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එහිsටක නවාංශදත්වක්නටවතීදගකරැනකත් Kama through fear of Siva, has entered the vacuum of women's hearts: even there he is distressed. How then in opposition to the great, can any prosper?
EXAMPLES Of verbal Appellatives shewing the object as the Nominative.
වුහුටෙහි අනඳ දමිතැනවිඋපුර සිතනුව The rake was delighted with the sight of the hill-like bosom of the lovely one; and as if intent upon up-rooting that-which-wasdirected thither—the arrow-like eyes, he shook his head.
Note, that if words of different cases be compounded, or inflected in order to convey one idea, the compound word is in the Nominative (unless otherwise governed); and that an expression without a verb, properly takes the verb 8,–* a root expressive of being.
End of the ninth Chapter.
The Deuter verb 3 is frequently omitted in the Singhalese, as in the Sanscrit. Thus, in the former, ස ව ස ව ද ර දි
ස් හෝ හු බ ප ප ග න් හ හ
ස් හා ර හෝ ව ප නි ර
න . හ . ස + 3 ක් ම න් ව ල ප දි ස් හා (There were) bright clowls, as if they were) strokes (produced) OR the touch-stone of the sky, by the Goldsmith of a clear evening, by means of the gold-like sun- Raviasakera. and in the latter,
කාලඃපුතනුජාත යානවිචාධාබ් !
තාණ වහා කිවවපීවකවල“Alhat (is) the use of a son (being) born, who is neither learned nor prous ? What (benefit is there) from a sighlles eye! (such) an eye (is) even only pain”-Hilopadesa.
On the Government of Cases: 60. Learned men or Pundits have given the six following Cases, viz. the Accusative, the Instrumental, the Auxiliary, the Dative, the Ablative and the Locative, the name of agents, They are the relations of objects in a sentence to the verb;
336 20 is an accident of the Singhalese Grammar; which, although found in the Sanscrit, is nevertheless omitted by European writers. Indeed we have failed to perceive any elucidation of the same in any of their worke. Hence it is that we are unable to give it a familiar designation, and are driven to the vecessity of appending this note. Karaka, we have already translated, vide p. 4. & 8, as “the means by which an act is performed.” This is very obscure, if not incorrect. Mr. Clough in his Dictionary. p. 119, gives the following definition-"*090 , an act, a deed, an agent, especially in Grammar,comprising all nouns which imply the agent, object, instrument, &c. or any thing except the radical idea; it also includes the application of all the cases [He should have added] ‘with the exception of the Genitive and the Vocative.' Professor Wilson, to whom Mr. Clough was indebted for the above, is more comprehensive ia his definition (see his Dictionary, p. 213)— it also includes the use and government of the Cases, or Syntar.” Hence it would seem. that kataka are the six relations of a doon in reference to the verb, and that they are in one of the six following cases-the Accusative, the Instrumental (which sometimes includes the Nominative,) the Anxiliary, the Dative, the Ablative and the Loca: tive : e. g. 1. If we say, 'He killed a man'-man has a relation to the verb in expressing the object of the verb. But, 2, if we say, 'He was killed by a man,' the noun man has a like relation to the verb; and implies that it was the instrument of the act [Here it is nece-sary to observe, that the Nominative has the same signification as the Instrumental, as he in ‘He killed a man;' but, where the Nominative is the subject of a passive verb, as in 'He was killed by a man,' he, although the Nominative, would nevertheless be (as being the object which sustains the act) an Accusative karaka). 3, If we say, 'He was killed with a stick,' we not only convey the relation which stick bears to the verb, but also express that which was an auriliary to the performance of the att, viz.—the stick. 4, If we say, 'He gave to bim a blow,' him convey, the object which was the recipient of the act, 5, li again we say, 'He fell from a tree.' tree expresses the object from whence the act had its rise. And 6, is we say, He fell from a tree in the orchard,' orchard expresses, in telation to the act, the situation of the tree from whence 'he fell. We have thus shewn that a noan in a sentence
and since the Genitive and the Vocatire may exist without a verb, they bear not the same government which the other six cases have. Except by one of these six cases no sentiment can be expressed.
EXAMPLES. zoaço 0.89 monia cod egalassi sou wo810? G@ Dadstages.
The cook, having given unto the priesthood milky-rice, cooked in a golden-vessel by means of sandal-wood, was freed from
The use of agents is thus effected; and they are to be employed as occasion may require.
End of the tenth Chapter.
must be in one of six relations to the verb; and that it is this relation which Singbalese Grammariads designate @ro. It must. however, be observed, that the Genitive and the locative may exist in a sentence without any relation to the verb, as 'O mighty King of Kings, Lord of Lords;' and that therefore those two cases are not comprehended in the karaka. 2016 20 derived from 0 to do, and as the affix, conveys the meaning of the agent of the act,' but not " an act, or deed." Hence in the text blow are distinguished into an Accusative agent, an Insirumenial agent, an Auxiliary agent, a Darive agent, an ablative agent, and a Lucatwe agent.- vide chapter X. 960.
. Here the word “cook” is in the Nominative case; which in the sense of agents includes the Instrumental (see note to g 60); “milky-rice” is in the Accusative; “ goldeu vessel” in the Lucarile; “ sandal-wood ” in the Auxiliary; “priesthood” in the Da.ive ; and “ metempsychosis” in the Ablative.
On Propriety. - 61. Hence know that he, who, having studied Grammar, wishes to versify, should do so after acquiring a knowledge of the good and evil Prosodial feet as well as letters, &c.
The eight classes (of trisyllabic prosodial feet) are produced thus:- 1, where the foot is composed of threece??,* it is called on Molossus; 2, when it is composed of three eu, the foot is called 8.36 Tribrach; 3, when the first syllable is long and the two last syllables are short, the foot is called @oogos Dactyl; 4, when the first syllable is short and the two last syllables are long, the foot is called so for Bacchic; 5, when the middle syllable is long and the syllables on either side are short, the foot is called ons Amphibrach; 6, when the middle syllable is short and the other two are long, the foot is called on om Cretic; 7, when the last syllable is long and the two first are short, the foot is called tooSon Anapæst; and 8, when the last syllable is short and the two first are long, the foot is called on Antibacchic. If a Molossus occurs in the beginning of a stanza and before and after the name of the person celebrated therein, the poet's enterprize will be crowned with success;t if a
• The Singhalese follow the rules of Sanscrit Prosody, which are expressed with singular brevity; the initia's alone of the words being given to denote them; thus C for 6 lagu," sbort;" for 20 u guru, " long;" and, as in the following line (see Appendix A § 61.)
, O, 9, 6, ,0,0,–, 0., wono. Sono mong Stands for Magena, or for Nagena, @ for Bagena, w for Yagena, o for Jagena, o for Ragena, for Sagena, and for Thagena. vide Colebrooke “On Sanscrit and Practit Poelry." vol. II. p. 71.
+ Before and after the name of the person celebroted therein. This means the person who is the subject of the verse-the hero of the tale.
We do not proless to pin our faith to this doctrine of the Gramnariad; although, we do not disguise, we should be lush to be guilty of a departure from the rules laid down by him. Our reasons are the fol
Tibrach the poet will be renowned, or powerful, or influential; if a Dactyl he will be prosperous or happy; if a Bacchic long@vous; but if an Amphibrach occurs at the aforesaid places, the poet will be sick; if a Cretic he will be sorrowful; while an Anapæst will cause his death; and an Antibacchio render him unfortunate or unlucky.
62. A co go or “class” is a prosodial foot of three letters. The quantity of sof (a syllabic instant) is the time occupied in winking the eye. That period of time occupied in uttering one (simple) letter has but one o?, and it is ese or short. When a letter occupies double that time in its utterance, or when a short letter is followed by a mute letter, the
lowing. We do not believe that words have, or can have, any mystic influence upon man; but we do believe that to use an Amphibrach, a Cretic, an Anapæst. or an Antibacchic " at the beginning of a Stanza, &c. " is contrary to the rules of Prosody, and therefore improper. It is indeed our firm conviction that originally the Hindus (from whom the Singhalese have derived this potion) regarded these prosodial feet in no other light but that in which we regard them; and that in course of tinie. what was only bad as offending against Grammatical Propriety, was, through ignorance, or from a desire of mystifying thie art and of rendering it an object of terror to students, declared to be “bad," as being productive of "sickness.” “sorrow." “death,” and “misíortune"-a device by no means incredible or surpris. ing, in view of the fact, that even the Sanscrit, the most polished language of the Eastern hemisphere, was made inaccessible to all but the Brabe min. upon the alleged ground of its having been of a “ Divine origin"!. “Women and the vulgar were forbidden to approach its tabooed enclosure; este procul prolani was the voice heard from legislative and priestly lips.. To learn, or pronounce a letter of the Divine Alphabet was a sid of the deepest dye in all but the privileged classes. "- Calcutta Review for 1845, p. 5.
* This definition of a prosodial fool, it is apprehended, is not quite correct. In all prubability its inaccuracy led to the erroneous criticism of Meeripenney - see
Introduction. A prosodial foot” is. correctly speaking, a trisyllabic (not a three-lettered, cia-s; and this definition will comprehend the different quantities assizned to the eight classes of prosodial seet. For, whether we take * three sim le letters. or w wodę 5 sis letiers; or meno 8 three long letters, &c. &c. we use no more than three syllables ; but, if we take the definition in the text, u 5 w od Ę $ instead of being one foot, will be two feet.