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the Sciences, and directed the removal of the Dalada Relic from Saffragam (whither it had been already taken from Cotta) into Kandy. He held a great festival in commemoration of this act, and invited 2140 priests from Arracan, in whose presence he celebrated the Upasampada Ordination. These were acts to which a contemporary poet bears testimony in the following stanza, which we select from a poem written at this period, the Dalada Katàra.

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os “ Except that my hand is not long enough (to reach the moon) upon that orb would I delineate the splendour of that festival in honor of the Tooth Relic of Budha, which the delightfully virtuous monarch Il'imala Dharma cheerfully celebrated by the destruction of Lanka's cnemies and by the promotion of Budha's religion.

Having recorded the last ‘literary destruction' in the reign of Raja Singha I., about the year 1586, when the remnants of our literature, which more or less partook of a religious character, were “piled up to the height of a mountain, and consumed by fire;” and the pleasing efforts of his successor to revive literature, we are enabled to introduce to the notice of the reader Alagiwanna Mohottala,-a name which is dear to every lover of the muse from its association with two celebrated poetical works, the Kusajataka, and Subasitha.

Alagiawanna Mohottala is justly regarded as one of our greatest poets, occupying in Singhalese literature the position held by Alexander Pope in that of Englan:l. No one has studied brevity more than Alagiawanna Mohottala-few have surpassed him in correctness of versification; and certainly, with three exceptions among the modern poets, he

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had the greatest command of elegant language. His Kusajataka (a. D. 1620) is more easily undirstood than haviasekara; and is all the better for being so In (7.9 of them there are also beauties of styie that are not to be met with elsewhere. Yet it is difficult to compare the priest of Totta gainmuwe with the chieftain of Sina-Korle.

A doubt, however, is entertained by som.., as to the correctness of “the opinion of the native literati, that Kaviasekara is the greatest poem in the language.” Such doubters have also given the preference to Kusajataka. This has rendered a comparison of the two works necessary.

It is admitted, that "pure language, unadulterated with foreign mixtures,” “ strict conformity to the rules of prosody and grammar, energy of expression, a quality not very usual in Singhalese works,” and “ a ready command of language," nark the style of Kaviasekara. Of the Kusajatake it is said, that the “ unity of (its) plan, the steady progress of the narrative, and a certain unaffected display of genuine feeling in its principal characters,” “entitle it to rank as a poem of high merit."

It would indeed be idle to speak of “unity of plan," “steady prügress of the narrative,” &c., in reference to the merits of either of these poems; when it is ren embered that neither of them have any claims to originality, both being poetical versions of a part of the prose work called Punsiapanas Jatake, with of course, a little exaggeration, which is perhaps excusable in poets.

In what then consists the superior merits of Alagiawanna Mohottala, we fail to perceive. And yet we may, upon a cursory perusal of the works of these two writers, obtain abundant testimony to prove the su;r ricrity of Tottagammuwe.

No writer, it is apprehended, will ever be guilty of plagiarism, unless, in his own estimation, the work from which he copies is entitiea io preference over his own words and

thoughts. That this is the opinion of Alagiawanna Mohottala him-clf, with respect to the writings of Tottayammuwe, clarly appears from the following servile imitations, not to call them downriglit plagiarisms. “Look at this picture, and on this.”



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It will thus be seen that Ala gia wanna Mohottala has copied from the Kaviasa kera in the very fir:t stanza of the Kusajatake. Nor is that all. ['pou liazarú we refer and find the following: KAVIASEKARA.

KUSAJATAKA. සි ත ර ඳ ර. ව න් 2 ව @osca ê o.o. : G

2 ක ග ර ස ව හ mgsee AOS 15. osa o o od o

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Every line is here borrowed; and the last is palpably the same in both, except with a slight transposition of words, and the alteration of @vjot into @s; and onę into a bę. But take another:



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Hail (your Ercellency ! who is like a run unto the Lotus-like race of Brahmins – who, by reason of thy wisdom. is the teacher of the three worlds-who is a moon us to the lily-like human race-and who is like an ocean for precious gems. + See Translation at p. 38. Dote (*)

In this world who is ike unto her, whose heart is rivetted to Budha, whose ear to the Scripture», and whose bappiness is (identical with that of the priesthood.

$ lo this world who is like unto lier, by reason of (the .o'lowing qualities viz.) that her beart, ear, and bappiness are (centered) in Budha, the Scriptures, and the Priesthoud.


KUSAJATAKA ව න ප ප ල ව කි මි ද කි මි ද න ප ල ග ව 5

දවා ප ඟ ද 2 ගග - සිහ බ ද ග ද උබ හි ව න හි බ ද ග හ හි වු එ ස න් ව ල වී හි ද ප : හි ර ද ස බ ද ග ස් හි දි වල දි වු හිඳ ක අ සි - 011 - ව හ හික්

Look again at Sevil Sandese, which is ascribed to this writer. It is borrowed in many parts from not only the works of Tottagammuwe (compare our selections at p.p. C., cxcii., and the folosing) but fro.a the Tisara Sandese. Ex una disce omnes.

FROM TISARA SAXDESA. මද ලො වි න න අ ම රි ස තපි නි ණී ද ව් ප ද ක ව ට ක ල ද ස ගඳ කි උ නි න ඳු හි හි හි ම ල් න ය. ඒ

සා බ ම න් න ද ක හා වු ද සා ද මු ලව් ල ග ම නි න් සා යා නා වි ද කි සි අ ත ර ම

ච නි න් .) ඟ ප ල ස ම් ද කු ම ම යි ත “Did they not surround you, fair one, under a belief that you were a mass of heavenly manna sent down from heaven for the meritorious beings? Did not the Siddhantas approach thy splendour under an idea that thou wert a cluster of flowers dropt from the Elysium of the Gods? Has no misiap fallen thee in the course of thy journey? Thy sight alone is the benefit which eyes can receive.”

FROM THE SEWUL SANDESE OF ALAGIAWANNA. I ක ර සි දා න ල රු. 60 අ ල පි ඩෙ ක ය . සි ති න් සුර නර ම එ හා ම ල භ වූ ද කු ල් ම ති න්

* The beams of Budha's rays proceeded in lines, having dived through Wa-polaua, having ibence gone into Bawaga, and baving thence spread themselves in the whole universe.

+ The six kinds of maive.lous ra's of Budha proceeded, having dived through w'a-polawa, haviaz tbence risen to Bawaga, and having thecce spread themselves on (the ten directions) all sides. Note-Wapolawa, see Llougb p. 673, and Bawaga, see ib. p. 489.

For another specimen of this poem, see p. lxxi.

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Aggies & as cor ල ද සි ද ඹු ග3 නො පෑ ල දි යෝ ද උ තු nos o segi w Bone goede

දු ට ක ල . මට ස ඳ දු ටු නි ර ර “ Did not gods and men in ecstacy approach thee under a belief that thou wert a mass of heavenly manna which up-rose from the milky ocean? Did not Siddhantas wear thee on their heails under an idea that thou wert a flower dropt from the Elysium of the Gods? Friend, hast thou returned scatheless without any mishap on thy way? To me thy sight is the same as the moon to the milky ocean."

Such are the comparative merits of these two writers, from whom we have above extracted. But it is now time to proceed with the narrative.

To Alagia wanna * we are also indebted for a work called Nitishra, and Maha Ilatana. The former is rather scarce in the low country, and the latter, to which our limits do not allow of more than a passing allusion, is one of the most esteemed Song-books extant amongst the Singhalese.

Shortly after the labours of the writer from whom we have quoted last, Ceylon was shaken to its very centre by the protracted but unsuccessful wars of the Portuguese. This was at the time when Don Constantine was taken prisoner, and Rajasingha II., then 17 years of age, finally drove the invaders back to the Maritime provinces. Many Portuguese were compelled at this period to seek safety in the woods of Ceylon, especially of the Kandian Provinces, where their descendants are now only distinguished froin the Singhalese by their colour and religion.

A day after the capture of Don Constantine, a child was found under a tree. He was apparently of European extraction; and was presented by the King's courtiers to the

* It is said that Prangihatane, a puem on “ the Fortuguese war was also a production of this writer.

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