« AnteriorContinua »
EXAMPLE 1. හමව්බුනිඳුතුමා, තමා සිරිපබසරා
සරා සිසිකල්දසනා, සනාගරසයදහුදියේ. Worship the Supreme Budha-(who) by his own prosperity spreads splendour-who) has a lovely appearance like an autumnal moon—and who) is (wet with the taste of love) greatly loved in the world.
Here the subject ‘Budha,' and its attributes in the several members of the sentence, are of the same gender and case.
EXAMPLE 2. නමත්පිරිසිඳසැබවිනය අවමන්
පදඅතුගහනකනදත් පවරමුනිරජහුසරණ. Bow
ye to the feet of the Supreme-Budha-of-Royalty, who, in an instant, fully, and correctly acquired a knowledge of all things, past, present, and future.
Here the attributes are so placed, (without being put in apposition to the subject), as to have no direct agreement with the latter.
The subject and its attribute are placed differently according to the inclination of scholars: and where it is desirable to convey, unmistakeably, the signification of the attributes, the particle a may be added to the same.*
*•.? පහන් වුකහි ඉහළුහි හැසිරෙනා(2)බඹරස මූහයඅඳුර නෑමතිමවුසොයමින් ඇවිදිනා (2) අදකාර පෑවි යවැයී. Swarms of bees, which at day light hover over the Jotuses, are like the offspring of darkness proceeding in quest of their parent of darknese.
EXAMPLE 2. 1 2
4 5 සඳ නම් හලාල් ලඹු
3 Sande, the so-called fair woman comes. Thus are the subject and its attributes differently put.
End of the sixth Chapter.
* We may take this opportunity to observe, that in the construction of sentences in the Singhalese language, care should be taken,
First, To place the dependent before the principal clauses, e. g. 1 ආකණ ලාකඩ ගුණඛමණ්ඩිත 2 පණ්ඩිත ජනපුණන්ඩ 3ක මාර්ගණ මණ්ඩල 3 මාර්තෘණ කුලභූත ද ශුමණ
4 ස්වර 6 5 ප්රාක්රමබාහු නස්ව යාගේ 6 මේද එක්වන හාසගත
ඒදතාකණේ භූෂණයකර. 7 In thg ear do that retain 6 these praises 5 of king Parakkremebahu, 4 sovereign chief of the earth, 3 born of the solar race, 2 equal to the Sun's splendour in refere ence to the while Lotus-like pandits, (and) I 10 Indra in reference to the assemblage of his virtues.-Hanse'Sandeysey.
Secondly, To place the attribute before the subject or noun; e. B• 1 මාර්කඩ කූලෝත් 3 හුත. 3 Born 1 of the-solar race.
Thirdly, To place the governed before the governing words in a sentence ; 2. E. 1 තමාහු 2
කුමට 3 ඇල වීද යි 4 වදාලන්සේක. 4 He said, 2 therefore 3 seizeds! thout 1 him ?-0omaudawe. 1 ඈමතියන්ට 2 උද හස් 3 වදාරා 4 දොර 5 හුග 6 ගෙයි 7 සත්රිය 8 හවා 9 රජ
සුහු. 10 ඇස
1 පිට. 11 When 9 the king 10 had inquired 8 having caused to-be-brought 7 the woman 6 of the house 4 whose door 5 he had chalked, and 3 having expressed 2 displeasure | towards the ministers ;-Raja'walia.
And Fourthly, To place the principal verb at the end of the sentence. Since the student has already had numerous examples of this, we need only refer him to a few familiar instances ; as Eow To me gire instead of 'Give me;' @Olmec Rice eat, instead of Eat rice ;' çooong cmu8gse as aç 883 The doctrines by Budha were preached, දම්
, instead of 'The doctrines were preached by Budha.'
Erception, Poetry forms an exception to the above general rules, or this the student will find examples in the two blank verses given in the text. It is, however, worthy of remark, that even poetry which has by all nations been allowed a wider and more indulgent range than prose, is more elegant when composed according to the above rules, than when they are departed from.
Of Verbs. 41. The following are roots of Intransitive Verbs (which are not followed by an accusative case): Qc ofis, as stand, AE fall, ace® smart, he sleep, bę rest, ww fear, a. 8 rain, Bosg, lauyh, oe please, we cry, (creak, or make noise), Soggriere, Olo o strike, ęs live, &c.
And the following are roots of Transitive Verbs (which are followed by an accusative case): ęcs see, (behold), @@ receive, 8 & cut, (break or eradicate), « 335 know, wo go, od support, əę speak, wę tie, nâng eat, ca s do, (make), 89 cook, se desire, oue8 bear, (or convey, or pour), 3 release, give, on bend, &c.
Verbs Intransitive have either an active or a substantire voice; and Verbs Transitive either a passivet or an actire voice.
Verbs in their three persons (He, thou, and I), admit of (three) tenses; the past, the present, and the future. $
• The substantive voice, e. g. 8 sdi oda, s 80/8.8 is rendered by Mr. Wilkins in his Sanscrit Grammar, p. 122. EPCO 9.30? 011, 'There is being, by Sir (by you sır,) i.e. you are, or are becoming.' Mr. Wilkins adds, “ this mode of using the verb is called me €322s, or the Substantive voice."
† The passive roice, which is peculiar to transitive verbs, is found in the Singhalese ; although its existence bas been denied by the Revd. S. Lambrick, io his Grammar; see Introduction, and $ 53. Upop this. subject the rule is exactly the same as that laid down by Dr. Lowth, p. 106"A peuter verb cannot become a passive. lo a Deuter verb the agent and the object are the same, and cannot be separated even in imagination, as in the examples to sleep, to walk; but when the verb is passive, one thing is acted upon by another, really or by supposition different from it.”
1 Singhalese as well as Sanscrit Grammarians treat of the persons and tenses in an order different from that adopted by Europeans. Wbilst the latter count the first person first, and the third last. the former place the first last, and the third first. The tenses are reckoned by Singhalese in the order of time, vizt. past first, the present nest, and the future
The terminations of the past tense of the verb in the third person singular number, are 8, 9,%, and c; the termi
C nations of the present tense of the verb in the third person singular number, are 7, @, es, and on; and the terminations of the future tense of the verb in the third person singular number, are asta, data storas, and .
The terminations of the past tense of the verb in the third person plural number, are en, ®, C, and cod; each of which may at pleasure be changed by adding w and .; the terminations of the present tense of the verb in the third
person plural number, are pol, gs', egoand o; and the terminations of the future tense of the verb in the third: person plural number, are ostaosi, qotoong and openg.
1. EXAMPLES Of the past tense of the verb in the third person singular number. ed ;-20:2 @ 984990-c. Dievekooroo Budha per
formed a superhuman feat (called) Yama.
last. It is also remarkable that the pronouns in construction with verbs are often elegantly omitted, as their nominative case, as in the Latin ; the termination of the verb being a sufficient distinction.
• The method here adopted by the Grammarian is far from being satisfactory; and we bave therefore given in the Appendix a little work called Vebal’ Maldame, in which the reader will And the above examples are better and more methodically arranged. Vide translation in the Addenda § II. et seq. The adoption of "symbolical letters ” as in pol, on, , at $ 41; and 0, 0, os, a,,3,0, w, o) at $ 61 &c. is not without much perplexity to the beginner. It is indeed the like “mystical teaching of the native Grammarians” in the Sanscrit, that has led Professor Wil. liams to speak of them in the following strain. (see his Grammar p. 56.) “ Hence it happens, that the expounder of Sanscrit Grammar, who wishes to exhaust bis subject, is not only compelled to embarass and perples an otherwise simple statement, by the diffused exhibition of various forms, and tenses, and exceptions, which are of little utility to the extraordinary student; bot is forced, moreover, to bewilder the beginner by a complication of technical phrases, conventional abbreviations, and symbolical letters, which are as puzzling at the first stage of his studies, as they may be useful in assistiog his memory at a later period.”
9; Doelsen@88. The whole world, having seen
that, became glad. &;-90aç 8 mag oo8.28. The great multitude de
stroyed (kelesoon) the evil propensities of human nature. e; -osas 28cgc 6300 299. There (the multitude) sunk in the Ocean's bed of Budha's splendour.
2, EXAMPLES 42. Of the present tense of the verb in the third person singular number. 9;-poor Bigosocomigodoes. The nine-branched Religion
of our Budha endures. ;—200CDDƏÇo@cami. The whole world imbibes his ඕ;.
pithy doctrines. og ;-@24800093.6evigas?cegot. His body of high priests
conquers the heathen. on; -09 Rooibos woolge. The wise man offers unto
3, EXAMPLES 43. Of the future tense of the verb in the third person singular number. podaod; -enolęsigodovo!çoostood. My tree Budha
will conquer the five Mara. podagi; oogo@geçsinot. (He) will give the Hea
venly food of Nivene. Qotnos; Anastasiass. The same nectar will
the great multitude drink. God;- COCGLD09908). Bodosi. (And) at that festival will flowery rain fall.
4, EXAMPLES 44. Of the past tense of the verb in the third person plural number;
Oleogeocolor or 90, or 6000s. Irshees 6700
those three gems.
invented great arts. 0919
Note that w and 9 are sometimes substituted for the regular inflexion given in the text; as in meo, CQ, &c.