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gambler, and the most frivolous of men. refused to meddle any more with him till a He boasted of "nicking Bubb Doddington hundred pounds was promised them if they out of five thousand pounds,” and then tried would carry him to a surgeon. Still unable to win popular favour by honouring Pope to lift the chair containing the dying man, with a visit, and sending Glover, the author the chairmen then went to the aid of Cap. of Leonidas, five hundred pounds. He was tain French, who was severely wounded, a mass of contradictions ; affable to the and took him to a French surgeon's at a poor, yet detesting his own parents; a bagnio, in Long Acre. There the Earl of faithless husband, yet always praising his Warwick swore at them, and told them to wife ; desirous of acquiring military glory, call the next day for their money. When yet amusing himself, while Carlisle was Mr. Coote was examined by the surgeons, being besieged, by bombarding a barley, they found that he was run through the sugar castle with sweetmeats. With all lungs and the diaphragm. these faults, the people, when he died, ex- When the Earl of Warwick and his claimed, “Oh, that it were but his brother friends, somewhat sobered by what had Oh, that it had been the butcher (Cumber- happened, met at the bagnio, they examined land)!” The butcher's remark upon his their swords; the Earl of Warwick's was brother's death was worthy of him. “It is covered with blood, but yet they all agreed a great blow to the country, but I hope it that it was French who had fought Coote. will recover in time.”
Nevertheless the earl fled that night, and After her husband's death, the princess hid himself till parliament met. The two kept Prince George in great seclusion at noblemen were acquitted; the earl, claimLeicester House, under the dominion of ing “the benefit of clergy,” being disthe Earl of Bute.
charged on the payment of the usual fees. There was blood spilt in Leicester-square His widow married Addison, who found in 1698. On the 29th of October in that her, to his cost, high tempered and desyear, some officers had been drinking at the potic. It was the son of the duellist who Greyhound Tavern in the Strand, and a was summoned to Addison's death-bed tu quarrel that there arose ended in a duel in see how a Christian should die. Leicester Fields. The revellers had split At No. 47, on the west side (from 1761 into two parties; the notorious Lord Mohun, to his death in 1792), lived Sir Joshua Lord Warwick, and a Mr. Coote on one Reynolds. The great painter led a meside, and on the other Captain James, Cap- thodical life: he rose early, breakfasted at tain French, and a Mr. Dockwra ; hurry. nine, entered his studio at ten, examined ing into sedan-chairs, they were taken to designs, or touched unfinished portraits till the place of combat. Two duels then took eleven, when the knocker began to resound, place, one between Captain French and Mr. and titled people to rustle in; he painted Coote, the other between Captain James till four, then dressed, and gave the evening and the Earl of Warwick. Little is known to society. His beaming spectacles and of what first happened, but the result was his ear-trumpet were to be seen often at that Mr. Coote, severely wounded, died the club and theatre of those days, and the soon afterwards, and was carried to the owner of them was always welcome. DocRound House, in St. Martin's-lane. The tor Johnson, Goldsmith, Walpole, Banks, Earl of Warwick and Lord Mohun were Sterne, Gibbon, almost every one celebrated tried in Westminster Hall, before the in those days knocked at the door of No. 47. House of Lords, on the 28th of March, Reynolds's pleasant dinner-parties seem 1699, and the evidence given on the trial to have partaken somewhat of the picnic is full of curious details, illustrative of the character-never knives or glasses enough, manners of the times.
bad waiting, but good talk. Every one It appeared that when Mr. Coote was scrambles for himself, and Johnson eats till hurrying along in his sedan towards the the veins swell out on his forehead; GoldFields, he swore at the chairmen, and de- smith suggests a reply to an axiom of Johnclared he would run his sword into them if son's, and is stared at by Boswell; Gibbon they did not get to the place first. He and talks with learned dignity, and Burke is Lord Mohun got out of the chairs at the more eloquent even than usual. Reynolds corner of Green-street, “ the lower corner had his vexations too here, when Barry's of the paved stones going up to Leicester | moroseness vexed him, and when grand House. When the duel was ended, the people returned portraits as bad likenesses, chairmen tried to lift the sedan over the or complained of the colour fading. Here rails, but seeing Mr. Coote was dying, and he chafed to think of young Lawrence setdeclaring the blood would spoil the chair, | ting up in opposition in the same square,
or fretted at the preference some people hard before he drew that last sketch, which had for Romney. With well-bred sitters he called the End of All Things, adding he was polite and amiable, but when a rich to a series of worn-out and broken things citizen told him once that the pattern of a shattered palette, emblematical of his aphis lace ruffles was obscurely made out, Sir proaching death. Joshua replied hastily: “That is my man. Next door to Hogarth lived John Hunter, ner, sir, that is my manner;' and when a the great surgeon, and here he stored those vain lady displayed her taper hands, he treasures now in the Royal College of Sursaid, calmly: * Madam, I commonly paint geons. The story goes that when the my hands from my servants.”
studious man used to return for a quiet Half that busy yet tranquil life of Sir evening's reading, he would often, to his Joshua's passed at No. 47, till at last came disgust, find the house full of company, that sad afternoon, when, finding himself and on one occasion, provoked beyond engrowing blind, he laid down his brush, and durance, he is said to have ordered the said, mournfully, “I know that all things whole party his wife had invited out of the on earth must come to an end, and now I house. am come to mine."
In St. Martin's-street, on the south side Nor do we often visit Leicester-square of the square, Sir Isaac Newton lived; the without thinking of the affecting story of little turret that was his observatory is Reynolds, almost blind, wandering round still to be seen. Doctor Burney afterthe rails, seeking for a pet canary of his wards took the house. He was one of that had strayed.
Doctor Johnson's steadfast friends, and to Hogarth lived at the east side of the his door the giant of literature must have square, nearly at the south end. In his often made his ponderous way. Burney time a cork gilt head stood over the was fond of telling how he attended the door.
There the little man, with the first representation of Johnson's tragedy full round forehead, and the firm mouth, of Irene, and witnessed the public disappainted all his great pictures; and there, probation. When the heroine was about to in dreams, the hideous Idle Apprentice and be strangled on the stage, the audience the handsome good one, the Rake, the hang- cried “ Murder.” Many stories were cirmen, the madmen, the thieves, and all the culated at the time, Burney says, of the odd people whom he painted, visited him. author's being observed at the representaFrom this spot Hogarth sallied to see the tion to be himself dissatisfied with some Rake married to the rich old maid at Mary of the speeches and conduct of the play, lebone Church, and to the Adam and Eve to and, like La Fontaine, expressing his dissee the Guards stagger by to Finchley. approbation aloud. Quite as a young man, From here he set out for his walk to the we find Burney so delighted with the quiet New River and to Southwark Fair, Rambler, that he became a subscriber to with all its noise and merry clamour. From the Dictionary the moment the great proCovent Garden brawls, carefully noted by ject was announced, and Johnson replied bim, and from execations at Týburn, Ho- to his letter in the blandest terms. “Your garth returned to this square, to think over civilities,” he wrote, were offered with his pictures. It is difficult to imagine that too much elegance not to engage attention, such nightmare figures as Tom Idle and the and I have too much pleasure in pleasing wretches of Gin Lane did not perpetually men like you not to feel very sensibly the haunt the painter, but we suppose he exor- distinction which you have bestowed upon cised them by thoughts of the pleasant me.” Burney has preserved some interestfaces he could paint when he liked. The ing notes of Johnson's conversations, and pretty actress the rustics are staring at in describes him at Streatham telling Miss the Southwark Fair, the compassionate girl Thralo that she should dash away on the who saves the Rake from arrest, are speci- harpsichord like Burney. Although the mens of Hogarth in his happier and more doctor generally talked slightingly of innocent moods. His terrible power of music, Burney upon this said to him, “I satire, his honest hatred of what was evil, believe, sir, we shall make a musician of enabled Hogarth to brand more rascals you at last.” Upon which Johnson replied, than even Pope, yet without the poet's Sir, I shall be glad to have a new sense personal malice.
Of Burney's daughter, the In Leicester - square this great satirist authoress of Evelina, Johnson was a great spent his busy middle life, close to where, admirer. One day at the Essex-street Club, in youth, he had been apprenticed to he boasted that the day before, at Mrs. Gamble, the silversmith. Ho had worked | Garrick's, he had dined with Fanny Burney,
Mrs. Carter, and Mrs. Hannah More, and the proprietor of only two tickets, who afterthree such women were not to be found wards exhibited the collection in Blackelsewhere. He was, indeed, never tired of friars. It was eventually offered to the flattering and praising Fanny Burney, who British Museum, but was, after all, sold by keenly appreciated his homage.
auction in 1806. The sale lasted four days, One day a lady made Johnson talk of and there were four thousand one hundred love. The doctor eulogised the tender and ninety-four lots. passion in tremendous phrases. “We must The memories of Hogarth, Reynolds, not despise a passion,” he thundered, and Newton form a border of immortelles “which he who never felt never was happy, for Leicester-square, that even its general and he who laughs at never deserves to dinginess and disrepair cannot hide. May feel; a passion which has caused the change we live to see the day when the hideous of empires and the loss of worlds; a statue in the centre of weeds and refuse is passion which has inspired heroism and replaced by some real work of art, and subdued avarice ; a passion, in short, flowers take the place of nettles. that consumes me away for my pretty sent the square is an eyesore and a disgrace Fanny (Burney) here, and she is very to that quarter of London. cruel." One special night at the Burneys the authoress of Evelina has herself described. She paints Johnson as very ill
WAXWORK. favoured, tall, stout, and grand in figure, but stooping horribly, his mouth opening Wax once played a more important part and shutting continually, his fingers twirl in the history of every-day life than it does ing, his hands twisting, his vast body see- The busy bee made wax and honey sawing backwards and forwards, his whole centuries ago as at present, neither less nor great person looking as if it were going to more cleverly; but there were reasons why roll itself quite voluntarily from his chair those products were more valued in the to the floor. Presently, after holding his days of Queen Elizabeth, or of Queen nose quite close to the keys of the piano Matilda, than in those of Queen Victoria. while a duet was playing, he strode to the When gas-lighting was unknown, when book-shelves, and taking down a book began petroleum, paraffine, kerosene, camphine, to read, as if entirely oblivious of every one stearine, and ozokerit had not yet been dispresent. Ata subsequent party Miss Burney covered, society depended on wax for the sketches with much humour the despotic best lights, and coarse tallow, coarse oil, way in which Johnson ordered about Bos- and torches for common purposes. Then well, who was always trying to get near him, again, mead or honey wine was a favourite with What do you do there, sir ? Go to beverage in old days, whereas a modern the table, sir. What are you thinking of, Londoner would scarcely deem it a good sir ? Why do you get up before the cloth substitute for Barclay or Bass : we may is removed ? Come back to your place, approve or disapprove the change of taste, sir.” Which makes us shrewdly conjecture but it certainly leaves us now very little that Boswell, after all, must have had a dependent on the bee. hard life of it.
Every one knows what wax is. The bee Saville House (north side, some years ago does not really form or originate this subdestroyed by fire) was sacked by the mob stance. Wax enters into the composition during those terrible Gordon Riots, in which of the pollen of flowers, covers the envelope Barnaby Rudge figured. The men with the of the plum and other fruits, and forms a blue ribbons hated the proprietor for his sort of varnish on the surface of many supposed anti-Protestant feeling; their ex- kinds of leaves. Myrtle wax is obtained pression of dislike was not of the gentlest from the berries of the Myrica cerifica, an kind, and unripping beds and demolishing American plant; when the berries are boiled looking-glasses was their only consolation in water, the wax exudes, floats on the for not burning Sir George Saville's man- water, is skimmed off, and remelted. The sion to the ground.
wax-palm of the Andes, the Ceroxylon Leicester House, subsequent to its being Andicola, is a lofty tree yielding a mixture pulled down, became a show place for a of wax and resin, of which the natives Museum of Natural History, collected by make candles. The wax-tree of Guiana Sir Ashton Lever. Eventually the museum and Brazil yields a resinous juice which is was put up in a lottery, only eight hundred called wax, although it scarcely deserves out of thirty-six thousand tickets being sold. that name. What we generally know as For all this it was won by Mr. Parkinson, I wax, however, is the product of the bee;
whether the insect elaborates it from the rived from those favoured insects. There pollen of flowers, or from an animal secre- are some indications of such a use of wax tion, we may leave naturalists to determine. as far back as the third century; throughThe wax is used by the bee to construct the out the whole history of the Roman Catholic honeycomb. When separated by pressure, Church the usage has been maintained. melting in hot water, subsidence, and cool. There was at one time in England a due ing, it presents itself as a softish yellow sub-called wax-shot or wax-scot, a gift of wax stance. By subsequent melting, stretching candles presented to churches three times out into a kind of ribbon, and exposure a year. What were called wax-rolls were to bleaching agents, it becomes white or pieces or cakes of wax, flat circular discs, bleached wax, more pure than the yellow, presented to churches, for the use of which and having a somewhat higher melting they were made into candles or tapers, and point. In making this substance into wax some other sacred things. It is known candles, several prepared wicks are sus- that in the Anglo-Saxon times, under pended over a vessel of melted wax, the Ælfric and Edgar, lights were used on the wax is poured to a sufficient thickness on altar during mass, while others were held the wicks by a ladle, and the candles when in the hands of attendants during the readcooled are made cylindrical and polished ing of the gospel ; and at all times since, by rolling on a smooth table.
the gift of candles, or of wax to make them, Wax lights were indispensable accom- was deemed an acceptable religious service. paniments to the other adornments of Several illustrations of this subject are the royal palace, the feudal castle, and the to be met with in Mr. Toulmin 'Smith's baronial mansion of the olden time. In recently published work, an antiquarian the Wardrobe Accounts of Edward the book almost as pleasant as a romance. Fourth, somewhat less than four centuries We mean the Original Ordinances of more ago, there is a curious entry to the follow- than One Hundred Early English Gilds. ing effect : “ William Whyte, tallough. There is a dispute as to whether we should chaundeller, for jij dosen and ix lb. of say gild or guild ; but this need not detain p's candell, for to light when the king's us here. Very nearly five hundred years highness and goode grace on a nyght come ago, a parliament held at Cambridge in the unto his sayd grete warderobe, and at other time of Richard the Second ordered that divers tymes." From other entries it ap- returns should be made to the king in pears that p’s was sometimes spelled peris, council as to the ordinances, usages, and sometimes pares, sometimes parys; it is properties of the English gilds. The rebelieved that the lights so used were called turns seem to have been duly made and Paris candles. In that singular forerunner forwarded ; and the original parchments on of our modern books of etiquette, called which many of them were written still rethe Boke of Curtasye, written about the main in the Record Office, where Mr. Toulsame period as the Wardrobe Accounts min Smith has ferreted them out by dint of above adverted to, there is distinct mention great industry and care. Wax candles, or of wax candles and Paris candles, but with wax to make into candles, are frequently out any notification as to the materials mentioned in the records, sometimes as whereof the latter were made :
presentations to churches, abbeys, and conIn chambre no lyght ther shalle be brent
vents, sometimes as forfeits or penalties. But of wax, thereto yf ye take tent:
The Guild of Garlekhith (near the present In halle at soper schalle candels brenne
Garlick-hill) had a rule that all the members Of Parys, therein that alle men kenne.
should meet four times a year, on pain of Here we are told of wax candles in the forfeiting a pound of wax; and the same chamber and Paris candles in the hall, the forfeiture was imposed on any member who former probably more delicate and costly neglected to attend the funeral of a brother than the latter
or sister of the guild. Many of the guilds, The use of lighted wax candles in cathe- of which this was an example, partook of drals, churches, and religious processions, the nature of our modern friendly societies, and in connection with funerals, can be but with a marked attention to the incultraced back through a long series of ages. cation and encouragement of piety and There is an old Welsh legend to the effect morality. So singularly was the purpose that wax lights are used on the altar carried out in the Guild of St. Katherine, because bees derive their origin from Para- Aldersgate, that each brother and sister on dise, and are especially blessed by the admittance was to kiss all present, in token Almighty; therefore mass ought not to be of love, charity, and fellowship. Five round performed without the aid of the wax de- | tapers of wax, of the weight of twenty pounds, were to burn on high feast days And the Christmas candles, which our boys to the honour of God, of the Virgin Mary, and girls still delight in, are they not relics of St. Katherine, and all saints, and to be of religious usages of old days? used to light round the body of a dead The usages and traditions connected brother, and in his funeral procession. The with Candlemas Day are associated with wardens of St. Botolph's Guild, Norwich, wax through the medium of the candles stated in their return that they had in hand into which it was fashioned. There is an twenty-six shillings and eightpence for the old Latin proverb to the effect that if the maintenance of a light. The Guild of St. sun shines brilliantly on Candlemas Day, George, in the same city, had in hand hard frost is coming. It got into English forty shillings for the support of a light form as a couplet, that after Candlemas and the making of an image. In relation Day the frost will be more, if the sun then to St. Katherine's Guild, another in old shines bright, than it has been before. A Norwich,“ of the chattel of the guild shall Norfolk saying tells us that: there be two candles of wax, of sixteen As far as the sun shines on Candlemas Day, pounds weight, about the body of the So far will the snow blow in afore Vay. dead,” whenever any brother or sister de- Another is couched in very strong 'lanparted this life. The Guild of Young guage, stronger, we will hope, than any Scholars at Lynn was established chiefly countryman would really use : to maintain an image of St. William, stand- When Candlemas Day is fine and clear, ing in a tabernacle in the church of St.
A shepherd would rather see his wife on the bier. Margaret
, with six tapers of wax burning Another, in four-line stanza, goes a little on festival days. The Guild of St. Elene further into the weather-predicting line : at Beverley kept three wax lights burning
If Candlemas Day be fair and bright,
Winter will have another fight; every Sunday and feast day, in honour of
But if it be dark, with clouds and rain, St. Elene; while at the morning mass of Winter is gone and will not come again. Christmas Day thirteen wax lights were Another version, somewhat different in its burned. There must have been a goodly philosophy, is to the effect that whatever amount of wax consumed on the Feast of wind blows on Candlemas Day, will conthe Purification by the Guild of St. Mary tinue to blow for the next forty days. at Beverley; for the brethren got up a Candlemas Day, our almanacks tell us, pageant, in which two youths representing comes on the 2nd of February, and is the angels carried a chandelier or compound anniversary of the Purification of the candlestick, containing twenty-four thick Virgin. On this day the Church of Rome wax lights; and the other members each directs the blessing of candles by the carried a wax light. In the Guild of the clergy, the distribution of them among the Resurrection of our Lord, at Lincoln, at people, and the carrying of the lighted the funeral rites of a brother, thirteen candles in solemn procession. The pope wax lights were burned in four stands. presides at a great ceremonial of this kind In the Guild of the Fullers of Lincoln, no in the chapel of the Quirinal, on Candlemember was permitted to teach the craft mas Day; and minor celebrations take to a learner unless the latter contributed place at other churches. The candle is “twopence to the wax," that is, to the used symbolically in reference to a passage fund for buying wax lights. The Guild in the Song of Simeon. Very little notice of Tailors, of the same city, imposed a of Candlemas, or of its origin, is now taken fine of a stone of wax for infringement of in England, beyond a few country customs one of the rules. As wax was sevenpence and proverbs. per pound in those days, representing a As far as possible removed from the use manifold higher price now, this fine was of wax as a light-giving material, is its certainly a heavy one. In the Guild of St. employment as an impressionable subKatherine, at Stamford, a fine of one pound stance, a material that can be cast into of wax, plus twopence, was imposed on any moulds when melted, and impressed with member absent from the guild feast; and as a die or seal when in a semi-molten state. the feast itself was valued at twopence per The Greeks were familiar with this use of head, the absentee paid for a dinner which wax; they adorned their rooms with he did not eat, besides losing a pound of wax. statuettes, branches, fruit, flowers, and
The altar use of candles is mentioned wreaths, made of this substance. We by Wordsworth in one of his stanzas : are told that that very unrespectable genOur ancestors within the still domain
tleman, Heliogabalus, liked to tantalise his Of vast cathedral or conventual gloom, Their vigils kept: where tapers day and night
guests by setting before them dishes of On the dim altar burned continuously.
waxen luxuries, so cleverly imitative of the