Imatges de pÓgina
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syllable is considered zor or long; an od or mute letter, i. e. one deprived of its inherent vowel sound, is less than a syllabic instant in quantity. A letter such as ou in que, is a little longer than one syllabic instant. [7]


Of Prosodial feet. 1, A Molossus, owołano:,Let (him) be prosperous; 2, a Ti. brach, one to you; 3, a Dactyl, na, Let him be happy; 4, a Bacchic, oseis, chief of the three worlds; 5, an Amphibrach, 023-, consort of Indra; 6, a Cretic, ole, Baroosce; 7, an Anapæst, ono 8, an appellative for Budha, meaning the Lion of men; and 8, Antibacchic, odę8, a species of serpents.

Of the alphabet eo, 3, 5,0,0,1,0,0,5m, and o, are evil characters; C, 0, 2, and s., are human characters; and the

D rest, 8,0,0,0,0,?,@,- and e, are divine characters; any one of which last should be preferred to the human in the beginning of a stanza, as well as before and after the name of any person named therein. The evil characters, as being subversive of all prosperity, are to be avoided at those places.

By dividing the alphabet into four, so as to produce the letters e, , ), and r, in the beginning of each division,

ත, (a diagram † consisting of) eight classes (of letters) will be produced. Of these the first class, called on weasel, are inimical or opposed to the fifth, called coges g serpent; the second, gbuffalo, to the sixth, 20 m horse; the third, on owl, to the seventh, sega raven; and the fourth, o tiger, to the eighth woms deer. All the characters opposed to the

, first character of a person's name must be avoided before as well as after that person's name.

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[7] This also is an error-See Appendix C.

* Owing to the great simplicity with which the Rules in this chapter are worded in the Singhalese, the translator is obliged to be more free in the trauslation here than elsewhere.

See diagram, in the Introducrion.

63. No person who is well read in the works of Rishees will ever open the last word of the first hemistick into the first word of the second, either by compounding two words together, or by dividing a compound term, or an affix from its root, or the noun from its case termination. [12]

It is incorrect to repeat an expression which conveys the same meaning; or to use a word which has the same meaning as another (in the sentence). A departure from the first part of this rule is called esege Ocot repetition of terms; and a departure from the last part of the rule is called gono uoloo..of repetition of significations. 1st Example. Ens.

Os cenę neices3.9. The water-giver (cloud) which inflames widowed-wives is named

water-giver. | 2nd Erampl. :60798907-C0800 DOC 30. Cupid with scorn enfeebled the weakling, who

500 was faint by reason of sorroio. It is objectionable, when either a compound term, $ or a word by being divided, or a word legitimately correct, conveys an improper or a vulgar meaning in composition. This error is called cocoase!, Ambiguity-e, g.

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(12) See Appendix C.
* Both these canons are comprehended in the term Tautology.

+ This is a rule which may serve to assist the student both in poetry and prose. The Rule is this, “ Avoid tautology, and the use of words of the same signification. In the first example, cro.C is used twice to mean the same thing-a cloud; and in the second, enfeebled down-weakling @ 5.06-and Saint @aji are words which convey the same meaning.

This Rule is laid doun by Dr. ( ampbell in bis Philosophy of Rhetoric in Dearly the same language as the above: Book II. Chap. VI. Part 3. “Another so'rce of obscurity, is when the same word is in the same sentence used in different senses."- Again at Book III. Chap. II. Part 1. tology, which is either a repetition of the same sense in different words, or a representation of any thing as the cause, induction, or cunsequence of itself

Care must be taken, either in compounding words, or in placing tro words together, or in the use or even a correct expression, not to convey to the ear a low, vulgar or an undigmfied meaning-e. g. 1, Bodo is a word for

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0.0082602088 5.6 Çeçen ned. Lord, spread thy gentle virtues on all sides like the (scent of)

the wild jasmine, in order that the dancing maid of thy renown may troll on Pundit's tongues, like unto an arena

for dancing. When certain words (in a sentence) are placed in a certain order, and another set of words intended to be put in apposition to the former, are not placed in the same order, erudite Pundits have considered this objectionable, and have termed the offence cene, Disorder.

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කසුන් කලදෝ E වදවිය සතලව. May the Gold, Silver, and Cloud-coloured Gods pour bless

ings upon Giridoo, Siri, and Visi, whose husbands are the

aforesaid Gods. Where a piece of composition, in allusion to an incident, is not upon the face of it sufficiently explicit (and therefore obscure) the defect is called colage, Obscurity-e. g.


stalk; but by compounding it with the very, and adding a verb such as food give; we obtain Bolos-oost Give the very talk. Now, the word Bolo being uttered at once, conveys a low vulgar meaning, having reference to the posteriors of a person. 2, 86-osod is one single term for Pundits ; but, as in English, there being two syllables, they, separately, convey two low and undignified meanings -- poisonousdecrepid persons. 3, oseosa is a correct word meaving to dance; but it has also another signification, to die.

* In the order of words in the above sentence, “Gold, Silver, and Cloudcoloured Gods," stand for Brahma, Sira, and Krishna respectively. The words put in apposition to them are “Giridoo, Siri, and Visi,” or (in more conversant phraseology) Parwatee, Lakshamee, and Sara unire. This is incorrect; because in the order in which the Goddesses are named, it is to be apprehended that Parwate is the wife of Brahma; Lakshamre the wife of Sira; and Saraswatee the wife of Krishna : but, if the Goddesses were (as they ought to have been) named in the following order“ Visi, Giridoo and Siri”-i. e. Saraswalce, Parwatee and Lakshamee, their husbands wou d respectively be (in the order in which the poet has given them) Brahma, Swa and Krishna,

odootag:00 7 epiciacao waço oso. The boar buoyed up the earth from the bloody ocean.

This is obscure for want of an expression such as 20 god wedd, "bloody by reason of the general destruction of serpents," literally, altogether destroyed serpent's blood.

If words (as in the following example) are improperly put fi. e. where praise is due dispraise is expressed); the defect is called qw203, Unpropitious.


ovocoas 830eracion May the sun, like unto a gem in the neck of the serpent-like

Rahu, give thee victory. I When an abstruse or obscure expression which has a hidden meaning, occurs in a sentence, (as in the following example), the defect is called 30. ovo?, Ambiloquy.

EXAMPLE. aç s@6@qanoj od sa 16 08.079 May the God of Half-half-twelve eyes protect thee for five

twenty years. Instead of May the God of three eyes ( Siva) protect thee for fwe-times twenty (or 100) years.' i

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* This is in allusion to one of the incarnations of Vishnu as a boar, in which form he destroyed innumerable serpents—a warfare wbich produced " a sea of blood." - See Appendix C. paper on Rhetoric.

+ flere the expression is said to be improper, because the sun is spoken of in undignified terms, when, considering that his blessing is invoked. be should have been alluded to in terms of praise. The expression “ like unto a gem in the neck of the serpent-like Rahu" is undigoified, since the sun and planet Rahu are said to be at enmity; and therefore to invoke the blessing of the former, by naming him in connection with his enemy, creates an improper sensation in the mind.

“Half-ball-twelve eyes” is an obscure espression; for it may mean either "twelve half eyes,” or “ twelve ( } ol! =:) quarter eyes,” or ( 101 of 19==) three eyes : which last is the meaning of the writer. So likewise, “ Five-twenty years ” may mean “five-and-twenty” -(wenty-five years; or “twenty times five ” equal to one hundred years: which last is meant by the writer.


It is highly objectionable to place words in discordant genders, or numbers; or to compare one object to another which either erceeds, or diminishes that which is compared.

EXAMPLE සිසිහසක මමත් විමලඹර යතල ගමන්:

8550ceron@not rosa683 NoThe moon is like 'unto a goose,—the serene sky (vacuum)

like unto ponds;—the fire-fly glitters like the sun-the soldier

by reason of his veneration for his lord, is like unto a dog. The Poet who will attend to the above (instruction) will be renowned in society. It is (however) desirable that (in composition) he should avoid the defects (aforesaid), and be guided by the usage of ancient teachers: and moreover, versify by a strict attention to Syllabic Instants, Prosody, Rhymes and Yavehan. I

End of the eleventh Chapter. §

* In the above example, the moon, which is in the mascusine gedder, is compared to a goose, or a female swan; the vacuum or the sky, in the singular number, to ponds in the plural; the little fire-fly to the sun, which vastly exceeds the former in brilliancy; and the soldier to a dog, an animal whose very mention is associated in the minds of the Singhalese with leelings of contempt and ridicule; a comparison, therefore, ill-becoming a man, who very properly respects his superior,

+ The following remarks on Sanscrit Prosody apply equally to Singhalese Versification: Mr. Wilson says(see his Grammar p. 417.)“ Rhyme is not employed in any of the older, or in the higher order of writings. It is met wish in iorms of a lyrical character, and of laie; and in them also great inequality of metre is introduced. In the best and oldest ci mpositions, great regularity prevails, although the metre is occasipally varied even in the same work, "vide Introdi clion.

1 Yarehan-wide explanation and examples in the Inti o duction.

$ It has been suggested to us, that this chapter which is designated The (90) Good and Evil, wouid bear the interpretation of Purity. There is, however, an objection to the adop.ion of this on our part. Grammatical Purity embraces three things: Firiin, the Barbarous, or faults arising from a use of foreign terms. Second'y, solrcism, or offences against the idiom of a language. And, thirdly. Improprietw. or, what Quinctilian calls, “quæ contra legem loquendi composita."-lostit. lib. 1.


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