Imatges de pÓgina

4-606000 (Q). O great king, mayest thou live long!

om (s) 3.818330w. O moon! do not inflame sin

gle women. 981-wass(937)Wc8SG wwędos 8d. O ears! be comforted

by the doctrines of Budha. 8982-6803.8) (987) S09990 S. Good people I look to

an after-world. Goei-wodas.s) (nor88) seca 33283. Good people !

harbour not schisms. * 030378 83 (34) 3.6@ig sor. Eyes ! behold the fi

gure of Budha.
—50963.33 (960)@goda.5.9886 8. Priests / relinquish

not meditations. 08783-Oddaos (008) novo colos?. O rich men!

be not intoxicated with prosperity. -92as) () Scenesocomo @0?08 ¢008.

O bees ! from a lust of honey (sweets) tarry not long in

the womb of the lotus. නි-නියවනී (නි) තනවනසා. O wise! destroy covetousness.

Note, if there be any other terminations not included in any of the above declensions, and also the termination of which may be produced by ou, (the mutation of nouns or verbs into each other, &c.) the learner may be guided by usage in the use of them. †

Note also, the declension of the personals, e that, as this, o (thou,) a I, &c. in both the masculine and feminine genders, may be acquired by usage without much difficulty.

. O good people! it is possible that man could live well, like a gem in the society of the learned, destitute of ignor

* All except Budhism would be comprehended in this term.
+ Qoronew, which occurs in the original, may lead one reas

easonably to suppose that the commentator, whose words we have given in the text, is in error. The meaning of the Grammarian evidently is “If there be any other terminations not included in any of the above declensions, and also in the other inflexions called on ( a division of Grammar sepafately treated of) the learner may be guided by usage in the use of them."

ance, by learning the Sidatli'sangerawe—a work to knowledge profitable and published briefly by Pathi'raja-piriwena.

End of the fourth Chapter. *

* The last sentence in the text is the translation of a beautiful Stanza in the Singhalese. embudying by way of illustration the nine cases of which the last chapter treats. The Stanza, and its translation, she wing the several cases are subjoined ;

accos (1) Q3.09.ço (2)08643 6:00 (3) WLA 08 3 (4) 06 (5)

Érdos cção 3 (6) 20:0 0000 000

6220 (7) mw@(8) 889.rgo@ocoCOB(9) Oleos. O GOOD PEOPLE! (9) it is possible that MEN (1) could live we'l like a gem in the society (8) of learned MEN (7) by being shorn of (from) IGNORANCE, (6) by learning this sidaT SANGEKAWE (2)—10 KNOWLEDGE (5) profitableand published by means of SHORTNESS (6) by PATHIRAJE PIRIWENA (3).

While the reader is struck by the smoothness and polish of the above Stanza, his admiration of the tact and the ability of the Grammarian is indeed great ; for he perceives in the above not only an illustration of the nine cases ; but an illustration of them in the order in which the GrammaTian has treated them. To sum up the whole in one rule, the translator bas attempted a literal translation shewing the respective sigos, or the peculiarities of each case, which may be thus illustrated in English : The first case is ça od men. It is neither the instrumental, because the agent with its proper sign is already found in the sentence, nor does it belong to any other case; but at the same time aço os conveys the signification of agency. It is therefore properly put in the first, or Nominative case, &ços is in the second or Accusative case, because it is the objecı governed by the verb to learn. 0856350. Dos Pathiraje Piriwena is in the third or Instrumental case, because it is, apart from its sense, indicated by the sign by. Lo 0.8os by means of shoriness, which means by-means-of-being.condensed, is in the fourth or Auriliary case. because by means of, indicative of assistance, governs this case. Go to knowledge, is the fifth or Datire case, signilying to or for a thing. Ç¢@los) shorn (os) from ignorance, is the sixth or Ablative case, indicating a separation from a thing. novo g. of learned men, which is the seventh or Genitive case, indicates posses-ion, by thy sign of. Om in the society, is the Locative or the eighth ca e, indicated by the preposition in, which conveys an inherency. The last is the Vocative, being woon33 good people, whom the writer has addressed. For a synopsis of the nine cases see Appendix C.




Compound words. 35. When words of several significations are combined, 80 as to form one new term, the composition is called Samàsa. I shall now treat of its various distinctions. There are five classes* of compounds: the 1st called coats Bed, being the construction of indeclinable or adverbial compounds; the 2nd 52520d, compounds of cases; the 3rd GOGwestwed, compounds of adjectives; the 4th orooroi wees, compounds (forming the attribute or epithet of an object, or) producing a signification different from that of the combined words; and the 5th çoccowocł copulative compounds.

First class of compounds. Aviye-Samas is that compound which has an indeclinable particle, such as w5, 9, 8, 87, &c. for its first member, governing the last; t e. g. Compounds of the genus c3-810_28966978:53

සව් slow3320-3. A part of his body was infected with the white scrofula during-existence. [Here w®-<5 is put for {968, until-the-end-of-existence.] w902 378 2o Call as many Brahamins as have been invited. [i. e. call Brabamins as-many-as have been invited.] gomice@w6.-3


Sanscrit Grammarians arrange compounds (sis in number) under four classes. That which is denominated in the Singhalese Ariye-samas, is called in the sanscrit Aryayè-bharà. The second class of compounds termed in the Sioghalese, Vibat-Samas, is called in the Sanscrit •Tatpurusba,' which includes (what is unknown to the Singhalese), Dwigu compounds, and also the third class of compounds in the text called Vescsun-samas, known in the Sanscrit by the appellation of Karmma.dharaya. The fourth class of Singhalese compounds, An-orool-samas, are termed in the Sanscrit Bahuurihi And the last which is D'arvot-samas in the Singhalese, is denominated in Sacscrit Dwandwa.

Avyaye-bhara in Sanscrit, see Wilson's S. Gram: p. p. 337, 8.

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Gobel@simne. [11] [Here the compound Golf is put for a 5 ce profit-of-(any-any) whatever-kind.] -0.5? accordingto-method, is here put for &30.3.58910 without departing from method. pogənc for Ougone after derived authority.

b. Compounds of the genus em 2.-33'edforcoweegsed despised-person; saç heresy, for fęcçcç despised-faith; gəę odour, for a conę pleasant smell.

Compounds of the genus 0-02 splendour, for caos; Coast it illumines with supreme effulgence; cui on for GOLco neighbouring forest.

d. Compounds of the genus 3s (privatives)*—o demi-god, for 5 033921oot 'he who is not a God;' So for 98.9 ocosee & ‘that which is not given;' quc de-merit, for

3. O viaxthat which is not merit.' Observe, that certain words beginning with a vowel are formed into negative compounds by the substitution of on; e. g. 4-5 si many, for ez 820 3790 3 'that which is not one;' op 3-ço in-justice, for a goose odood that which is not lovely or just.'

Second class of compounds. 36. When the first of two nouns in coinbination has the signification of any of the nine cases, save the Nominative and the Vocative, the compound is called Vibat-Samas.t

But, it

(11) See the translation of this passage in Appendix C.

It is to be remarked, that nouns preceded by privatires are compounds of this species; as in the English words “ in-justice” “un-able, "&c.

also remarkable, that the Singhalese compounds are never formed of any other but nouns, i, e. declinable words. The privatives are used amongst the Singhalese for two porposes; Ist 'to denote something else than what the name would otherwise express ;' as in oon ( an animal which is) not-a-horse; qw33 (he who is) not-a brahamin: and 2nd, 'to give a total change or opposite meaning to the word to which it is prefised,' as in a qué de-merit ; qö opet un.manliness; C 935 demi-god,&c.

† Professor Wilson gives the following definition of this species ol compounds, at p. 3 10. Tarpurusha compoun is—This class includes, as above remarked, three subdivisions; to the first of wbich the term Tatporasta may be for the present restricted. la compounds of this order


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Words in the sense of the Accusative-moand 6 god, one who composes verses,' produce moinu versi-fier, a term for a 8 poet. Go and mozgod, ‘one who sports,' produce 5800 sportsman, a word for gcolę o juggler. Scs and e dood, 'one who nourishes the earth,' 3o8 earthnourisher; hence ovo Kshetriye. 3 and ed, one who extracts sweets from flowers;' 53. honey-drinker, for ep bee. oon and dogod, one who drinks after (sucking)'8 ser after-drinker, for 253 elephant. and 309, one who causes night,' siogo e night-producer, for esę moon. 86 and qə 6 220d, one who screens the sun,' 8656 son sunscreen, for oud umbrella.

b. Words in the sense of the Instrumental. 000 from 0.018 e rand god, 'He who is nourished by another,'i. e. w@oi cuckvo,* or a Goos beggar. 2®ços from 2098 2os and 18 Edne, that which was given by Brahama,' i. e. Egou sacerdotal robes. † Ocaços from 05:36 Sas and 640.64¢, that which is given by God,'e. g. o god food.

Words in the sense of the Auriliary case. Bolęc from 20600.000' and easĆ, 'that which dazzles by reason of bees,’i. e. Quis cluster (of flowers). pero from polno gosod and 93.0€, that which is produced by means of band. Jegou from 0.956988) and golaud, 'he who is valiant by means of his arms,’i. e. 2000 lion. කැ ස tortoise, from outs and 0729.00, that which drinks with its side.' mot fromęc w xoş and 2 o}, “rice mixed up with



the words stand in a relation to each other which would require, if they were separated, the iwe of different cases; the one exercising a syntactical government over the other, and not being connected, as in the preceding class, by copulatives understood, por, as in the subdivision Karmmadharaya, by simple concordance."

There is a belief amongst the Singhalese that the Cuckoo lays her eggs in a Crow's nest, and that they are invariably hatched by the latter, Hence the compound term, He-who-is-Dourished-by-another' for the Cuckoo.

† This is in relerence to the first robe wbich Budha received from Brbama.

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