted annually tip-toe to peer over the hedges, staring up to parliament by the Commissioners of at the windows and over the chimney-pots, Patents is an item of expenditure for as though expectant of some revelation from seals for letters patent, and another item them, eagerly demanding news in feverish for boxes to contain the seals. Every whispers, and charging up to the lodge letter patent, as the official record of a gates to glare at any one going in or out patented invention is called, is obliged to of them, had dispersed. A large portion of carry about with it a large yellowish seal it had followed the fly, which, with the three or four inches in diameter, enclosed prisoner and superintendent of police, and in a flat circular tin box to prevent it from two constables on the box, had driven breaking, and fastened to the parchment away to the old Guildhall: followed it with by tapes or ribbons. The impression is roars of bitter execration and threats of taken in yellow wax from the Great Seal, personal violence; for not only had the and without this impression the patentee's dead man been well liked in Springside, claim would be invalid.
but the rumour had got abroad that the The seals here spoken of are really made murderer was his son—his son, who had of wax, though somewhat coarse in quality, always been a prodigal, a black sheep, and mixed with Venice turpentine or some a castaway, and who had on more than one similar substance. This soft wax for legal occasion threatened his father's life. seals was formerly used for sealing letters, In the library, everything remained just until the introduction of the harder (mis- as at the time of the struggle. The body, called) sealing-wax. At a time when seal. by Doctor Chenoweth's direction, had been ing-wax was very costly in England, and placed upon the couch, where it lay, the before gummed envelopes were in use, an dull outline of the profile and the projectelderly lady, widow of a military officer, ing feet showing under the white sheet eked out a scanty income by begging the which had been thrown over it. But the seals of old letters from friends and every overturned table on which the lamp had one she knew, removing fragments, &c., by stood—the lamp itself bent and broken and warm water, melting the wax, and re-mak- surrounded with a thousand particles of ing it into sticks.
shattered glass; the window-curtain torn away from its rings, and hanging over in
a ragged festoon; the book which the dead CASTAWAY.
man had been reading, and which had dropped from his hand when he first caught sight of his assailant—all these
mute, inanimate objects lay just as they BOOK III.
were at the time of the struggle. There CHAPTER X. ABANDONED.
was confusion and chaos, but there was no Two hours after the event just narrated, stain of blood on the carpet, nor anything the household at Wheatcroft began to settle to indicate the deadly end of the encounter down into something like order again. True that had taken place; the disorder might that here and there in the passages were have been the result of some drunken frolic, still to be seen women gathered together save for the presence of that awful form in knots, some weeping, some gesticu- which lay still and motionless on the couch, lating, all talking True that in the over which hung the picture of what it servants' hall a group comprising the gar- once had been in the prime of its life and deners, grooms, and out-door servants of the days of its glory.
BY THE AUTHOR OF "BLACK SHEEP,
PORT,” &c. &c.
It was by Captain Cleethorpe's orders The silence, which had lasted for some that the room had been left exactly as they time, was broken by the captain. found it, and that the door had been locked, “ It is of no use,” he said, “it is perfectly. not to be opened until the coroner's jury impossible for me to realise what has ocassembled for the inquest. It was with curred. There was a time when I was the greatest difficulty that Riley had been accustomed to look upon death in every induced to obey these orders. The old shape, and when the excitement of my
life soldier-servant pleaded in heart-piercing was so great, that even an occurrence like accents to be allowed to remain by the this would not have struck me with any great dead body of the master whom in life he amount of wonderment or dismay. But I had loved so well and served so faithfully: am growing old I suppose, and the quiet After his first wild shriek of horror and time I have had of it down here for the surprise when he recognised the man whom last few years, has had the effect of robbing he had seized, the old man became strangely me of my pluck. I am as nervous and as silent. In answer to the eager inquiries of weak asthe bystanders, to whom Gerald was un. “As I am-you were going to say,” said known, he was compelled to admit that the the rector. young man standing there, closely guarded “On the contrary,” said Captain Cleeby two grooms whilst the assistance of the thorpe; " I was perfectly astonished to see police was being summoned, was indeed how you, in your weak state of health, Sir Geoffry Heriot's son, but more than contrived to have all your senses about this he would not say. He kept his back you, and to give exactly such orders as studiously turned upon the prisoner, who, should have been given, under the effect of deadly white, and quivering in every limb, this sudden blow. That poor fellow, Riley, yet preserved a certain proud appearance, would never have suffered any one else to and gazed fearlessly round, and seeming to lead him from the room ; and in several ignore everything that was going on, knelt other instances your thoughtfulness and by the side of the body and apostrophised it presence of mind were invaluable." in simple mournful lamentation. The old “I, too, am accustomed to death, though, man was the last of all to quit the room, of course, not under such fearful.circumand when Mr. Drage gently led him away, stances as this," said the rector, quietly. he broke from the kind hand that was “I have seen more of it recently than you. guiding his tottering footsteps, and rushing Perhaps, too, there is something in the fact to his own chamber, flung himself upon of my knowing that, notwithstanding the his bed in an agony of grief.
little rally which he made, our poor
friend In the dining-room, Captain Cleethorpe was inevitably doomed; and Doctor Chenoand Mr. Drage were seated, one on either weth had warned me that his stay with us side the fire. The fire had been lit for the was probably limited to two hours. Bat first time that season, not that the evening the reaction is upon me now, and I feel was chilly, but rather in the vain hope of myself rapidly giving way.” doing something to dispel the awful gloom “ It seems strange,” said Cleethorpe, not wbich hung over the entire house; but the heeding the last remark, “that å man wood was damp, and only a thin smoky whose lease from nature had so nearly tongue of flame flickered fitfully in the expired should die a violent death !" grate. With the same hope, the butler It is by no means certain that such was had placed wine-glasses upon the table, the case.” but they remained untouched. Mr. Drage “What do you mean ?” asked Cleehad evidently been unable to control his thorpe, bending forward with astonishemotion; there were traces of tears upon ment. his cheeks, his head was bowed down upon “Simply this,” said the rector, adding his breast, and from time to time a con- quietly, “ don't mind
my shuddering; the valsive sob shook his wasted frame. When mere thought of the thing turns me sick. Captain Cleethorpe was at rest, he sat Chenoweth told me that from the cursory biting his nether" lip and pulling at the examination he had made of the—of the ends of his moustache, but every now and body, he found no indications of violence then he would rise from his chair, plunge sufficient to bring about the fatal result.” his hands into his pockets, and wander “But I myself saw the pocr face clotted vaguely up and down the room, occasion with blood !” said Captain Cleethorpe. ally pausing to shrug his shoulders and rub “ True; but this was merely surface his forehead, and then returning to his seat blood produced by the blows which had after the same dazed and puzzled air. been struck. These blows, Chenoweth