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thus 333, 08., 93.0. The simple is also a termination peculiar to this case.
Note that in this case there is no difference in the two numbers.
not inconsiderable: 1st, that an Agent with a nominative case would be incongruous, and would often prove unintelligible to Europeans; and 2nd, that voless we adhere to the names already given by Europeans to the like accidents of Grammar in the kindred languages of Sanscrit and Pali, we might create some confusion, without any corresponding advantage resulting from the innovation. For these reasons we have adopted “Auritiary" as the translation of $ 6. Jon; and, it is hoped, that it may
not prove incorrect; for the very sign of this case with, or by means of. conveys to one's mind the assistance which the noun in this case affords to the act, which is indicated in a sentence.
As for instance, to do an act with any thing, or by means of any one, is to do it “with” the help, or "by means of” the assislance, of that thing or person. “By means of” as one of the signs of this case, is given in Dr. Stevenson's Muralhee Grammar p. 17; and it seems to be, generally speaking, more expressive than the preposition with. That the distinction between the Instrumental and the Auxiliary is not altogether imaginary, will appear pretty clearly from the following passage exemplified by Dr. Wilkins under the head of the Instrumental case.
308ca06951996, 60ennem 60.60
sau Gonor 3, 35000 25.09gorie “ Rovená, the tyrant of the world, pierced by Ramá with an arrow, and torn with the points of their claws by the baboons, fights again"
Hence, it is manifest that “by Rama,” and “with an arrow, convey different ideas to the mind with reference to the particular action, the same as upon Rama ” and “ from a tree” in the following sentence, “A monkey jumped upon Rama from a tree.” Jl, in the latter instance, the distinction between a locative and an ablative, was deemed necessary to be perpetuated, we scarcely indeed perceive any reason that could justify the blending the Instrumental with the Auxiliary Case.
To the Singhalese are known but “two aumbers” both in the noun and in the verb. To the Sanscrit, however, as also to the Greek, is known one more, the dual. Professor Bopp in his Comparative Grammar, says:" The dual, like the peuter, in course of time, is the first to be lost with the weakening of the vitality of the view taken by the senses, or is more and more straiteped in its use, and then replaced by the abstract plural, es. pressive of infinite number. The Sanscrit possesses the dual more fully, both in the noun and in the verb, and employe it everywhere where it wo eould
EXAMPLES. 931:- Boi (33) 2016/08 wog. By means of yood conduct
win the good-will of teachers. osd;
—nmobles!)çovimo stast. By means of kindness
win the hearts of men. nooo!;- podnosot (908) 62606523. By means of
benevolence, extinguish enmity. 93?;-480 (967) 60* 8:33. By means of the mind
result virtue and rice. esi;- 5) (06) @osz. By means of wisdom be
distinguished. 9893;—05.dans (
06)838. By means of exertion -osodas( nos
destroy transmigrations. m2-0083@ho () 6.032. Bow ye to them, who
attained Niwene by means of acts. Observe that Conjunctions govern this Case † e. g. wione od od sos@.3 37. Live thou long along-with (receiving) the eyes of gemmy offerings.
The fifth, or Dative Case. 30. The person who receives a gift, and also the object that is governed by acies for, or “for the purpose of" are in the Dative. † It takes the termination wo in the singular,
I be expected. In the Zend, which otherwise approximates so closely to the Sanscrit, it is found very rarely in the verb, more frequently in the noun. The Pali has only as much left of it as the Latin, viz. a reminant of it in eno words which signify' two and both;' in the Prakrit it is entirely wanting. O the German languages, only the eldest dialect, the Gothic, posses-es it. but merely in the verb; while, on the contrary, in the Hebrew (speaking here of the Semetic languages) it is retained only in the noun, in disadvantagecus contrast with the Arabic, which in many oiher respects also, is a more perfect langu. ge, and which maintains the dual in equal fulness in the verb also; while in the Syriac it bas been almcet entirely lost in the doon as well as in the verb.”—p.p. 186, 7.
: . S is in the singular number; and it should be observed, that wag in the passage email@example.com (see Appendix A. $), plural nouns are frequently used collectively to convey a singular signification.'
+ Thus in the Sanscrit-vide Wilson's Gram : p. 370, § c.
and good in the plural; and also all the terminations proper to the accusative, in both its numbers, by the addition of o to each of them (except those that end in ĉ.) These terminations thus are, in the Singular, cə, o, e, ope, and e; and in the Plural;00, code, 3.0, 382, sie, and qota.
EXAMPLES 60,9695839.3.2. Det forbecuess 605
2026002 (86) 02596onosi singiot çe33 6010396. It will be well to be virtuous (by three doorst) in all the three ways, until the demon of decrepiture, having chewed by means of her diseased mouth, and sipped, the humours—shall 7.ot give unto death the cud of
(thy) body. qe-gao.cē (pēlçelędn403c93.8:8. In an agreeable
company throro two handfuls of water to the weary. com9968ogoleelepelnę. The premier bids (to)the king
long life and prosperity. qe&x75 (one) cala:603 Give alms to the beggar. sp?cego (196) agnę He gives goods to the merchant. E3000 () was. I pray for (promote) a blessing
of peace to this house. 95.6--645-goso Sanę. Saresavy I gives wisdom
: to those who worship her. cstê pode (coib) 200830Boro to the great. odémén:100 GO (3.8) egneed. The weak give their
back (support) to others (enemies.) monocim&06 Coooooo66
(anisse) 2000&sd. The face of Pabàretee (the Queen of king Koose) who in her aquatic amusement, descended by
* In some of the provinces of this Island, the ô both in the Dative and the Infinitive, is changed into 2. 1o the K.adian Provinces, however, the ó is preserved inviolate.
+ The "three doors "' have reference to the means by whose instrumento a'ity sins are committed, viz. - thought, word, and deed.
: S. rosary, otherwise called Sarasvelee, the wife of Brahma, is the Goddess of speech, the arts, and sciences
dividing the waves, disgraced (emulated) the Lotuses. 6!-indeois 6 os.oda (5€) colgado (012) 394
Godeço. Excellent men do not give their breast to
other's women, nor their back to enemies. potemneakewoo (P87€) 3300 33* Benso02 mg
Tell ye not altogether your thoughts to women. Observe, that where 98.4 (for, or for the purpose of) is understood, the noun which it would govern, if expressed, takes the inflexion €; as woona (€):3:8 3?, or two os 8 soos diss-He departed for rar; cocok2:38 or ec2d8630 MLO 85.—He adorned (himself) for the feast or wedding; gyos&s6nçoiono ()-0.20 SE (QC)ę or asoodi:S Saç 33 seco.gos 38.00€– The arm is created for the purpose of giving and striking.
Observe also, that the particle De', when used in the sense of 9 sve., governs the same case, as 2.osto odt-In order to become Budha.
The sixth, or Ablative case 31. Is that which denotes a separation of one object or idea from another. § Its inflexions are those proper to the Auxiliary case; and also those (2 and 3 o excepted)proper to the Accusative, but with the addition of nes to each of the inflexions proper to the latter. That is to say god, oo!, conos, g5?, osim oss, 5; sono!, canos,
• 3003 is the word which occurs in several copies of the test. This is either a clerical error, or the word is vow abbreviated, insteed of Banan).
+ When the word Ofe is expressed, the terminations peculiar to this case may be dispensed with. In the example given above, the os in the care is changed into ot merely for the sake of euphony. This euphonic expedient belongs to the Singhalese language in divers turns of expression.
This word, when properly indecird, is read 3. Estose; or to the infective base may be added, Oed or 28.0; ass og 3.
$ ride Wiis : p. 374. It is the same in the Latin ; as Nos, Troja antiqud diversa per æqrora pecti." L L. G. p. 88.
ආගන්, හුරහන්, උගෙන්, නගන්, ආහහන්, ගෙන්, and අහන්. :
EXAMPLES 1, Having the inflexions proper to the Auxiliary. ඉ;-කත මහසතුනසලින්(ඉන්) ලි. A woman pushed
down the Bódisat from a hill. එන්;- දෙව්දක්ද හැගනන් (ඉන්) පිරිගින්. Dew'dat has
fallen off from his religious virtue, called a38..* නන්;-6 ක් වෙන් වෙන්ගිනිවිලමු. A monkey has fallen down from a tree. † 2, Having the inflerions proper to the Accusative,
but with the addition of not to each. “අ, හෙන්නේ - හිරයන්ගෙන් (අගෙන්) තාරිනිවට. The naked
mendicant is free from shame. උ, හන්-ඔසුරුගෙන් (උගෙන්) බියවේ. From a thief re
ආ,ගෙන් - තහවුරපරාගෙන්(ගෙන්) හතු. Thataphich
is taken from another is not lasting. හු, bඟ-පටනකදඹු වු හිඳුහුගෙන් (හුටහන්) දුවේ,
• Vile Clough's Dictionary. II. p. 304. ධ්යහන.
+ It will be perceived that the test does not present the student with examples of the inflexions 3 33, 09:57, and assis, common to the Auxiliary and the Ablative; nor, with උන්,හෙහ්--,ගෙන්-ආන, Goos-oomodand Q8, on at the plural inflexions proper to the Accusative, by the addition of good to each, and which are the same in the Ablative. We supply the omission by citing the following; viz. 852-0.0022, Haring crossed (from) the river. එනි-බියෙනිතාරව'. Free from Jear. 0978.- slang99. The ignorant are destitute of (from) Sciences. උන් -රජුගෙන් උදහස්ගව්. Displensure results from wmyaගෙස්
රුනහෙන් හුනුවිඳුමට Wonkeys from Tra; ආන, හෙන්-මොනරාණගෙන් පුද්ගලෙත්. Feathern from pratoirl. ; න්, හ -දරුවගෙන උද වූයලා. Haviro to. pected assistance from children; and 23?, oog-0.0 dooor Buoicmc, from amongst men the Kshetriye race is supreme.