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66. To express the reality in a different way is called cao@c961, a Trope ; e. g.

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98 98 sep 08.031, 018!mocode Whilst a woman, who repeatedly struck on the ground a ball, jealous of its similarity to her own bosom; the eyes-like

Lotuses in her ears through fear fell at her feet. [When a comparison is instituted, the resemblance being stated t] the figure is called auto: Simile; e. g. I

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Q280.868 nonstogo mol By reason of profoundness—(he is ) like an oceanby reason of gentleness, the moonby reason of his power,

the sun by reason of his strength, a rockand by reason of his

liberality, the wish-conferring tree. When an object or a multitude of objects compared, by reason of its or their similitude to some quality or attribute of another object, is illustrated by metaphorical terms; the figure is called onemo Metaphorical simile. §

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* We cannot find the equivalent to this. Perhaps it would not be amiss to call it by a general term-a Trupe.

+ Vide Whately on Rhetoric, Part III, chap. II. $ 3. p. 265.

1 “ The simile or comparison may be considered as differing in form only from a metaphor; the resemblance being in that slated, which in the metaphor is implied.- Dr. Whately's Rhetoric, 265.

$ “ The greatest masters of this kind of style, when the case will not admit of pure metaphor, generally preter a mixture of metaphor with simile; first pointing out the similitude. and afterwards employing metaphorical terms which imply it; or rice versa, explaining a metaphor by a statement of the compari:00. To take examples of both kinds from an author who particularly excels in this point (speaking of a morbid fancy),

like the bat of Indian brakes,
Her pinions fan the wound sbe makes,
And soothing thus the dreamer's pain,
She drinks the life.blood from the vein.-Rokeby,

The renown of his full-blown white Lotus, (hose pod is

moon-like, whose pollen star-like, whose petals lightcloudy-like, and whose stalk mount-Meru-like,) spreads itself

in the pond of the world.** For the sake of his reputation, let the student follow in the footsteps of ancient sages; and let him also bear in mind that, except the letters c, es, and the like, no [letters or] phrases should be adopted in Poetry for the sake of completing the verse. †

End of the twelfth Chapter. I

The word “like” makes this a comparison; but the three succeeding lines are metaphorical. Again, to take an instance of the other kind :

They melted from the field, as suow,
When streams are swol'n, and sont b winds blow,

Dissolves in silent dew- Marmion. of the words here put in italics, tiie former is a metaphor, the latter introduces a comparison.-Whale'y p. p. 267,-8.

* See note (*) at p. 38.

+ We select the two following stanzas, the first from the K'ariasakera, and the second from the Goottilla Jataka, to shew that the letters 2 and are used without adding anyt:;ing to the sense, and for the sake of completing the verse.

oකමල නා මු වගපාලන හා
ovogado CC9009
සු අහු වු ල්
2

& 3 8 33 ergesa

පි ල් බර පි ල් ව ලිල හා There were young gambolling deer, which touch with their lips the bud. ding foliage ; lururiantly growing Girinil trees (chinoria myra); and peafuwols heavy laden with plumage.

es 08
of 3 Song ර ස්
egno 3

උ &a

ර ය. වළු ව හ න වි ය ව හ රය Near the proud city of king Bimbisara, teeming with all prosperity, was the Temp'e called Weyloowana.

It has been a source of great difficulty, even with Western nations, to define the exact and true limits of Grammar and Rhetoric. Perhaps it is therefore not a matter for surprise to the student, to find in the Sidath' Sangerowe a Chapter on (@so literally the beautiful) Rhetoric. Gram

6

What signifies the praise or dispraise of pretended Pundits who have only acquired the first Elements (of Grammar)? The learned Pundits alone are competent critics. O Pundits, although this little Sidatha, ex

mar may be called the usesul, whilst Rhetoric forms the beautiful, or, rather the Ornamental part of one and the same study, which is denominated wÇ606—The verbal Science. Now, the distinction is not observed to the same extent by Eastern as by Western nations. That which is not beautiful, although correct according to the strict rules of Grammar, fails entirely to please the Oriental; whilst a love to indulge in an extravagant display of metaphorical adornment in style, renders the study of Rhetoric indispensable to him. lle studies it before he is proficient in Grammar. Indeed we found some portions of this Grammar unintelligible without a reference to some of the canons laid down in a work on Rhetoric. The fact that the majority of the standard writers amongst the Singhalese have adopted Poetry instead of Prose furnishes us with another reason, why a knowledge of the art of Rhetoric has been selt quite as necessary as that of Grammar. For, although Poetry (according to Dr. Whately) “is not distinguished from Prose by superior beaoty of thought, » it nevertheless produces in the reader's mind more intense pleasure than Prose. And metrical compositions require a kind of language different from that which suits Prose. Hence, whilst the Singhalese, like their Hindu Deighbours, have generally made a choice of that which produced the greater pleasure, Poelry; they bave also blended with the study of Grammar that which is calculated to teach them elegance or beauly (200) in their compositions-viz. Rhetoric. It must not be forgotten, however, that according to Oriental notions (as indeed it was thought by certain “ French critics, who derived their doctrine from a misrepresentation of a passage in Aristotle's Poetics") metre is not essentially necessary to constitute Poetry. Prose works in elegant language, and intermixed with flowery descriptions in a poetical style, are reckoned amongst Poems in the Sanscrit, and may, in the opinion of Pundits, be properly denominated 6 (Poetry) in the Singhalese. In the Preface to the Dása kumára Charita, Prosessor Wilson says—"lts style is of that elaborate description which has induced native Scholars to ascribe to the work the denomination of a Kávya, or Poem. It is a work written in highly cultivated style, but entirely in prove. It is not uniformly, however, of a poetical elevation."-p. 1.

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cept to the beginner, has nothing original in it (to recommend itself) to the erudite; rejoice ye (however with me) in my labours. May Pathiraja, like unto a flag on the summit of the mansion-like village Radula, and who hy the arm of his extensive ramparts, governs the whole of the Southern Lanka, be long prosperous ! I have composed the Sidath-sangara at his kind request, and with a view to disseminate (the knowledge of) the rudiments of cases, &c. in the Singhalese Language. The wise man who shall have learned its rules (both) primary and secondary, and made Grammar his study, will—having with facility removed the pretensions of the learned, who are elated with pride-constantly hoist up the flag of victory in this Island of) Lanka, like the boundless (

) , ocean with the renown of his waves, wide-spread in all directions.

THE END.

ADDEND A.

saobodęo

A Garland of Cases.

Having bowed unto (Budha) our father of the world, I do, pursuant to the precepts of ancient teachers, compose Vibath' Maldama, with a view to the improvement of many, I shall treat of the seven Cases in the following order: 606 First or the Nominative Case, oes Vocative, m3 Accusative, en Instrumental, mohon Auriliary, noços Dative, qa & Ablative, w2ę Genitive, 946 Locative.

First or Nominative Case, Singular number.
1. g8s & (5) ¢Coçad—Budha preached doctrines.

{sis (on) ogólovones—The Sun destroyed darkness.
&loss (on) onaqw,—The chief minister inquires the

cause.

380 ( t)org sio w006-A king has conquered

enemies.

The sequel will explain why the writer has treated of seven, when in fact there are mine cams.

† The order in which the Cases are here treated of, is different from that adopted in the Sidath'3angerawe. That in the present treatise follows the order adopted by Pali Grammarians.

This is an inflexion which stands for the article a or an. When deprived of it the noun in the Nominative singular usually assumes op as o8 © (o) ougolo com “ The king has conquered enemies” – See note (1) at p. 25.

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