Imatges de pÓgina

6. 92000 ۍo on sissedoqogo-OO & ex

Elustanzas by the name of MaharaddhadjaA. D. 1768. 7. එළුබඩගහාරසකර-කව්මිනිගකගඩොල

The Elu language sweetly rhymed.—A. D. 1771. 8. morgeus on endasto-369936 ist I have rhymed into Eluthe offering in the river"

A, D. 1807.

මසිය බසික කලහස විරිතයුත- සියබස් මල්දම්. I have rhymed into several tunes in Singhalese.

A. D. 1821. 10. සියබසිනි කවීකර-නිකිනිකන්.. .

Rhymed in the Singhalese.—A. D. 1832. 11. ooooo edan -0.08 33003.

Rhymed in Elu.-A. D. 1840. * An inquiry into the derivation of the words ed and 200.0 furnishes us with further proofs in support of the position we have advanced. †

Since the above extracts are nearly every one of them from the Singhalese poets, and lest the reader may therefore be inclined to the supposition, that Elu is the designation for a so-called “ Poetical dialect ; " the following prose selection from the Introduction to the Pansia panas Jataka, may not be out of place.

eam.3o1 800 Wow a6 ceo odnotowa $8,00 Dodesoigouage go swojegosiaw@ododecs ඇසියයුතු,

" It is proper that good people, having given their ears, and bent theit minds, should hear the Elu version of the history of Lives' which has been composed without departing from the method of the Atuwás."

+ The writer of 8803ə: whom we have already quoted, says “As people who are natives (ol a place) speak in (their) native tongue: 60 likewise the people of this Sinhala country use the Sinhala speech : Their language is called the Sinhala language,”

The above furnishes us with almost conclusive proof against the positionthat the Elu, but not the Singhalese, was "the ancient language of the Ceylonese.” For, if according to Gurulugumi, the writer of Pradipikawa, both Wijeya's followers and their language were called Sinhala from the period of their landing in Ceylon, it is impossible to maintain that eco, considered as a dialect different from one, was "the ancient lane guage of the Singhalese."

The term od is derived from one (Singhalese), which changed into Sue, de, oud and acco, produce od. Thus Bons by the rule respecting card or syncope, assumes 1st, ere, and 2ndly, &r (see § 9); and ec it would seem, by a change of the vowels inherent in & and @ (see § 10.), next assumes and; and the ow in the last expression being then changed into me, and the Go into e (see $ 22. and note at p. 14), we obtain eg.* It is to be remarked, that although warranted by general usage at present, the eg was correctly rejected by ancient writers, vide post, the selection from the eminent author of the Wisudhi Margha Sanna. But scholars are by no means agreed upon this definition. According to some, it may be from ey and easy for Caio (ve?5) the word cxo contracted and added to the particle e producing for eo. But onczo, or ons, it seems to us, is derived from BoCSC, Singhalese, andęs island. Thus Coone, as above, assumes God, and the same being compounded with {n, produces wo? or meas. It would also appear, that in this etymology we are borne out by the learned commentator on the Sidath' Sangarawa, who paraphrases Owe&dcoe, (see Appendix A. $ 6.) Rocco000 "current in the Island of the Singhalese.The first of these

Dr. MacVicar, in his Essay on the Elements of Voice, &c., published in the Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 1. p. 36, deduces “Ceylon” from the word Elu. He says; “The Sidat Sangara [is] a Grammar of the Elu or Ela or Hela or Sela or Selan or Ceylon language.” We are inclined to believe that the derivation of this word, which is here hinted at rather than espressed, is correct: and if, as we have above seen, “Elu” is derived from the word “Singhalese,” “Ceyloo ” can be no other than a modification of the term “Sinhala ” or “ Sinhalan”. the final euphonic n merely presenting the phenomenon (to which Bopp refers at g 133 of bis Comparative Grammar, and) which is a prevailing one ” not only in many of the languages of India, but also in the Singhalese.

+ 60.8815890ncobacę 833 mēn 20 ODIE6306-"Have I in Eladiwu (Singhalese-island) language with pleasure finished my song."

definitions has not only the support of Grammar, but the authority of the best scholars of the day, and is more correct than the second; and both support the view, that od and 8000 a are terms for one and the same language, without a distinction of dialects: since there is no real difference between the two roots; for the one has reference to the nation Bor@,* and the other to the island of Lanka coizo, which that nation inhabits. Since writing the above, we have heard an opinion broached by a native of respectable acquirements, to the effect, that so means “colloquial or clear Singhalese.” That there is such a notion very generally prevalent, even amongst the learned pandits, may be seen from the following passage in a poetical epistle received by the writer a short time since, in answer to one forwarded by him to a Budhist priest at Galle, requesting his views on a difficult passage

in the Sidath' Sangarawa:8 @ 379 @ę oss

ed 3 8 9 o o o o o o o o 2 s. si 0 0 6 37 362 363 391.0 9 8 8ę og @

“Since it is not known with what (intention) people of ancient times uttered the Singhalese passage given as an example in the Sidath’ Sangarawa, the same cannot be rendered in Elu by translating it.”

Here Elu is used in contradistinction to the Singhalese; and the context intimates that the former is the colloquial dialect, into which the passage written in the latter cannot be translated. If this be so (which it is not), the word 20003 can only apply, and could only have been formerly applied, to an ancient abstruse dialect or phraseology. Now, the earliest work in the history of the Singhalese language is called (not Singhalese but) the Elu (Atuwa) commentary, to which we have already adverted,

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* “ The name given to Ceylon subsequent to the landing of Wijeyes from Eonon lion, and tbe root o to destroy."— Turnour.

Having thus shewn that Elu and Singhalese are in reality synonymous terms, we may here notice the most weighty argument on the other side, “that the Elu differs considerably from the Singhalese both in structure and in the words that are used.” This is easily answered. If Elu and Singhalese are identical, a difference between the ancient and modern writings is a necessary result, common to all the languages of the world. For, to use the language of Professor Bopp, “one and the same word can in the course of time assume various forms for various objects.” e. g. o@ 00"Çdo soperes a acea“Many people called heaven to witness,"

,"* is now generally understood to mean, “Many people uttered imprecations to heaven." It is not a little remarkable, however, that between the oldest Singhalese writings found on slabs and rocks at Mihintala, and the modern Singhalese, there is (comparatively speaking) far less difference, than between the first specimen of ancient English given by Dr. Johnson in his history of the English language, and the modern writings of a Brougham or a Macaulay.

In the use of many words, therefore, it is a fact that the ancient differs from the modern Singhalese; and the author of Swabhasa'lankara, “Singhalese Rhetoric" says

Owcooo9ow7dogg 93090000;} Dol

zde çoosooloolausę.8.10 @wa. “Although such tricks (of composition) previously existed, it is improper to attempt them now; for unlike the language of the Gods (Sanscrit), the Singhalese is not without a change from time to time."

The change here alluded to consists in the present disuse of certain words, the introduction of many particles which were anciently omitted in compositions, and in the abundance of certain decorations of style which were formerly avoided. The following will exhibit the difference:

Literally "many people kept heaven a witness.”

EXAMPLE 1. පහනෑතඹරහි බමන බමර මුළු තඹ33ශය සරණතිෂර බලල් කලා. This passage, when rendered into the modern, runs as follows:

පහන් වූ කල්හි නමවල හැසිරෙන්නා වූ බඹර සමූහය අඳුරුනැමති මනුශයයමින් ඇවිදින අන්දකාර පැටියන් austroene See translation at p. 40.

EXAMPLE 2. සරණතඹරවරලසසෙ වලවලකර අයනා: රසුවපර කලවමන් mw 638 goda DodomaSee translation at p. 29. In modern Prose:

:පාදනැමතිග එමලක්සනැමති සවභාව සාආරාදනා කරනාවු රජදු විසිහතරකලාවු අවමාන්‍යෙයන්කුසරජ්ජුරු වවහන්සේ කල්පනාල ගගකාන්තය...

In the first example, woon is the Singhalese for the Sanscrit word on which is now used. We have, however, given wear one which is more correct. 836 is of less frequent use than aco; and acc, the substantive form of the adjective me, is obsolete, because perhaps the same is used for cats. Eps, as a term of comparison, is now seldom used.

In the second example 6 Son "feet,” (a word which occurs in the first as the participle for walking,) is obsolete except in poetry; 36 - which frequently occursin poetry is, in common parlance, either an ironical or sarcastic expression-08, a term of comparison, was anciently, and is still omitted in poetry, as in Owadogo for woon0708 9096 in prose_"the ocean of youth.” The decorations of style to which we have alluded, and which consist of particles and honorifics, are the following; කල්හි, මල්වල, ව, නෑමති, විසින්, වහන්සේ, ය, &c.

From the above examples it will be perceived, that the modern

is much more redundant in its style than the ancient, of which a few passages occur in the Sidath


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