Imatges de pÓgina


છે; thus 83, , meso. The simple B is also a termination peculiar to this case.

Note that in this case there is no difference in the two numbers.*

not inconsiderable: 1st, that an Agent with a nominative case would be incongruous, and would often prove unintelligible to Europeans ; and 2nd, that voless we adhere to the names already given by Europeans to the like accidents of Grammar in the kindred languages of Sanscrit and Pali, we might create some confusion, without any corresponding advantage resulting from the innovation. For these reasons we have adopted “Auxiliary" as the translation of $ 6. Jos; and, it is hoped, that it may

not prove incorrect; for the very sign of this case with, or by means of. conveys to one's mind the assistance which the noun in this case affords to the act, which is indicated in a sentence. As for instance, to do an act with any thing, or by means of any one, is to do it "with” the help, or “ by means of” the assislance, of that thing or person. “By means of” as one of the signs of this case, is given in Dr, Stevenson's Muralhee Grammar p. 17; and it seems to be, generally speaking, more expressive than the preposition with. That the distinction between the Instrumental and the Ausiliary is not altogether imaginary, will appear pretty clearly from the following passage exemplified by Dr. Wilkins under the head of the Instrumental case.

os oro 80990 Sombra o bos, o aconem 60.608 |

SUJ652, 2933000 Dongoni Rovená, the tyrant of the world, pierced by Ramá with an arrow, and corn with the points of their claws by the baboons, fights again

Hence, it is manifest that “by Rama,” and “with an arrow, convey different ideas to the mind with reference to the particular action, the same as “ upon Rama " and " from a tree” in the following sentence, “A monkey jumped upon Rama from a tree.” Il, in the latter instance, the distinction between a locative and an ablative, was deemed necessary to be perpetuated, we scarcely indeed perceive any reason that could justify the blending the Instrumental with the Auxiliary Case.

• To the Singhalese are known but “ two cumbers” both in the noun and in the verb. To the Sanscrit, however, as also to the Greek, is known one more, the dual. Professor Bopp in his Comparative Grammar, says:" The dual, like the neuter, in course of time, is the first to be lost with the weakening of the vitality of the view taken by the senses, or is more and more straitened in its use, and then replaced by the abstract plural, es. pressive of infinite number. The Sanscrit possesses the dual more fully, both in the noun and in the verb, and employs it everywhere where it we could

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EXAMPLES. 938:- 6 (33) 2010/08 dog. By means of good conduct

win the good-will of teachers. 37; of (08!)copycoondas! By means of kindness

win the hearts of men. Good;—podnosot (9998) 62606 3. By means of

benevolence, extinguish enmity. 983;—585 (353) 60* 883 93. By means of the mind

result virtue and rice. 6.;- Bec 53 (86) wese. By means of wisdom be

distinguished. nons;concedanssi (noss@2305. By means of exertion

destroy transmigrations. Me? - 985805 (353) 6.05dcsd. Bow ye to them, who

attained Niwene by means of acts. Observe that Conjunctions govern this Case † e. g. wione od of 3 833@23 3. Live thou long along-with (receiving) the eyes of gemmy offerings.

The fifth, or Dative Case. 30. The person who receives a gift, and also the object that is governed by Bów for, or "for the purpose of are in the Dative. $ It takes the termination 200 in the singular, be expected. In the Zend, which otherwise approximates so closely to the Sanscrit, it is found very rarely in the verb, more frequently in the noun. The Pali has only as much left of it as the Latin, viz. a remnant of it in tko words which' signify' two’and • both;' in the Prakrit it is entirely wanting or the German languages, only the eldest dialect, the Gothic, it, but merely in the verb; while, on the contrary, in the Hebrew (speaking here or the Semetic languages) it is retained only in the noun, in disadvantagecus contrast with the Arabic, which in many other respects.also, is a more perfect, and which maintains the dual in equal fulness in the verb also; while in the Syriac it has been almost entirely lost in the doon as well as in the verb.”—p.p. 186, 7.

. is in the singular number; and it should be observed, that was in the passage (see Appendix A. $1), plural nouns are frequently used collectively to convey a singular signification.

+ Thus in the Sanscrit-vide Wilson's Gram: p. 370, § c.
.1 London Lat. Gram. p. 76. Wilson's S. G. p. 370, $.988


and qoso in the plural; and also all the terminations proper to the accusative, in both its numbers, by the addition of a to each of them (except those that end in c.) These terminations thus are, in the Singular, es 0, 96, cc,ope, , and e; and in the Plural - 880, coje, 3.0, mono, so, and quta.

EXAMPLES 80,-962587 882.0 z Eosobecuess F0592320

Quocow (200) 07396 Ços 5.6 msingios e38 601398. It will be well to be virtuous (by three doorst) in all the three ways, until the demon of decrepitude, having chewed by means of her diseased mouth, and sipped, the humours-shall not give unto death the cud of

(thy) body. qe-saoicē (QC)çarea 14093c93.98. In an agreeable

company throw two handfuls of water to the weary. Com93686gode lopend. The premier bids(to)the king

long life and prosperity. one&z93 (one) çado:03 Give alms to the beggar. Sep?cego (19€) agad He gives goods to the merchant. E0200 (0) coda. I pray for (promote) a blessing

of peace to this house. 95.0-s 65 eggono Sanę. Saresavy I gives wisdom

to those who worship her. code-copote (coin) -6830Boro to the great. opć-9100 GO (35€)egace. The weak give their

back ( support) to others (enemies.) mono-one m88096402@aboo 563

(one) sood. The face of Pabàwetee (the Queen of king Koose) who in her aquatic amusement, descended by

In some of the provinces of this Island, the Ô both in the Dative and the Inflaitive, is changed into a. lo the Kodian Provinces, however, the é is preserved inviolate.

+ The "threr doors" have reference to the means by whose instrumenta'iry s'ns are committed, viz.—thought, word, and deed.

* S. rosary, otherwise called Saraswelee, the wife of Brahma, is the Goddess of speech, the arts, and sciences

dividing the waves, disgraced (emulated) the Lotuses. 8!-indadi96 08.085 (5€) e orgosa (se) 824

nosaçs. Excellent men do not give their breast to

other's women, nor their back to enemies. qode-nosewoo (P87€) 3300 33 * 28.10C W

Tell ye not altogether your thoughts to women. Observe, that where 96.4 (for, or for the purpose of) is understood, the noun which it would govern, if expressed, takes the inflexion ; as woena (€):

38 33, or two of 850h36-He departed for roar; 6. CO2:or ec2c8630 MLO 85.—He adorned (himself) for the feast of wedding; ason8086nçoiona (€) $0.desse(€ or asoo386:50¢ 33 secaogo338.00c-The arm is created for the purpose of giving and striking.

Observe also, that the particle De', when used in the sense of 9 ser, governs the same case, as 2: Ostoodt-In order to become Budha.

The sixth, or Ablative case 31. Is that which denotes a separation of one object or idea from another. § Its inflexions are those proper to the Auriliary case; and also those ( and so excepted)proper to the Accusative, but with the addition of one to each of the inflexions proper to the latter. That is to say god, vel, cong, 932, osiost, 3; p 098?, croset,

• 3003 is the word which occurs in several copies of the test. This is either a clerical error, or the word is vow abbreviated, instead of ගිගසසණි. .

+ When the word eife is expressed, the terminations peculiar to this case may be dispensed with. In the example given above, the os in the caxe is changed ivto os merely for the sake of euphony. This euphonic expedient belongs to the Singhalese language in divers turns of expression.

Thuis word, when properly infected, is read 2. Estose; or to the infective base may be added, od or 98.0; asso8.30.

$ ride Wils : p. 374. It is the same in the Latio ; as " Nos, Troja Antiqud diversa per æqrora decsi." L L. G. p. 88.


ආගන්, හුණෙනි, උගෙන්, නඟන්, ආගහන්,හෙහ්, and අහන්.

EXAMPLES 1, Having the inflexions proper to the Auxiliary. අනේ;-කතන්වහසකුගසලින්(ඉන්) ඉහලි. A woman pushed

· down the Bódisat from a hill. එන්;- දෙව්දද හැනන් (ඉන්) පිරිහින්. Dew'dat has

fallen off from his religious virtue, called @238.. * නන්;- නන් (අන්) ගිණි විලවුව. A monkey has fallen down from a tree. † 2, Having the inflerions proper to the Accusative,

but with the addition of anot to each. “අ, හෙහේ-හිරියගෙන් (අගෙන්) යතාරිනිවට. The naked

mendicant is free from shame. ද, හෙන් පසුරුගෙන් (පහන්) බීයවේ. From a thief re+

- sults fear. අ,ගෙන් - ආතහවුරූපරාගෙන්(ආගෙන්) ගතු. Thataphich

is taken from another is not lasting. හ, උගනි- පටනකඹු මුනිඳුගෙන් (හුරහන්දුවේ,

A condensed ray of sir colours proceeds from Budha.

* Title Clongi's Dictionary. II. p. 304. ධ්‍යහ.

+ It will be perceived that the test does not present the student with examples of the inflexions 3 33, 9:5), and 30., common to the Auxiliary and the Ablative; nor, with උන්,ගෙන්-න,මගෙන් -ආන, Goos-o, mod and Q8, Goot the plural inflexions proper to the Accusative, by the addition of good to each, and which are the same in the Ablative. We supply the omission by citing the following ; viz. goi-Soooo Di, Haring crossed (from) the river. එහි-බියෙනිතාරව'. Free from year. 0978.-on go'ę¢9. The ignorant are destitute of (from) Sciences. උන්, හෙන්- රජුගෙන් උදහව්. Displensure results from Kampa; නගෙස්

රුනගෙන් හුහුදec. Monkeya jell from me:1; ආන, හ - මොනරාණගෙන් පිඟාලෙත්. Feathera Ap from praoistu; , හන්-දරුවන්ගෙන් උදවුලා. Having tෂ. pected assistance from children; and po!, oms-3.0 stanos කැත් උතට. From amongst men the Kshetriye race is supreme.

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