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gar dialect], Appabransa (or jargon,] and Misra (or mixed.] Sanscrita is the speech of the celestials, framed in grammatical institutes. Pracrita is similar to it, but manifested as a provincial dialect, and otherwise; and those languages which are ungrammatical are spoken in their respective districts.” - Colebrooke's Essays, II. p. i.

It will have been observed, that a great portion of the words in the Singhalese is common to both the Sanscrit and Pali. This, while it supports our conjecture that the three languages owe their origin to one common source, renders it difficult to state, with any thing like certainty, whether certain words in the Singhalese, as we find them in modern works, are derivatives from the Sanscrit and Pali, or whether they are primitives, exhibiting merely the casual differences which result from shortenings, weakenings, and abrasions of sounds; alterations that ever exist between the dialects of one common parent language. In illustration of this part of the subject we refer the reader to the following passage from the Panchika Pradeepa or the “Mugallayana Pathi Panchica.'

සකල ලෝකනයනට සායසéත්‍රියශත් වරමහපුර හලක්ෂණ How 32 210 word woosoa pode escoleon009

Swool Board 200 nowools.8 1909 mw9x850, care doçecolonię 6.0328055@ eion 308 68.2098/80).aww@ç 08.09378568} queoog 8 Deseo seo! Congowo 8032 Codo. O q*018

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1, une common to 8. P. and E., means 'all.' There is another Singhalese word, @co, derived from either the §. or P., and also a native term of like signification, 30. -2, oem 'world, s. P. and E.; but cand ar @ are the Singhalese forms of the same word.—3, os con 'eye,' s. or P.; its equivalent in the E. is a 8t; quo E. is pro

s stands for Sanscrit; p for Pali, and 6 for the Singhalese or Elo,

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bably from q€8 P.; 003 E. from 088 s. or goods.; nosod E. from asosos P. or nong s.; and wood E. from Dades 8. or One P.-4, ows 8 (vide Clough's Dictionary) S. and P., and its equivalent in the E. is 68os (vide Pradeepikawa).-5, g is a native E. particle.—6, Osmocool 5

චාත්‍රිංශත් 'thirty-two,' purely s. ac oed being its E. form.-7, 00 'supreme,' S. P. E. Purely E. authors have used this without any alteration.—8, co 'great,' E., and its equivalents in the s. is @wood (also used in the E. without alteration); and in the p. 1830.-9, golu ‘man,' s. But the word used in purely E. authors is goed, probably derived from the p. g8w.—10, en 'indication,' s. Its equivalent in the E. being cm0..-11, qe of eighty,' p. Its equivalent in the E. being eg.-12, pozemoos 'attendant beauties,' from the P. and s.-wod.from;'an E. inflexion.—13, cocongos ‘very delightful,' S.—14, sono co?ə “the deportment of the body,'s.-15, wan E. inflexion.—16, no. ‘person,' E. (see note ( * ) at p. 27.]—17, 010 'form,' s. P. or being its equivalent in E.-18, Duoc body,' s. P. and E.-19, wo ooses “possession,' P. cooof E.-20, s5

85 is the E. expression of opd@ P.—21, o the verb substantive E.—22, wow being,' s. for wo} E. wono P.-23, GO m.30 'help,' s. P. E. There is, however, an E. expression for the same found in some books cêdo 6o.--24, gregas association,' s. for the E. expression qu 26.-25, y9.09 'device,' s. for 8003 E.-26, ou aco? 'in the mode,' E. for

woo) s. and Owl P.-27, s'two,' s. forç E.-28, 38 'method,'s. P. for OCOLS E.-29, 0:8 'therein,' E., 30, onę 'etcetera's. P. for on E.-31, 320.28 "always,' s. for 3 $ E.—32, 800S 'opposed,' p. for 86c& E.—33, 00908 ‘respecting,’E.—34, & an E. inflexion.—35, 8os 'friendly,' 6. P. E.-36, m@mes'intention,'s. for 960W E. -37, aq the fact of,' E.-38, 03.gogore 'unripe, 'E.—39, "attributes,' E. for goffa s. and P.-40, ozof inherent,' E. for quos s. 90.9 P.-41, 4286 venerable priest,' 8. for 86 P. and 906 E.-42, cod E. inflexion.--43, 08

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ඉඳුරන්

oin 'fully ripe,' 8. and P.-44, 23C 'season,' s. P. for me E.—45, qood 'awaiting,' s. and P. for ojo E.—and 46, dow P. of onega, which see supra.

Before quitting this subject, we may here state that where a language is the derivative of another, it is probable there will be found (as in the Pracrit) Grammatical rules for deducing one from the other. There is, however, not a single book extant amongst us which treats of deducing the Singhalese from the Sanscrit. This also furnishes us to a certain extent with presumptive evidence in support of our theory, that the Singhalese was not immediately derived from the Sanscrit. But we have nevertheless seen that

many words are derivatives from that source into the Singhalese, and that the present structure of the language is in a great measure the result of a modern refinement. It may therefore not be without advantage to notice a few philological peculiarities of the Sanscrit as compared with the Singhalese.*

E. G. The Sanscrit o frequently assumes the sound of ou in the Singhalese, as që Sanscrit eyes,' anced Singhalese; megcs Sanscrit “association,' qu&or Singhalese; op@38 w Sanscrit 'teacher,' pusou Singhalese.

ne is changed into g; as Sanscrit 'prosperity,' 9990 Singhalese.

e is sometimes changed into win Singhalese, as fichimb Sanscrit ‘night-producer'moon, soogou in Singhalese; 00001?5 Sanscrit, w 2009 ou Singhalese “a small kind of mango;' Baos Pali, 535 Singhalese 'grammar;' 22 Sanscrit, ES Singhalese ‘mouth.' mis often changed into a or ; as 8.9008 Sanscrit,

* In deducing words from the Sanscrit, the student should chiefly attend to the alphabets, or the sounds which are peculiar to the two languages ; and should avoid the use of those letters which are foreign to the Sioghalese.

+ These examples, perhaps, exbibit merely the transformation of sounds which words, derived from the same source, have undergone during the lapse of ages; or they present us with those modifications which are the result of their being deduced from the Sanscrit or Pali. In either cas attention to the above peculiarities will not be without profit to the studente

o into 3308* Singhalese citizen;' Osons Sanscrit, into 3 86 Singhalese "city.'

@ is altered into o; as o@30 Sanscrit, into west Singhalese “river;' @29 Sanscrit, into Singhalese high.'

o is altered in Singhalese into es, 00, and ę, respectively; as egaon Sunscrit, into wash Singhalese “gold;' QƏos Pali and Sanscrit, into Be3 Singhalese “I cook.' [Numerous examples may be cited of this change] saco ás Pāli, into 800368 Singhalese “having inquired;' €237 Sanscrit, into ocot Singhalese “words;' @ @ Sanscrit, into @ $ Sine ghalese “to release. The copulative o in compounds is invariably changed into ç in Singhalese.

ő is frequently changed into s; as 837 Sunscrit, into çor Singhalese beings;' 03 Sanscrit, into oq Singhalese *king;' ço Sanscrit, into çç Singhalese 'flag.' [Numerous examples may be cited of this.]

mę is altered into os; as RSC33 Sunscrit, into one or Singhalese 'wisdom.'

is sometimes altered into e: as 30 Sanscrit, into Ole Singhalese “crown;' Bo Sanscrit, into mc Singhalese mountain top;' opēgo Pali, into Be Singhalese · hole.'

@ is frequently changed into ç and e respectively; as os Sunscrit, into sc Singhalese 'fool;' 020:00 Sanscrit, into ORSinghalese “pond;' 9629 Sanscrit, into çc Singhalese 'coarse.'

ç is found altered into e, as in ea9 Sanscrit 'top' into ca Singhalese; q3 Sanscrit ‘half,' into q@ Singhalese.

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• See Grammar $7. + This letter is inflected with o in the Singhalese. See Appendix C.

o is changed into e; as owu Sanscrit, into o Singhalese ‘sin;' o Sanscrit, into {ə Singhalese “island.'

@ is altered into a; as ex Sanscrit, into a Singhalese .be;' mDoro Pali, nə of Sanscrit into aortaed Singhalese 'Honor, Excellency.'

All the aspirate characters in Sanscrit are changed into their equivalent unaspirate simple sounds in Singhalese; as o@w into co.09'intention;' 5.203 into 86vę, opposed;' As into good 'a proper name;' 093 Pali, into o.o Singhalese a high order of priesthood,' &c.*

The above remarks will clearly prove the utility—nay the necessity which we have felt at every stage of our studies—of a correct and accurate knowledge of the Singhalese alphabet. When we speak of the Singhalese * Alphabet,' we do not mean the 'Hodia,' which every scholar is taught upon his first entrance upon the study of the Singhalese, and which contains both the characters proper to the Singhalese, and the symbols of sounds which exclusively belong to the Sanscrit and Pali languages; but we mean the letters which are peculiar to the Singhalese as contradistinguished from those belonging to the cognate languages. The paper on a course of study, inserted in Appendix C., will explain the reasons for the amalgamation of Singhalese with Sanscrit and Maghadi characters.

* Our limits forbid any further exemplifications of the transformation of the letters in the two cognate languages; but we have laid before the reader sufficient, we trust, to enable him to prosecute the task further. And before we dismiss the subject, we give a few examples shewing the relation which the Singhalese bears to the English, not only in the comparison of detatched words (see note at p. p. xliii, xliv.); but in the striking resemblance which words in those languages present as viewed through their roots, and the laws under which transformations of sounds take place in different languages: e. g. 'eye' alone; nose' (ose changed into ) 0895 ; 'tooth' ( 0); 'star' oscu; day' (s changed into) & ; 'light' ecce; moon' @s; 'middle' Ouç; 'red' oei; * stand' ; be' a; mouth' ; four' 001; 'five' 000; 'six' ; eight' q@; -nine' (on changed into) 070; &c. &c.

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