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THE

SIDATH SANG ARAWA

SINGHALESE GRAMMAR.

.

THE

SIDATH-S ANGERA WÊ.

@b36.06 con [1

(1) Bow ye to the feet of Budha. HAVING made my heart a residence * for him who knew the end of all things, I have composed † the Sidathsangerawe, (2) in order that the learner may be instructed.

The formation of all the parts of speech and the application of words, are comformable to the usage of clever men, which it is therefore necessary to follow in all the divisions of Grammar-wo), wę, Ece, &c. &c. $ This must moreover be attended to throughout the whole of this work.

Grammar may be divided into the 20 following elements: viz. 1. wat 6. 803

11. poos

16. අඩු
2.
සඳ
7.

006 on 17. Des
3. ලිඟු

8. 583
13. çon .

18. නිසම්
4. 5205
9. cod 14. goc8 19.

19. අනියම් 5. සමස් 10. Qaçat

15. වැඩේ. 20. අවිදුමණේ. .

12.

[1] See Appendix C.

* The word mę new is the Elu form of the Pali expression moja me, which means “Scented house ”; and is generally used to signify the house or court of Budha : "end of all things” is an expression for perfection.

+ Compose is here rendered "have composed.'
[2] See Introduction.

This word is explained the ignorant by some commentators.
§ The grammarian repeats this advice more than once; and indeed he
seems to have been well aware that we must all yield to "custom"
“whose arbitrary gway... words and the forms of language must obey."
Usus, quem penes arbitrium est, et jus, el norma loquendi."- Horace.

A

6

and o. ග e

CHAPTER I. 1. eod, Sign (which may be rendered Orthography) is that which both by name and sign teaches or points out vowels, consonants, &c. In the practical Singhalese there are 5 short vowels, called e; and 5 long vowels, called 20u; and 20 consonants.

The 10 vowels are a op 9 8 e9 ed @ & ; and the 20 consonants are a ග ජ ට ඩ ණ ත ද න ප බ ම ය

ව o es

(3) The five long vowels and the last consonant o are essentially necessary

for the utterance of the Singhalese; e. g. ops, long life; 7 as in c, swing ; en as in erd, spring (of water); eo as in eo é cardamoon (alpinia granam paradisi); and as in 879, to cram. They are also necessary to be treated of, since they are incorporated with the consonants, e. g. o in ws, branches; & in @, lion ; en in , broth; og in oo, shadow; and in , ear.

The last consonant o is also necessary in the Singhalese, because in poetry and in prose it is sounded both fully and imperfectly. [4] e. g.

ODDƏconcogido 399m8SOOLOGod: * He thought that by reason of (his) superiority his word would not be disregarded.

890 scogoooos omadsię se Bouwr8. f She came slowly according to the king's wish, and hid

herself on one side.

[3] See Appendix C.

[4] It seems that the grammarian has entered into a consideration of the necessity for the long vowels being treated of as a part of the Singhalese alphabet, because certain Philologers had disputed the propriety of their being considered as separate characters; since they are produced by the alteration of the five short vowels. The same may be said of the o,– vide Appendix C.

* This is a selection from the book called as one, which is either scarce, or altogether lost. We have rendered the above into English with some difficulty, owing to the absence of the entire vorse.

+ This example is extracted from the Kawoo'riloomine.-Vide Introduction,

Also cos, a kind of earth. Eoquoe, a shrub (justicia adhatoda Note that the above are examples of o being fully sounded. The following are, however, some of the words, where it has an imperfect sound.15) e. g.

60 @ono *-paint, bees, ointment. 2. Wę, (which may be rendered Permutation is the contracting of two syllables into one; or rather, the blending of the last letter of the first syllable or word with the first letter of the second syllable or word. Thus wçe, moon-like, becomes wnę3; 00006, great-rampart, becomes 160096.

3. Ea, Gender, is a distinction (in usage) of objects by exhibiting their difference; as 68, this, masculine; and gol, this, feminine. e. g. &c, world, masculine; sę, lightning, feminine.

4. 620, Declension, is the change which nouns undergo by means of inflexions, in order to render them in different ways; as 0, prosperity, (from wes changed into the 1st case c000, which, by another process that will hereafter be explained, becomes aw0D)-Also ama28, in society, is the locative case by changing w@ into wo28, and the last into

28. 5. woed, Combination. By it two or more words are combined together, and blended into one compound word or noun; e. g. Sod, king, is a term compounded of s, earth, and od, nourisher; Begele a term for woman, produced by the combination of the words id, blue, cod, Lotus, and qued, eyes.

6. 808, Root, is the original state whence a word undergoes change. There are two kinds of roots, viz. 9898, verbal roots, and wę868, roots of nouns. † Verbal roots are the

(5) See Appendix C.

• This is differently written in some Mss. thus @ 00006; which means extracted liquors, such as toddy.

+ Roots of nouns are declinable words, in their primary, bare forme, destitute of all case terminations.

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