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i 17. jou are indeclinable particles, which are put

in sentence for the purpose of forming the roots (into words) or otherwise; e. g. old (035) Goorooloo-adorable; wę (60038) Sanda-adorable; 6 00 () Rathesee-adorable ; nood having-gone.

18. sics (Immutable i. e. established usage ) is that form of a word, which, after it has once undergone a change according to a rule of Grammar, assumes an unchangeable form; as ç.036, Krishne, derived from ço garland, and cço belly, never assumes ço03ço.

19. is the reverse of the last definition.

20. 9880st comprise all the other accidents of Grammar, which are not herein specially named or explained; viz. All words which do not undergo a change in order to adapt them to different cases ; also such words as the following, 08990(derived from @5.0)) the inner royal household; o@ed (from o@msme) the seat of Indra; and words which are not formed by a fixed rule; and likewise adverbs and affixes which do not admit of declension, &c.

Note that the formation of all words is in conformity to the above rules.

End of the twenty Elements of Grammar. I

• The 5905 EC, a dictionary of synonymes in enumerating the names of Krishne gives us çao 3ço, which is clearly incorrect, since such a spelling is inconsistent with the above rule; and since also the OLDstad fo@e, of which the 8750 €w is a poetical version, has ça 236.

te. g. @ Begou though derived from for day and ggou splendour sometimes assumes &oog30u sun, and therefore is not immutable in its compound form; also nowo6 the great ramparı, from son and CO, is sometimes written @oneo.

• We may be permitted to state here, since no pative work treats of Punctuation—that, as iu legal compositions in English, the only “siga " or “mark of reading” which is recognized in the Singhalese language, is the full-stop, marked in the latter thus, militar vide Appendix A. In poetry, however, a sign such as » is frequently placed at the end of each couplet. This is merely another form of the Sanscrit sign which is marked thus II. An example of the last, borrowed from the Sanscrit, will be found in the Introduction, under the head of Blank Verse.

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The wicked, although learned in sciences, will, * like serpents wearing a jewel in their necks, be the rery terror of others by entwining themselves round the sandle-tree-like king.

e. 48068E is the changing of (the mood of) the verb; as op 136ęwaongeedas?; 089.5.88 od 8 gewcooos odnosi, O supreme Peacock! tuke thy lodging in the flowered tree at that season.

Note that these five changes, &c. occur whenever they are necessary for the sake of Euphony, $ or by poetical license.

15. @ is the elongation of letters, as que for det, eyes; que for a & [7], cold; 28 for 98, we; como Sos for con Go, means; 892,8 for 8705, new; od for Oe, fiocer; a& force, forest; e for me, trees; 880c8 for 888, in cold. I

16. is the abbreviation or shortening of letters, as ço for çoc), calf of the leg; wi@ for w6a, brushwood; wę for moje, body; 2 @ for @€ , Brahama;|| Owcasood for oedca 08987, self-virtue; onbescgos for ogoondiscgo, an ocean to the stream of wisdom. I

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. Here the past is put in the future tense by the translator, as otherwise the passage would be less intelligible for want of the context.

+ This is from econoceaeda book which is handed down to us in a mutilated state. In the example in the text the writer has used the indicative mood in an imperative sense.

The &c. bas reference to other accidents of grammar, besides those specially damed.

$ Euphony may also mean established usage.

[7] In the text the Grammarian means by " the elongation of letters"the increase in syllabic quantity” -oooca. The translator bas, however, taken the liberty of rendering this passage differently for reasons wbich will be detailed in the Appendix C. It will be perceived that the Student will be better enabled to arrive at a correct judgement upon what we have to say on this head, wben he shall have gone through the eleventh chapteron Prosody, a department of Grammar to which many rules in the present chapter are more particularly applicable.

These occur by a poetical license. || These for the sake of euphony.

17. ou are indeclinable particles, which are put in a sentence for the purpose of forming the roots (into words) or otherwise; e. g. cold (1038) Goorooloo-adorable; wę (618019) Sanda-adorable ; 6 023()Rathesee-adorable ; 69005ed having-gone.

18. sic (Immutable i. e. established usage ) is that form of a word, which, after it has once undergone a change according to a rule of Grammar, assumes an unchangeable form; as ça36, Krishne, derived from ço garland, and ceo belly, never assumes calço.

19. oooo is the reverse of the last definition.

20.9860st comprise all the other accidents of Grammar, which are not herein specially named or explained; viz. All words which do not undergo a change in order to adapt them to different cases; also such words as the following,

qol (derived from @98.07) the inner royal household; o@olge (from s@o2e) the seat of Indra; and words which are not formed by a fixed rule; and likewise adverbs and affices which do not admit of declension, &c.

Note that the formation of all words is in conformity to the above rules.

End of the troenty Elements of Grammar. I

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. The 135.00EC, a dictionary of synonymes in enumerating the names of Krishne gives us çaoço, which is clearly incorrect, since such a spell. ing is inconsistent with the above rule; and since also the blogas fo@o, of which the enoja EW is a poetical version, has ça 236.

+ e. g. ę negou though derived from @os day and gogou splendous sometimes assumes {onge ou sun, and therefore is not immutable in its compound form; also won the great rampari, from oo and CO, is sometimes written conco.

1 We may be permitted to state here, since no pative work treats of Punctuation—that, as iu legal compositions in English, the only “sigo" or “mark of reading " which is recognized in the Singhalese language, is the full-stop, marked in the latter thus, tilton vide Appendix A. In poetry, however, a sign such as » is frequently placed at the end of each couplet. This is merely another form of the Sanscrit sigo which is marked thus II. An example of the last, borrowed from the Sanscrit, will be found in the Introduction, under the head of Blank Verse.

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21. Nouns are of five kinds; & Patronymics; Nouns of Aggregation; .o Attributives; sic Verbal Derivatives; and was Appellatives.

& Patronymics are words of which we have a particular notion; as ogó god, 76 man, aost bullock, &c.

b. Aggregate Nouns are words which indicate a substance that admits of a qualification; as Ol @ pillar, og

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pot, &c.t

c. 2. Gus Attributives are words which express a quality; as od black, white, a great, &c. I

d. Sc (same as our former definition) are Verbal Deriratives (or abstract nouns), and which will be more fully

* Verbal derivatives may also be rendered “abstract nouns.”—This part of grammar which in the Sanscr il finds a place under the head of affires is nearly the same as in that language. Extracts therefore with a slight alteration from Sanscrit writers will throw light upon the text. Mr. Wilson in his valuable grammar at p. 312., says—" Some of the most extensively useful of the Tadhita affixes are connected by an analogous diversity and extent of application. They are mostly employed in formning words which are one or other or sometimes all, of the following 1. Patronymics and terms denoting lineal descent, or community of origin ; 2. Names of aggregation; 3. Attributives of a variety of qualities and circumstances : 4. abstract nouns; and 5. Appellatives or names of persons and things. These may therefore be classed under one head, as miscellaneous nouns".

# Dr. Wilkins in his Sanscrit Grammar designates this class, Collective nouns, or nouns expressive of multiludes.

It will be perceived that the Adjective which is here designated the Attributive, finds a place in nearly all Asiatic, as not unfrequently in European Grammars, under the head of substantives. Mr. Harris (Hermes, book 1. ch. 10.) says "Grammarians have been led into that strange absurdity of ranging Adjectives with Nouns, and separating them from Verbs, though they are homogeneous with respect to Verbs, as both sorts denote attributes: they are heterogeneous with respect to nouns, as never properly denoting substances.” Without, however, encumbering these notes with all the arguments pro and con, bearing upon this interesting subject, we may here refer the reader to Horne Tooke's Diversions of Purley, where at p. 624 &c. after citing Lowth, Scaliger, Wilkins, Wallis, Sanctius, Scioppius and other. "considerable and justly respected ” writers, the subject is discussed at length with that abilit for which the learned philologer is justly celebrated.

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treated of hereafter in the chapter on rerbs. But it is as well to bear in mind here, that verbal deriratives are of two kinds, 1653- Participial nouns ; as co dancing ; 090 singing ; ac playing ; 0 23 scorching; 93 ce& inserting; @78eating; C5 worshipping ;- and out of 33 cs Verbal Appellatives; as açada od giver; od zad sleeper.

wot Appellatives are proper names or appellations given to a person or thing: as açbçol Dew'dath, @@} Bambe'dath, &c.

The following is an example, illustrative of the five sorts of words above given;

20:83 of? SO 4 Coril cęgi 5 8.08. The white, 3 running 4 bull i, having-horns 2 is called

Dew'dath 5 Words or nouns may also be divided into two; viz.o*ocol Derivatives, and colory Primitives or non-derivatives.

qozo uo' are so called, because they are terms derived from other words; as Olas water, derived from eg to drink,

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* It is here necessary to explain what is meant by participial nouns, and Verbal appellatres. By a Participial noun is meant, a term derived from a neuter crude Verb in the Substantwe Voice, which does not indicate any thing beyond the act ; as in the English participles which perform the office of Substantives, and are used as such, e. g. beginning ; writing, &c. It may be identified with the present participle, which with the definite article the before, and the preposition of aster, becomes a Substantive ;

these are the rules of Grammar by the observing of which you may avoid mistakes." Verbal appellatives, or Substantives formed with terminations attached to the crude verb, are verbal nouns which imply an acl, or the quality or attribute constituting the appellation of a substance. Verbal appellatives may therefore be identified with English substantives derived from verbs by the addition of particles implying agency; e. g. "creator" from crcale ; " beginner ” from begin ; applicanı” from apply ;drunkard" from drink; &c. &c.

+ The reader will perceive that the sentence to which this is a note occurs in the Singhalese Grammar mixed up with the 1st sentence at paragraph 81 ; and that the translator has taken the liberty of rendering it separately after the Examples of the five species of words above given.

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