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The above are derivatives having the signification of the Instrumental agent.
C. Omg * 'that which is chopped-chip, from 900 to chop. Ora fallen, from 2 to fall. Bucug that which isground -grinding, from go to grind. ggg 'that which is directed' -aim, from 8 and wę to direct, and the affix e, [before inflecting which, however, the base undergoes by substitution and Metathesis, a change which produces ago] 89 'that which is seen'-visible, from co to behold. 889 approaching, from o and
cw sw to approach, and the affixe [before inflecting which the base undergoes a change as in ago.] mug cut, from no to cut. org chewed, from wo to chew. Sa charmed, from co to charm. O crammed, from co to insert, seen, from me to see. Od flown, from me to ooze. gor borne, from co to bear. 36 filled, from go to fill, ou distanced, from €6 to send away. BLOU adorned, from 6 to adorn. LOL killed, from 36 to kill. Eco baffled, from De to baffle. Good dropped, from woe to drop. 080 plucked, from one to pluck. 2 entwined, from Oe to entwine. Ou split (part.), from oe to split. Egg written, from & to write, sing spoken, from * to say. 8cg shut (part.), from 8 to shut. me done, from mo to do. BG shun, from wo to shun. DC assembled, from 26 to assemble. at cut or destroyed, from 8ę to destroy. a od broken, from @ę to break. 0 sat (part.), from ę to sit. 983 borne, from Sę to bear. Son given, from © to give. Dos coming, from ee to come. eating, from min to eat. oço. giving, from s to give.
The above are derivatives having the signification of an Instrumental or Accusative karaka.
All the derivatives in this paragraph, wbich have the final sound of oo,
those which have the final sound of a, take 9, and those which have the mute n, take of. Since the student may easily find them out, we have omitted the affises with which the roots given in the text are combined. The roots themselves are supplied by the translator from the Commentary to the Sidath'Sangerawe, where alove they occur.
d. os si that by means whereof wego'-a conveyance, from wo to go. Owot that by means whereof we cover ourselves'— garments, from one to cover. 87003'that by means whereof the head is anointed'-ointment, from 8.5 to bathe. mo 'that by means whereof we do or make any thing'-arm, from mo to do.
The above are derivatives having the signification of the Auxiliary.
e. $03 he to whom anything is given'-donee, e. g. a Brabamin; from s to give, &c. &c. are derivatives in the sense of the Dative.
f. 28 'he from whom results fear'--fiend or Rhaksha, from @ə to fear, &c. &c. are derivatives in the sense of the Ablative. g.
as 'that upon which every thing happens'--ground, from a to happen; 30 ‘that wherein prosperity teems'city, from go to teem, &c. are derivatives in the sense of the Locative,
h. mog acting, aę z giving, Ozę on eating, co seeing, opicas mounting, €ço destroying, sc@gs bowing, &c. are derivatives in the sense of Participial nouns.
58. Nominal roots. Oo!.. 'Son of Menu' (e. g. 856 men), from Do Menu, and the affix .. * ço8, Son of Danu' (e. g. opo demi-god), from © 33 Danu, † and the affix Oo,
+ " Menu, son or grandson of Brahama, or in plain language, the first of created beings, and not the oldest only, but the boliest of legislators. The name of Menu is clearly derived (like menes, mens, and mind) from the root men, 'to under-tand;' and it signifies, as
all Pandits agree, intelligent, particularly in the doctrines of the Véda, which the composer ol our Dherina' Sashtra must have studied very diligently. "- Sir William Jones' works, III. p. p. 54, 58. The student will bence perceive that the words @ 300?, cogedogo &c. man, and cos mind, are derived from the same source.
+ "Çu the mother of the Dailyas, demons, or asurs : she was one of the daughters of ço8, (in the mytholo:y of the Hindus a noted deity, who was a son of, and born from, the thumb of the right hand of Brahama, for the purpose of as-i-ting in peopling the world) and wife of Kas mapa, the celebrated 'Rishi or holy man, the teacher of Parasuo táma, from whom he received the sovereignty of the world "-Clough.
966 So deacon (an order of priesthood), from wong ascetick. 00000} worshipper of Budha (e. g. c hermit), from goo3 an appellation of Budha. Oc@ South-west, from a wind, a deity of that name presiding over the destinies of the S-W. point, and wə the affix. 391) OS astronomer, from onood star, and the affix z. o& in feet, from oq feet, and the affix açono multitude, from con men, and on the affix. On the-whole-world, from ces world, and the affix 8.9. villager, from ma village, and g the affix. ecc heavenly, from esco heaven, and , the affix. Obstgas (from óró os gold, and go, the affix) 'that which is made of gold-golden. ç@32. (from ç@wood, and zes the affix) 'that which is made of wood'-wooden. Qocê of from you star, and of affix, star-like. Osis sailor, from 33co ship, and the affix g. 90: ferry-man, from a ferry, and the affix. ww6., 'he who inquires what to do'-an obedient person, from so what, , and mou (including the affix) inquires to do. 2of 'that which is lustrous'-brilliant thing or person, from & lustre. so dos from so wisdom, and a si affix, a wise man. බිලී from @e power, and g affix, a powerful person. 13 from mo arm,
and o affix, handy-one (a term for the elephant, see note (*) at p. 12.) or from a society, and g the aftix, a Courtier. Thus are nouns inflected by appropriate affixes to the nominal roots.
But there are peculiar and idiomatic expressions, with certain affixes attached to them, which are derived from the particular subjects to which they relate; such as flowers and fruits, from the names of the trees to which they respectively belong; * and in like manner the cardinal points,from the names of the Deities who preside over them; e. g. 95^2 the East, from the word signifying Indra, who is supposed to be the presiding deity of the East; A s the South-east, from the
g. Gdzo Lotus flowers ; accidered Jack trees; &c. &c. name of Agnidevi, the regent of the South-eastern quarter; w the South, which is sacred to a deity of the name of Yama.
End of the eighth Chapter.
* Perhaps no part of this Grammar presents to the student wider and more interesting scope for speculative inquiry and theoretical induction than this chapter. Although Deriration, strictly speaking, is a part of Philology, it nevertheless belongs to the province of Grammar; and we thus find it treated by nearly all Oriental Grammarians, under the head of affixes, in their connexion with verbal and nominal routs, whence all words spring. It is, however, not a little curious, that the Singhalese, like the Sanscrit writers, “lay down rules to account for the formation of almost every derivative word” in the language : and, as Mr. Yates observes, in the preface to his Grammar, p. XIII., “where the origin is doubtsul, the methods of tracing the derivatives are often so fanciful, that little dependence can be placed upon them.” Upon a careful perusal of the above chapter, the student will find, that in the formation of words from roots such affixes are only to be selected, as may be both expressive and euphonious ;-expressive, such as those which had “their origin in the most obscure and early epoch of language, ” and which therefore have certain meanings attached to themi ;-and euphonious, such as those, which, when combined with the roots, may not leave a hiatus between the base and the affix. It is to be observed also, that where this euphony is uuattainable, we are to resort to the elision, substitution, and transposition of letters. With reference to the question, whether these affixes convey any meaning ?' Professor Bopp, in his Comparative Grammar, p. 121. says.com " It is more natural to suppose that they have or had meaning, and that the organism of language connects that which has a meaning with what is likewise sigificative. Why should not language denote accessory ideas, by accessory words appended to the root ? Language, which possesses both sense and body, ipsuses sense, and imparts form to every word,”
On the Nominative Case. * 59. When the instrument or agent, and the object, are in their proper cases respectively, they are gogotos (nonnominative); but when they are not in their proper cases they are esin, in the (nominative or the) first case. †
When the object is governed by a passive verb, such as @@, [a word which expresses the sustaining of an act] it is edios nominative; otherwise (i. e. when it is not governed by a passive verb) it is pogotos non-nominative. (It therefore follows, that) when the object is the nominative, the agent is non-nominative; but when the agent is nominative, the object is non-nominative.
Of simple Verbs. ço986ęcr88,888.6ç83. The doctrines were preached by. Budha. [Here “doctrines,” which is the object of the verb, is the nominative; and “Budha,” which is the agent, is non-nominative.]
ecko36.BEN&0.35... The body of chief priests follows those doctrines. [Here “body” which is the subject or agent of the verb, is nominative; and “doctrines,” the object, is non-nominative.]
ගිම්8 විතදිනදන් ගජරජ කුමුටුවහවල්:
098989@CI 3.900 Donuo nonno. Having beheld his shadow in the pond, not forgiving, and as it were intent upon destruction, the royal elephant,
, distressed by the influence of a hot sun, sunk in (that) pond.
To no Asiatic Grammar does this chapter bear a closer resemblance than the Bála'welàra. Oriental Scholars who have made Pali their study will derive greater benefit by consulting the text, than its translation published by the Rev. B. Clough.
† Vide $ 86, and pote (1) thereon.