Imatges de pÓgina

4-S16 & (). O great king, mayest thou live long ! 0am

0. ()3.67892eu. O moon ! do not inflame sin

gle women. 98-waha (937) L8nConçus 3. O ears! be comforted

by the doctrines of Budha. 3-4093.8% (981) So09C8. Good people I look to

an after-world. Donos-wolno.07 (888) seca 1203. Good people !

harbour not schisms.* $8503766 (90) 3.6@ 30r. Eyes! behold the fi

gure of Budha. 03-5003703 (960)@goda.5.1886 3. Priests / relinquish

not meditations. 00382-Oolonso (858) Congo gcolos? O rich men !

be not intoxicated with prosperity. ?-99 (05) So@esine godor@o0?08 çooo923.

O bees ! from a lust of honey (sweets) tarry not long in the womb of the lotus. -ow@olfi (33) nosa osw. O wise! destroy covetousness. Note, if there be any other terminations not included in any of the above declensions, and also the termination of which may be produced by ous, (the mutation of nouns or verbs into each other, &c.) the learner may be guided by usage in the use of them. †

Note also, the declension of the personals, e that, as this, o (thou,) = 1, &c. in both the masculine and feminine genders, may

be acquired by usage without much difficulty.

O good people! it is possible that man could live well, like a gem in the society of the learned, destitute of ignor

* All except Budhism would be comprehended in this term.
+ qovornew, which occurs in the original, may lead one reaso

asonably to suppose that the commentator, whose words we have given in the text, is in error. The meaning of the Grammarian evidently is “If there be any other terminations not included in any of the above declensions, and also in the other inflexions called on ('a division of Grammar separately treated of) the learner may be guided by usage in the use of them." 6. (7) 0032(8) 289.13 @cons(9), 6103). O GOOD PEOPLE! (9) it is possible that men (1) could live we'l like a gem in the socieTY (8) of learned MEN (7) by being shorn of (from) IGNORANCE, (6) by learning this sivat SANGEKAWE (2)—10 KNOWLEDGE (5) profitableand published by means of SHORTNESS (6) by PATHIRAJE PIRIWENA (3).

ance, by learning the Sidath’sangerawe—a work to knowledge profitable and published briefly by Pathi’raja-piriwena.

End of the fourth Chapter. *

* The last sentence in the text is the translation of a beautiful Stanza in the Singhalese. embudying by way of illustration the nine cases of which the last chapter treats. The Stanza, and its translation, shewing the several cases are subjoined ; accos (1) €5.00eço (2) 08683

6.00 () Elam83 (4) OFCC ( 5 )es ordos දදබැවිනි (6) වරදිමහගතුක

While the reader is struck by the smoothness and polish of the above Stanza, his admiration of the tact and the ability of the Grammarian is indeed great ; for he perceives in the above not only an illustration of the nine cases ; but ao illustration of them in the order in which the Grammarian has treated them. To sum up the whole in one rule, the translator has attempted a literal translation shewing the respective sigos, or the peculiarities of each case, which may be thus illustrated in English : The first case is aça od men. It is neither the instrumental, because the agent with its proper sigo is already foood in the sentence, nor does it belong to any other case; but at the same tine aços conyeys the signification of agency. It is therefore properly put in the first, or Nominative case, aço is in the second or Accusative case, because it is the objece governed by the verb to learn. O 850=Eo. Dos Palhiraje Piriwena is in the third or Instrumental case, because it is, apart from its sense, indicated by the sign by. CLOD030s by means of shoriness, which means by-means-of-being condensed, is in the fourth or Auriliary case. because by means of, indicative of assistance, governs this case. & 30 toknowledge, is the fifth or Datire case, signitying to or for a thing. <ç@cs shorn (01) from ignorance, is the sixth or Ablative case, indicating a separation from a thing. Qorosso of learned men, which is the seventh or Genitive case, indicates possession, by thy sign of. Own in the society, is the Locative or the eighth ca e, indicated by the preposition in, which conveys an inherency. The last is the Pucative, being won good people, whom the writer has addressed. For a synopsis of the nine cases see Appendix C.


Compound words. 35. When words of several significations are combined, 80 as to form one new term, the composition is called Samàsa. I shall now treat of its various distinctions. There are five classes of compounds: the 1st called ou oed, being the construction of indeclinable or adverbial compounds; the 2nd 325&c, compounds of cases; the 3rd Ocuentwed, compounds of adjectives; the 4th e sigolo wc, compounds (forming the attribute or epithet of an object, or) producing a signification different from that of the combined words; and the 5th coccole et copulative compounds.

First class of compounds. Aviye-Samas is that compound which has an indeclinable particle, such as w, 9, 8, 87, &c. for its first member, governing the last; † e. g.

Compounds of the genus c3-8M289ac998-33 slowa:6-8. A part of his body was infected with the white scrofula during-existence. [Here wo-&o is put for {983, until-the-end-of-existence.] wowodzonspos Call as many Brahamins as have been invited. (i. e. call Brahamins as-many-as have been invited.] @Jokice. OneWO.-=@c


Sanscrit Grammarians arrange compounds (six in number) under four classes. That which is denomioated in the Singhalese Ariye-samas, is called in the sanscrit Aryayè-bhavà. The second class of compounds termed in the Singhalese, Vibat-Samas, is called in the Sanscrit .Tatpurusha,' which includes (what is unknown to the Singhalese), Dwigu compounds, and also the third class of compounds in the text called Vesesun-samas, known in the Sanscrit by the appellation of Karmma-dharaya. The fourth class of Singhalese compounds, An-orool-samas, are termed in the Sanscrit Bahuvrihi And the last which is D'aroot-samas in the Singhalese, is denominated in Sacscrit Dwandwa.

Avyaye-bhara in Sanscrit, see Wilson's S. Gram: p. p. 337, 8.

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ebe@sone. [11] [Here the compound Woc is put for cs5 ce profit-of-(any-any) whatever-kind.] -0.8& accordingto-method, is here put for 6ę.08.08 without departing from method. qopac for ougowe after derived authority.

b. Compounds of the genus mm -38'edfor breegsed despised-person ; Saç heresy, for cçcç despised-faith; odour, for omrę pleasant smell.

Compounds of the genus 0-2 splendour, for cmos; Co@aut it illumines with supreme effulgence; Curon for couco neighbouring forest.

d. Compounds of the genus 30 (privatives)*—demi-god, for 95 98 stoot he who is not a God;' oo for 98.9 04052&ad that which is not given;' qudde-merit, for mongod sios that which is not merit.'

Observe, that certain words beginning with a vowel are formed into negative compounds by the substitution of os; e. g. 4-531 many, for sado 3500 3 'that which is not one;' 00.-ço in-justice, for a conosoboost that which is not lovely or just.'

Second class of compounds. 36. When the first of two nouns in coinbination has the signification of any of the nine cases, save the Nominative and the Vocative, the compound is called Vibat-Samas.t

[11] See the translation of this passage in Appendix C.

• It is to be remarked, that nouns preceded by privatives are compounds of this species; as in the English words“ in-justice” “un-able, "&c. But, it is also remarkable, that the Singhalese compounds are never formed of any other but nouns, i, e. declinable words. The privatives are used amongst the Singhalese for two porposes ; Ist to denote something else than what the name would otherwise express ;' as in 876 (an animal which is) not-a-horse ; qwg (he who is) not-a brahamin: and 2nd, to give a total change or opposite meaning to the word to which it is prefixed,' as in que de-merit ; quo del un-manliness; c05 demi-god,&c. · † Professor Wilson gives the following definition of this species ol compounds, at p. 3 10. Talpurusha compoun is—This class includes, as above remarked, three subdivisions; to the first of which the term Tatporasta may be for the present restricted. lo compounds of this order


Words in the sense of the Accusative-o and 6 godt, , ‘one who composes verses,' produce wolnou versi-fier, a term for so poet. Ha and mo ogod, one who sports,' produce sowo sportsman, a word for ogólę juggler. Scs and ecosi, 'one who nourishes the earth,' god earthnourisher; hence or of Kshetriye. 3 and @isad, ‘one who extracts sweets from flowers; ' Svi honey-drinker, for ve bee. oon and asood, one who drinks after (sucking)' 8 hos after-drinker, for $58 and wood, one who causes night,' sergo u night-producer, for esę moon. 86 and obogad, 'one who screens the sun,' 866 sos sunscreen, for wood umbrella.

b. Words in the sense of the Instrumental. oond from 0.0182 x and gend, 'He who is nourished by another, 'i. e. wood cuckvo, * or w&c.cobeggar. 2®ços from aegseos and is eenę, ‘that which was given by Brahama,' i. e. EYou sacerdotal robes. a cod from asses and Açore&o ¢, “that which is given by God,'e. g. angos food.

Words in the sense of the Auriliary case. Solec from 206 mononat and es., that which dazzles by reason of bees,' i. e. Quis cluster (of flowers). ppoio from polo Gosod and, 'that which is produced by means of band.' Dhegou from 2006 noved and gorąud, ‘he who is valiant by means of his arms,' i. e. 000 lion. ? tortoise, from west and so od, that which drinks with its side.' mod from ouro op and 20), rice mixed up with

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the words stand in a relation to each other which would require, if they were separated, the use of different cases; the one exercising a syntactical government over the other, and not being conuected, as in the preceding class, by copulatives understood, por, as in the subdivision Karmmadharaya, by simple concordance,”

• There is a belief amongst the Singhalese that the Cuckoo lays her eggs in a Crow's nest, and that they are invariably hatched by the latter. Hence the compound term, He-who-is-nourished-by-another for the Cuckoo.

+ This is in reference to the first rote wbich Budha received from Brbama.

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