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very essence from whence all words are or may be derived ; and the roots of nouns are those which are rendered into various cases. Each of these may be subdivided into three classes: 1st, sieri, native Singhalese roots; 2nd, ono, which are alike in the Elu and other languages, such as the Sanscrit, Pali, &c.;* and 3rd, 23, words derived from the Sanscrit, Pali, &c. into the Singhalese, but rendered different from the original, in order to adapt them to the Singhalese.
1. EXAMPLES + 1. 0:000 do; 890 * see. 2. wogo; give; mo do. 3. çoo win; Occh mount; wat remind; 06 receive.
2. EXAMPLES 1. Gode bay or harbour;(Colombo) mod new cloth, 2. Go elephant; mo arm; to cos ray. 3. pod hands; 61trees; wasgou Budha; Qu90u
teacher; wat ears: quod sour. 7. ow, Inflection, is the result produced by adding certain particles to verbal roots (e. g. 88 was-glad is produced from qw and 8; m6 of necessary-to-be-done from es:0 and ), or to roots of nouns (e. g. 608 citi-zen from os mo and 8-), in order to render them into different parts of speech..
8. 23, Verb, is that which is neither a substantive, nor expresses a quality (an adjective); but which, being a root and associated with a substantive, exists by reason of the six cao 603—the means by which an act is performed,' I e. g. &&(he) won, in the past tense and the third person singular; Owen@8
• By Dw is meant, words which are found in the Singhalese simiJar to Pali or Sanscrit terms of the same signification, but which cannot be said to have been derived from the latter.
† The first three examples illustrate the three classes of verbal roots; and the following three have reference to the roots of nouns.
1 Vide infra. This definition may be freely rendered thus: A verb is a word which expresses a state or act of some person, whether the third, woond, or first, and at a lime either the past, present, or future.
(thou) dwellest, in the present tense and the second person singular; Geotape (1) shall live, in the future tense and the first person.
9. c.3,* Elision, is the omission, or the lopping of letters; e. g. 2850), infinite, becomes by elision 3.0; gobę, subking, becomes 26 ¢; 2003, Mahakasoop, (a name of a priest) becomes acoged; 68g, princess, becomes og; @ng, arm, becomes @ɔ; and usę, feet, becomes ou.
10. Qaeed is the substitution of one sound or letter in place of another; e. g. mud goi, Seripooth, (a name of a priest) may be written cl8 god; 2 on, ill, may be written og voj; and Swa, bull, autod.
11. 2016. Where a letter is added between two words without taking away any of the former sounds (except so far as they are modified by the alteration), this addition is called oo; e. g.
, ac@ by the above process becomes 3(0) E@, vacuum; on, qon likewise becomes ou (25)on form-and-without-form.
12. 0006u is that process by which the latter of two letters † is omitted, and the former is substituted in place of
The word acid which we have rendered elision, is equivalent to the English word of the same sound, lop 'to chop sport'; and answers ( as will be perceived from the examples in the text) to Ist, Aphærèsis, in Greek, by taking away one or more letters from the beginning of a word, as osos for open of; secondly, Syncope, by taking away one or letters from the body of a word, as og for 008; and thirdly, A pocòpe, by taking away one or more letters from the end of a word, as og for Oiç.
+ This is equivalent to the Latin augmentatio; in English Grammars of the Greek language written augment, which indeed may be adopted as the translation of agám. But there is yet a better term Epenthesis, e.g. in Latin se-itio, re-emo and re-eo become by the insertion of d in the middleseditio', ‘redemo', and 'redeo '. Thus 83-89® becomes 33 (0).
The letters here spoken of are the two letters of two words which immediately join each other; as in oot and S, the of and are the two letters from the two words, which, when written together, join each other. By omitting the sound *), and by substituting in its place the original form of the first letter o?, (which is the simple s) we obtain ourse, weaving.
the omitted letter; e. g. Bet, o. produces des "wondrous work."
13. açon is that process by which one letter or word is repeated; e. g. pomoc docled may be written
; e. තුටුකලේ ඒ තුටුකලේ quod doctodes, that king pleased. sedang Enno produces not congos, kind-hearted person ; 90€wd omgonot becomes noeud 2003. gloss, one like an eye to the three worlds; 6.Smolę Ęwa mio] becomes on Ole Enoosloon, one like a worldly pinnacle in the midst of the battle field; & becomes giving, giving; so bę when doubled becomes Sę sę, enjoying, enjoying ; so likewise of, becomes acue, go, go.
Note that eie is an exception to the above rule, since without a repetition of that word it conveys a meaning of continuance; e. g. wala pai con 2005, from universe to universe there is a Mahamere.
14. 000€ (which may be termed Metathesis ) means, the changing or reversing of the order. Ofthis there are five kinds:
* Where an expression is repeated, as in se 8€, enjoying, enjoying, it means constantly or perpetually enjoying. I should rather say perpetually; because the Singhalese conveys to the mind an idea without ter. mination, although there may be intervals in the enjoyment. Mr. Wilson, in his translation of the Megha’Dula, in reference to this subject, has the following note, at p. 17. “A pleasing artifice occurs, of which Hindu poets are in the frequent use. The repetition of the same word in order to increase its force, and heighten its effect; thus we have above Downs äoon3 Besos 3 sos? ,- or weary, weary; feeble, feeble; you may repose, &c.' In no language perhaps has this figure been carried farther than in the English, and it may be a question whether in the well known
Fallen from his bigb estate. we may not be justified in saying, something too much of this.' A fine instance of the figure occurs in Horace's masterly ode. Justum et tenacem, &c.
Et mulier peregrina veriit in pulverem.
8890. E is the changing of the vowel-sounds inherent in consonants; (6) as in Hood, extensive, the letter 5 has inherent in it the vowel sound
may be changed into a and thence the word itself into Ord; so likewise ou), trees, which has e inherent in ov, may be altered into 800), by changing the
into 8; so again ag, flowers, may be rendered hey@; and cool, birth, becomes govod.
b. Doogoo & is the reversing of the order of consonants; as 2006 m, she-elephant, becomes 0.05; so 6.86, blood, may be written 486; † so likewise west, beds, (ww od or) whoo!; and wo), priest, (non or) 2008. I
occoce is the reversing of the order of words; as 68 eos for ę si 08. i. e. king Dath for Dath, (the) king. d. Sa doo is the changing of a case; as
nonoscec0853 606,00 ouose golaost
 Vide appendix C.
* It is generally believed, that in consonance with this rule words such as the following colocael, kings, and Oolnodawa, name of a village. may be written comecs, and coolaca; but this is a practice unsupported by the above rule of grammar; since it no where appears that in the Singhalese language the inherent vowel sounds in consonants may be suppressed, by putting two consonants together, as in Loxo, bill-hook; although this is of very frequent occurrence in the Sanscrit, as in carcos, science.
+ This is nothing more or less than the "transposition" of sounds in a word, of which Mr. Chambers treats in his Information for the people, Vol. II. p. 179.—“The principal sounds in a word are frequently transposed. The natives of Somersetsbire, for instance, always say claps instead of 'elasp', aps, instead of 'asp', birsh instead of "brush'. The word garnet is derived from the Latin granatus, and purpose from 'propositur.'”
Perhaps the reader is aware that in the Singhalese the may be substituted for ®, and vice versa, as in the text. Thus woď for 2016, rice-Vide infra g 22.
$ Here most accusative plural, is put instead of the 1st or nominative case plural "93.
The wicked, although learned in sciences, will, * like serpents wearing a jewel in their necks, be the very terror of others by entwining themselves round the sandle-tree-like king.
860E is the changing of (the mood of) the verb;
කිරියපරලි as ocadoçu opgęstoo?; 89.5.86 2008 gewcooos Osnos, O supreme Peacock! tuke thy lodging in the flowered tree at that season.
Note that these five changes, &c. occur whenever they are necessary for the sake of Euphony, $ or by poetical license.
15. Oca is the elongation of letters, as qzed for det, eyes; que for © ¢ , cold; q'8 for qo, we; e no som for en bon, means; 870.8 for 3, new; & for OS, flower; a& for @e, forest; ad for ~ C, trees; 88c8 for 88908, in cold. I
16. q@ is the abbreviation or shortening of letters, as ço for çocs, calf of the leg; wc@ for w.ga, brushwood; enę for mode, body;a@ for as, Brahama; || Owcza Gnoj for Odcz 08987, self-virtue; za osseorgos for og Dossixogos, an ocean to the stream of wisdom. I
* Here the past is put in the future tense by the translator, as otherwise the passage would be less intelligible for want of the context.
+ This is from ongo woodged a book which is handed down to us in a mutilated state. In the example in the text the writer has used the indicatire mood in an imperative sense.
1 The &c. has reference to other accidents of grammar, besides those specially named.
§ Euphony may also mean established usage.
 In the text the Grammarian means by " the elongation of letters ” “ the increase in syllabic quantity" - odca. The translator has, however, taken the liberty of rendering this passage differently for reasons which will be detailed in the Appendix C. It will be perceived that the Student will be better enabled to arrive at a correct judgement upon what we have to say on this bead, when he shall have gone through the eleventh chapteron Prosody, a department of Grammar to which many rules in the present chapter are more particularly applicable.
These occur by a poetical license. || These for the sake of euphony.