Imatges de pÓgina

very essence from whence all words are or may be derived ; and the roots of nouns are those which are rendered into various cases. Each of these may be subdivided into three classes: lst, sosi, native Singhalese roots; 2nd, ooo, which are alike in the Elu and other languages, such as the Sanscrit, Pali, &c.;* and 3rd, 23, words derived from the Sanscrit, Pali, &c. into the Singhalese, but rendered different from the original, in order to adapt them to the Singhalese.

1. EXAMPLES 1. 6:00 do; 896 @ see. 2. co go; e give; m6 do. 3. çoo win; 323 mount; wat remind; 206 receive.

2. EXAMPLES 1. Goe@ bay or harbour ;(Colombo) zaod new cloth. 2. ooo elephant; m6 arm; o Son ray. 3. pol hands; 618 trees; wəsibogou Budha; Qu90u

teacher; mot ears: ed sour. 7. ow, Inflection, is the result produced by adding certain particles to verbal roots (e. g. 88 was-glad is produced from ow and ; 20 y necessary-to-be-done from a:6 and 6), or to roots of nouns (e. g. siad citi-zen from 87006 and ), in order to render them into different parts of speech..

8. 8, Verb, is that which is neither a substantive, nor expresses a quality (an adjective); but which, being a root and associated with a substantive, exists by reason of the six as 60—the means by which an act is performed,' I e. g. {$(he) won, in the past tense and the third person singular; Oda@8

• By Bow is meant, words which are found in the Singhalese simiJar to Pali or Sanscrit terms of the same signification, but which cannot be said to have been derived from the latter.

† The first three examples illustrate the three classes of verbal roots; and the following three have reference to the roots of nouns.

Pide infra. This definition may be freely rendered thus: A verb is word which expresses a state or act of some person, whether the third, woond, or first, and at a time either the past, present, or future.

(thou) dwellest, in the present tense and the second person singular; çodoops (I) shall live, in the future tense and the first person.

9. @os,* Elision, is the omission, or the lopping of letters; e. g. poso), infinite, becomes by elision 0.01; gobę, subking, becomes @o¢; w03, Mahakasoop, (a name of a priest) becomes cogd; 68&, princess, becomes o g; @ng, arm, becomes @ə; and woq, feet, becomes 09.

10. Doçed is the substitution of one sound or letter in place of another; e. g. mu8 go, Seripooth, (a name of a priest) may be written eléggod; oe oor, ill, may be written ogy; and Sw@, bull, aud.

11. ooo. † Where a letter is added between two words without taking away any of the former sounds (except so far as they are modified by the alteration), this addition is called pos; e. g.

, 9C@ by the above process becomes $(6) c@, vacuum; on, por likewise becomes ou (29)on form-and-without-form.

12. 0006n is that process by which the latter of two letters † is omitted, and the former is substituted in place of

The word geid which we have rendered elision, is equivalent to the English word of the same sound, lop 'to chop sbort'; and answers ( as will be perceived from the examples in the text) to Ist, Aphærèsis, in Greek, by taking away one or more letters from the beginning of a word, as osos for penod; secondly, Syncope, by taking away one or more letters from the body of a word, as & for 008; and thirdly, Apocòpe, by taking away one or more letters from the end of a word, as og for Orç.

+ This is equivalent to the Latin augmentatio; in English Grammars of the Greek language written augment, which indeed may be adopted as the translation of agám. But there is yet a better term Epenthesis, e.g. in Latin se-itio, re-emo and re-eo become by the insertion of d in the middle'seditio', ‘redemo', and 'redeo’. Thus 83-88@ becomes os (6) €@.

The letters here spoken of are the two letters of two words which immediately join each other; as in oot and 28, the oi and are the two letters from the two words, which, when written together, join each other. By omitting the sound *), and by substituting in its place the original form of the first letter o?, (which is the simple Os) we obtain ordese, weaving.

the omitted letter; e. g. 3e., - produces se “wondrous toork."

13. açor is that process by which one letter or word is repeated; e. g. Qgood deloc may be written

ore deeloder, that king pleased. dsonst enco produces mononat egong'on, kind-hearted person ; Gonewa omonot becomes aosęso eunondoni, one like an eye to the three worlds ; 6 Golę w 20363 becomes 66 occęcos osloo, one like a worldly pinnacle in the midst of the battle field; ę becomes ęę giving, giving; so bę when doubled becomes Sę sę, enjoying, enjoying; so likewise of, becomes OG O, go, go.

Note that ow is an exception to the above rule, since without a repetition of that word it conveys a meaning of continuance; e. g. use si es, from universe to universe there is a Mahamere.

14. 600€ (which may be termed Metathesis) means, the changing or reversing of the order. Ofthis there are five kinds:

• Where an expression is repeated, as in Sę 8¢, enjoying, enjoying, it means constantly or perpetually enjoying. I should rather say perpetually; because the Singhalese conveys to the mind an idea without ter. mination, although there may be intervals in the enjoyment. Mr. Wilson, in his translation of the Megha' Duta, in reference to this subject, has the following note, at p. 17. “A pleasing artifice occurs, of which Hindu poets are in the freqnent use. The repetition of the same word in order to increase its force, and heighten its effect; thus we have above Soon8 Doson ve sono se fose ,-or weary, weary; feeble, feeble; you may repose, &c.' In no language perbaps has this figure been carried farther than in the English, and it may be a question whether in the well known

Fallen, fallen,
Fallen, fallen,

Fallen from his bigb estate. we may not be justified in saying, something too much of this.' A fine instance of the figure occurs in Horace's masterly ode. Justum et tenacem, &c.

llion, Ilion.
Fatalis incestuaque judet,

Et mulier peregrina vertit in pulverem.
The stranger harlot, and the judge udjust,
Have levelled Ilion, Ilion, with the dust."


8898. & is the changing of the vowel-sounds inherent in consonants; (6) as in Bood, extensive, the letter 6 has inherent in it the vowel sound 8, which may be changed into , and thence the word itself into oud; so likewise 68), trees, which has inherent in ov, may be altered into 8 03, by changing the e into g; so again 99, flowers, may be rendered song; and cool, birth, becomes good.

b. Doonor & is the reversing of the order of consonants;* as 2006, she-elephant, becomes esams; 80 286, blood, may be written 986; † so likewise cocos, beds, (ww si or) wood; and wos, priest, (awon or) 2008). 1

oçoose is the reversing of the order of words; as oo col for ę o oo. i. e. king Dath for Dath, (the) king. d. Swodgor is the changing of a case; as

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[6] Vide appendix C.

* It is generally believed, that in consonance with this rule words such as the following colocael, kings, and Odladdoc@, name of a village. may be written clonecs, and coriaca; but this is a practice unsupported by the above rule of grammar; since it no where appears that in the Singhalese language the inherent vowel sounds in consonants may be suppressed, by putting two consonants together, as in @20, bill-hook; although this is of very frequent occurrence in the Sanscrit, as in carros, science.

+ This is nothing more or less than the “transposition ” of sounds in a word, of which Mr. Chambers treats in his Information for the people, Vol. II. p. 179.—“The principal sounds in a word are frequently transpoved. The natives of Somersetshire, for instance, always say claps instead of 'elasp', aps, instead of asp', birsk instead of "brush'. The word garnet is derived from the Latin granatus, and purpose from 'propositur.'”

Perhaps the reader is aware that in the Singhalese the may be substituted for “, and vice versa, as in the test. Thus wad for bord, rice-Vide infra 22.

§ Here meget accusative plural, ie put instead of the 1st or nominative case plural ~99.

The wicked, although learned in sciences, will, * like serpents wearing a jewel in their necks, be the rery terror of others by entwining themselves round the sandle-tree-like king.

e. 48 God is the changing of the mood of) the verb; as o D.Doçwagngęsas?; 789.3.85 0.68 gewoon Osnos, O supreme Peacock! take thy lodging in the flowered tree at that season.

Note that these five changes, &c. occur whenever they are necessary for the sake of Euphony, $ or by poetical license.

15. O is the elongation of letters, as aled for qet, eyes; que for ¢¢ [7], cold; 28 for 98, we; como son for Congo, means; 870.8 for 3705, ner; Od for Oe, floncer; & for de, forest; & for WC, trees; 880&s for 889@8, in cold. I

16. is the abbreviation or shortening of letters, as ço for coco, calf of the leg; el@ for, brushwood; mę for moję, body; 2@ for as, Brahama; || Owanoj for oedce noso), self-virtue; za ossegos for ozoneixgos, an ocean to the stream of wisdom. I

• Here the past is put in the future tense by the translator, as otherwise the passage would be less intelligible for want of the context.

| This is from Ogówooeaed-a book which is handed down to us in a mutilated state. In the example in the test the writer has used the indicative mood in an imperative sepse.

The &c. has reference to other accidents of grammar, besides those specially damed. $ Euphony may also mean established usage.

[7] In the text the Grammarian means by “the elongation of letters ” “ the increase in syllabic quantity" -Obaca. The translator bas, however, taken the liberty of rendering this passage differently for reasons which will be detailed in the Appendix C. It will be perceived that the Student will be better enabled to arrive at a correct judgement upon what we have to say on this bead, when he shall have gone through the eleventh chapter on Prosody, a department of Grammar to which many rules in the present chapter are more particularly applicable.

These occur by a poetical license. || These for the sake of euphony.

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