Imatges de pÓgina

regarding which the following modifications may be observed, that is to say; in the past tense, the letter on is inserted between the crude verb and its termination, and the rowels inherent in the crude verb are changed: in the present and future tenses, the inherent vowel in the crude verb is also changed, and the syllable is lengthened.

EXAMPLES. 0 30 AM 10 cele 35. The thicket of (kleshe) Doce e

/ sensual desires was burnt by the fire of the chief course (nivene.)

28 29 ago 50 mete'. The fire of trifting sin is covered with the water of virtuous merit.

e893a8.cą 15.Edot20.con@geo.68?. A figure of Budha will at the termination of his religion be formed by the (assemblage of the constituent parts of his body.

Note, that in paraphrasing a sentence the verb in the Passive voice may be rendered, by the addition to it of the root @@ (expressing the sustaining of the act), also, that certain neuter verbs in the active voice take a passive termination; as @@co (was) brightened. *

When the agent and the object are the same (as when a thing is produced of itself), the verb frequently takes a passive termination; c. g. oeconoç The loft (was) brokeln) (of itself.)

Note, that the Imperative takes the termination o; as mo son do, ang

Note also, that in the plural number, terminations proper to the same must be used.

54. When the verb, without any distinction of either person or tense, expresses a contingency, or indicates a time (for the cause and consequence) it is in the Conditional mood, and takes the termination o.; as


• This mood ” says Professor Wilson," is considered as equivalent of the potential wheo cause is indicated as well as consequence, or when one : act or condition is contingent upon another act or condition, and whether, the cause and consequence be future or past. Like the potential, it is commonly used with the same conditional particles. "-Grammat, p. 405.

9879@18 00:& se so. If the zealous wish-to-go to Nivene, they) are not unable to do so).

Doso. @28 g cosmead. When all the virtues of Budha are proclaimed, they are felt weighty

උරදාකල් කර තඔසහිතව ද දවන්. When a child is dead, cause to cease (i. e. prevent the accumulation of human milk by means of medicine.

Note, that the following are also examples of the Conditional mood;—and that it is desirable to be guided by usage in employing terminations

Oe38-508e80. It would be impossible to comprehend) if you think of the universe.

2500 sinaię aloucesIf by means of meditations, Nivene would be possible. eeuw 2005. It were well if truth be told.

Soc@u8.8. It were well if virtuous acts be performed. 55.

When a verb is preceded by, and has relation to, a past act; the last named act or verb (age 31' which is the past participle) takes the following inflexions, viz. Qu, 9, 8, 88?, &c. or any of the above added to C9* But 293. 3 (which is the present participle followed by a verb) takes the following inflections, 337, Son, and 58..

EXANPLES. qu;-2035 Do 668ęs. Having crossed the ocean of

metempsychosis, he enjoys prosperity. 0;-90010g012. Having accomplished the Paremitas, t

they attained Budhahood. ;-883cc notesc?. Having doubted that it

was a cluster of Giri-nil (chinoria myxa) flowers. god;—38cow.008stobo st. Having gone whither, will

the sinful prosper? I

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See Professor Wilson's Sanscrit Grammar, $ 249 el seg: + See Clough, p. 387. vol. 11. 1 A peculiarity in the idiom of the language.

qu@9;-&geddoncc @ 728?. Ditoomagool halted

having seen Matengoo. on 19; -30 33193 sec103 voj. Do that which is necessary E@m3

to be done, having inquired. 8:39;—2606010098donosaciod. The bee proceeds

having sipped the sweets in the flowery leaf. gore?;-0020000:8 st.6023. Having gone, behold

the prosperity of Niwene. Note, that the following are also some examples shewing other inflexions of the past participle; e. g. 2o5 or 25 having come; aged having gone. f

Note also, that words as in the two following 3:09 H, and cestno, become roots by the inflection respectively of o son and @ to the past participle inflected as already laid down.

56. Examples of the present participle. Sel-sockonos Sodov@". The Mara army trembling went away. 38.- Siososw3 os. Leaving (it) to peacocks. 86.-9-568 8690cond mos29906.000:Çorias

When the Sun of Budha had risen, the stars of unbelievers fading, assumed a disappearing mood. Note, that in this Chapter) the names of the verbs and the tenses, and their significations are treated very briefly: all their pecularities should therefore be learnt according to usage.

End of the seventh Chapter.

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• This is an allusion to a story in the Budhistical Scriptures.

† The past particip'e which is treated of under this paragraph has been designated The compound perfect' by the Rerd. Mr. Lambrick at p. 126 of his Grammar, wherein he remarks ;-" Besides the simple perfects given in the Paradigm, there is a compound present perfect and a compound past perfect formed by the absolute participle and an auxiliary; as my megge o ose: gotong The cock has got on the chair; Cemi8QSOCIG @jos Some fish had been caught in a net. It is quite an error to speak of these as 'compound persects; for by transposing the words in the above examples, the student will perceive that CHAPTER VIII.

On Derivatives. 57. Verbal and nominal roots are inflected with appro. priate affixes, but, at the same time, without a departure

from usage.


e. g. කරණි


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Verbal roots.-A verbal root when inflected has either the signification of a noun in its six relations to the verb (i. e. the six e 16 % *), or that of participial nouns. ‘that which is necessary to be done'-a deed, from e36 to do, and *. the affix. eist that which is fit for drinking'-water, from si to drink, and the affix qual ong of that which

. is fit for eating '--food, from my to eat, and co the affix. mg that which is fit for mastication’-cakes, from wę to masticate or bite, and the affix. cool that which is composed'-stanza, from Goood to compose, and a the affix; and by changing the last by the rule respecting as (see § 9. and note), cot'that which is given’-a donation, from s to give, and at the affix.

Note, that the above are derivatives having the signification of an Accusative agent. †

b. 092 'He who does an act'-agent, from 0 to do, and the affix C, and by the substitution of os in place of 6. (see § 10.) De he who calculates'-accountant, from my son to count, and the affix g. Eię he who shoots'-archer, from 8ę to shoot, and the affix g. wę ‘he who supplicates'-beggar,


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there is but one simple verb in each of the two sentences, and that although that verb bears a relation to, the same is nevertheless unconnected with, the participle. Thus e gorgo meigados Having mounted the chair the cock is si. e. remains); & @mo 9992@ ODS Qo Having been caught in a net (ibere ) was fish. This then is not a “compound persect tense ;” but, as it is laid down in the 55th g of the text-"a verb preceded by, and having relation to, a past participle."

• See note (*) to $ 60. + See last pote.

from wę to beg, and the affix. s@she who runs-racer, from çə to run, and the affix on. Ostag 'he who does not walk’-non-pedestrian, from @u to go, and enq feet, and by eliding & in the root, and by inserting the negation s?. cos he who glides on his breast-glider, from co breast, cio to proceed, and the affix 0. els he who loves water'aquatick, from oi to drink, and log the affix, Coo@os 'that which dazzles'-dazzling, from a to dazzle. 23@

that which stirs up'-storm, from @ to stir up, nem og 'that which is desirable'-desire, from aco@ to wish for. CC 'that which waves'-fluctuction, from @e to move to and fro. creos'that which oozes'- oozing, from os@toooze. Odess that which shines'-shining, from @acto shine. Od 89 t'that which falls'-rain, from Des to fall in drops. qed 839 that which delights'-delightful, from one to please. Get 9.9'that which separates'ablative, from ges to separate.cseʻthat which is splendid'-splendour, from ce to shine, and by changing the affix or by the rule respecting Metathesis (see § 14). Bode that which wafts'breeze, from co to proceed (like the breeze), and theʻthat which is weak'-leanness, from 206 to weaken, and by inflecting the base with the affixe, after eliding the o in the root. 68‘that which gladdens'-gladness, from us to be glad, and the affix, i. e. after substituting in

១១ place of (see $ 10.), and after changing the vowel sound ein on (see § 14. a). 89'that which stands'-standing, from 88 to stand, and the affix . 29 he who dives'- diver, from mēę to dive, and the affix C, and by substituting ~ in place of ę (s see 10.) 18 that which quakes'-quake (as in earth

quake), from 0.28 to tremble, and the affix g. 8'he who is brave'-bravery, from co to dare, and the affix o. 39 that which annoys'-annoyance, from su to oppress, and the affix,

• The words w2087, 6028s, ge@o., EH, COD and 22cos are formed by adding the affis pos to the roots gived in the


todos, oed 9.9, and Od 8.9 take the affis 031.

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