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17. oo are indeclinable particles, which are put in a sentence for the purpose of forming the roots (into words) or otherwise; e. g. COLD (6938) Goorooloo-adorable; mę (0030) Sanda-adorable; 6 0 8()Rathesee-adorable ; 60090f having-gone.

18. siwa (Immutable i. e. established usage ) is that form of a word, which, after it has once undergone a change according to a rule of Grammar, assumes an unchangeable form; as ça036, Krishne, derived from ę garland, and cço belly, never assumes çaolço. .

19. is the reverse of the last definition.

20.985st comprise all the other accidents of Grammar, which are not herein specially named or explained; viz. All words which do not undergo a change in order to adapt them to different cases; also such words as the following, 99003 (derived from @35.0)) the inner royal household ; o@alge (from viams@e) the seat of Indra; and words which are not formed by a fixed rule; and likewise adverbs and affixes which do not admit of declension, &c.

Note that the formation of all words is in conformity to the above rules.

End of the twenty Elements of Grammar. I

• The 15.00a Ew, a dictionary of synonymes in enumerating the names of Krishne gives us ço@iço, which is clearly incorrect, since such a spelle ing is inconsistent with the above rule; and since also the Orosdos Bioqe, of which the 80s EW is a poetical version, has cosas.

t e. g. @ Begou though derived from fod day and goou splendour sometimes assumes {onggo u sun, and therefore is not immutable in its compound form ; also goinw96 the great rampari, from one and CÓ, is sometimes written onco.

We may be permitted to state here, since no pative work treats of Punctuation—that, as in legal compositions in English, the only "siga" or “mark of reading " which is recognized in the Singhalese language, is the full-stop, marked in the latter thus, utilem vide Appendix A. In poetry, however, a sign such as » is frequently placed at the end of each couplet. This is merely another form of the Sanscrit sign which is marked thus II. An example of the last, borrowed from the Sanscrit, will be found in the Introduction, under the head of Blank Verse.

B

The wicked, although leurned in sciences, will, like serpents ebearing a jewel in their necks, be the rery terror of others by entwining themselves round the sandle-tree-like king.

e. 38000E is the changing of(the mood of) the verb; as op 30 (8ęcos?; 89.5.89 Mod8 gewcooos Ossos, O supreme Peacock! take thy lodging in the flowered tree at that season.

Note that these five changes, &c. I occur whenever they are necessary for the sake of Euphony, § or by poetical license.

15. Ora is the elongation of letters, as qed for qet, eyes; que for ¢ ¢ [7], cold; q:8 for 90, we; ed.6 som for en bon, means; 892.8 for 703, new; od for Oe, flocer; a& for de, forest; for wc, trees; 880c8 for 88@8, in cold. I

16. is the abbreviation or shortening of letters, as çdo for

Çoco, calf of the leg; el@ for w.62, brushwood; mę for Boję, body; 2 for as, Brahama; || Gwasmod for edcz 08987, self-virtue; so s sesgos for goonsixogos, an ocean to the stream of wisdom. I

• Here the past is put in the future tense by the translator, as otherwise the passage would be less intelligible for want of the context.

+ This is from Əgo woręged—a book which is handed down to us in a mutilated state. In the example in the text the writer has used the indicalire mood in an imperative sepse.

1 The &c. has reference to other accidents of grammar, besides those specially damed.

§ Euphony may also mean established usage.

(7] In the text the Grammarian means by " the elongation of letters” “ the increase in syllabic quantity" - odc. The translator bas, however, taken the liberty of rendering this passage differently for reasons wbich will be detailed in the Appendix C. It will be perceived that the Student will be better enabled to arrive at a correct judgement upon what we have to say on this bead, wben he shall bave gone through the eleventh chapteron Prosody, a department of Grammar to which many rules in the present chapter are more particularly applicable.

These occur by a poetical license. | These for the sake of euphopy.

ii. osos are indeclinable particles, which are put in a sentence for the purpose of forming the roots (into words) or otherwise; e. g. Gold (2038) Goorooloo-adorable; wę (2018) Sanda-adorable; 6 08()Rathesee-adorable ; 909 having-gone.

18. fics (Immutable i. e. established usage ) is that form of a word, which, after it has once undergone a change according to a rule of Grammar, assumes an unchangeable form; as Ç6036, Krishne, derived from ę garland, and cço belly, never assumes calço.

19. qc is the reverse of the last definition.

20.03gost comprise all the other accidents of Grammar, which are not herein specially named or explained; viz. All words which do not undergo a change in order to adapt them to different cases; also such words as the following, uçqo3 (derived from @35.0)) the inner royal household; o@o3d (from oi@sw) the seat of Indra; and words which are not formed by a fixed rule; and likewise adverbs and affices which do not admit of declension, &c.

Note that the formation of all words is in conformity to the above rules.

End of the twenty Elements of Grammar. I

• The 35.99EC, a dictionary of synonymes in enumerating the names of Krishne gives us çaolço, which is clearly incorrect, since such a spelle ing is inconsistent with the above rule; and siuce also the Old stod šio@ə, of which the 85103Ew is a poetical version, has ça 236..

+ e. g. & Begou though derived from for day and gogou splendour sometimes assumes {onggou sun, and therefore is not immutable in its compound form; also aw96 the great rampart, from and CO, is sometimes written onco.

We may be permitted to state here, since do dative work treats of Punctuation—that, as iu legal compositions in English, the only “sigo" or “mark of reading” which is recognized in the Singhalese language, is the full-stop, marked in the latter thus, militar vide Appendix A. In poetry, however, a sign such as » is frequently placed at the end of each couplet. This is merely another form of the Sanscrit sign which is marked thus 11. An example of the last, borrowed from the Sanscrit, will be found in the Introduction, under the head of Blank Verse.

B

a.

21. Nouns are of five kinds; & Patronymics ; Nouns of Aggregation; 22.6Attributives; - Verbal Derivatives ; and wot Appellatives.

& Patronymics are words of which we have a particular notion; as go god, 370 man, 60287 bullock, &c.

b. 5 Aggregate Nouns are words which indicate a substance that admits of a qualification; as Oc& pillar, po pot, &c.t

c. sos Attributives are words which express a quality; as and black, 000white, semo great, &c. #

Sa (same as our former definition) are Verbal Derivatives (or abstract nouns), and which will be more fully treated of hereafter in the chapter on rerbs.

* Verbal derivatives may also be rendered “abstract nouns." -This part of grammar which in the Sanscrit finds a place under the bead of affires is nearly the same as in that language. Extracts therefore with a slight alteration from Sanscrit writers will throw light upon the text. Mr. Wilson in his valuable grammar at p. 312., says—“Some of the most extensively useful of the Tadhita affixes are connected by an analogous diversity and extent of application. They are mostly employed in forming words which are one or other or sometimes all, of the following l. Patronymics and terms denoting lineal descent, or community of origin ; 2. Names of aggregation ; 3. Attributives of a variety of qualities and circumstances : 4. abstract nouns; and 5. Appellatives or names of persons and things. These may therefore be classed under one bead, as miscellaneous nouns".

+ Dr. Wilkins in his Sanscrit Grammar designates this class, Collective nouns, or nouns expressive of multitudes.

It will be perceived that the Adjective which is here designated the Attributive, finds a place in nearly all Asiatic, as not unfrequently in European Grammars, under the head of substantives. Mr. Harris (Hermes, book 1. ch. 10.] says " Grammarians have been led into that strange absurdity of ranging Adjectives with Nouns, and separating them from Verbs, though they are homogeneous with respect to Verbs, as both sorts denote attributes: they are heterogeneous with respect to nouns, as never properly denoting substances.” Without, however, encumbering these notes with all the arguments pro and con, bearing upon this interesting subject, we may here refer the reader to Horne Tooke's Diversions of Purley, where at p. 624&c. after citing Lowth, Scaliger, Wilkins, Wallis, Sanctius, Scioppius and other. "considerable and justly respected " writers, the subject is discussed at length with that abilit for which the learned philologer is justly celebrated.

But it is as well to bear in mind here, that verbal derivatives are of two kinds, 2563w Participial nouns ; as soon dancing ; con singing ; ac playing ; 0. Ze scorching; 98 csede inserting; @;8eating; Socco worshipping ;- and poto's:cs Verbal Appellatives; as açada od giver ; dead sleeper. *

e. a87 Appellatives are proper names or appellations given to a person or thing: as açoçol Dewdath, @@co} Bambe'dath, &c.

The following is an example, illustrative of the five sorts of words above given;

2:83 Alpoof? Soon 4 cool açoçoi5 8.88. The white, 3 running 4 bull ', having-horns 2 is called

Dew'dath 6 Words or nouns may also be divided into two; viz. pogolos Derivatives, and qozon Primitives or non-derivatives.

qogous are so called, because they are terms derived from other words; as ocot water, derived from eg to drink,

* It is here necessary to explain what is meant by participial nouns, and Verbal appellates. By a Participial noun is meant, a term derived from a neuter crude Verb in the Substantwe Voice, which does not indicate any thing beyond the act ; as in the English participles which perform the office of Substantives, and are used as such, e. g. beginning ; writing, &c. It may be identified with the present participle, which with the definite article the before, and the preposition of aster, becomes a Substantive ; as, “ these are the rules of Grammar by the observing of which you may avoid mistakes.” Verbal appellatives, or Substantives formed with terminations attached to the crude verb, are verbal nouns which imply an act, or the quality or attribute constituting the appellation of a substance. Verbal appellatives may therefore be identified with English substantives derived from verbs by the addition of particles implying agency; e. g. "creator" from creale ; " beginner ” from begin ; " applicant” from apply ; " drunkard” from drink; &c. &c.

+ The reader will perceive that the sentence to which this is a note occurs in the Singhalese Grammar mixed up with the 1st sentence at paragraph 81 ; and that the translator has taken the liberty of rendering it separately after the Examples of the five species of words above given.

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