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EXAMPLES J-OBS () Be008 A soldier commits violence. 0-600 (on) 9000 Gem Sivá ascends Rock Kailāske. -2000) () neçə6 sol. Brahamins preserve (perpe
tuate ) the custom of Caste. S-o cos(29) Çaçoo!-Ascetics preach religious doctrines.
Observe that in the following instances w and > are, by the rule respecting 065, interpolated between the base and the case termination: thus 4-CE963 ( ) gesongst noves? — The unmerciful
speak back-hitings. E-@n() sao?--The learned increase (in) learning.
Observe. also, that in this case the suffixes and for the masculine singular, 90.0003 for the feminine singular, and @ for both genders in the plural number, may be used in paraphrases and commentaries. *
Verb is active, and is followed by the object: when the object takes the lead, the verb is passive, and is followed by the agent.” Not wishing to coin a word, we have retained the word cados nokthe and pogodlm anookthe. The former is so called, because it is the subject, or term "expressed” in language, being a notion obtained in an act of apprehension ; -and the latter, it will be observed, is the reverse of colo. Ooktha may, therefore, without impropriety, be rendered the Nominative, and Anooktha, non-nominative. Professor Wilson in his Sanscrit Grammar, ride p. 363, says in reference to the subject before us, what is indeed applicable to the Singhalese," The nominative case is connected with the active verb, or governs it, when it expresses the agent, and with the passive when it signifies the object: Ocə 09080 comino8. Dewedatta makes the mat: açoçooos oma:, The mat is made by Dewedalta.” Thus also in the Latin, Mr. Ellis says- "Verbs have two voices, the active and the passive, lo the active, the subject is the nominative, and the object is the case governed by the verb; as, ego laudo le. In the passive this is reversed, and the subject is expressed as sus. taining the act of the subject or agent; as, ru laudaris a me."
We must not omit to state here, that Singhalese students experience great difficulty in correctly comprehending this part of Grammar-a diffi culty which they do not find in studying the English Grammar, although she rule is nearly the same in both the languages.
* e. & gouw (Gomes, the man (masculine) stands; mideos (1000003) od, the woman (feminine) proceeds; govm6w3 (2) 8 Sof, the men (com : gender) stand; misiona os (2) mod, the wo.. men (com: gen:) proceeil. Vore by the comineniator.
The second, or Accusative Case. 27. The object which is governed by the verb of the agent is the accusative; whose terminations in the singular number are e, C, op, 9, and ; and in the plural number cod, 8., pos, o, oso, and qod.
EXAMPLES. 4-08ę8 Bows?86 (gedasd The king governs the earth
by means of law and justice, Cecordmou (@) gçareacoe Ecoles-The dwel
lers of the supreme Brahama-worlds at first received
Prince Sidharta. -669 (cm) 18686King Rama slew Rawenā. 9-90g (9) 68Somo3-Let the strong be sought af
ter in war (battle field). 0408960 (2) 8888 890 An assemblage of minis
ters entered the palace. cos-oogst (col) oscas Let priests be worshipped. 82–8E0dos (os) cosetos:- Vanquish enemies. oposon@stonnesosat (gos) end 5.9 Behold the danc
cing peacocks. of-çosot (88) Ondoincaeaccorgonovo. Let
great and small men be placed in suitable positions like the
adze and the razor. 80%Ousso (8.3) sowotwozda3 Monkeys mount trees.. qot-coloss(983) Besdongcwrong. The hearts of those
who nurse children are gladdened. Observe 1st, that beside the above, ons may also be regarded as a termination proper to this case, as dostagoosos hot &c. The learned are greatly respected
Observe 2ndly, that where a continuance of time is indicated by a word, that is put in the accusative; although, accord
• It will be perceived that most of these rules are not only the same in the Sanscrit and Pali, but are nearly identical with those in the Latin and Greek. With a view therefore to assist the more advanced Stadent,
ing to a previous remark, there inay not be an alteration of the base by the addition of a case termination; as Belcesu Googbuboç Baçe. Budha preached Abi-dam a-threemonth † unto the Gods.
Observe 3rdly, that words expressive of a quality of the mind are also put in the accusative; as açoçedaocduong Dew'dath was attached to his mother. I
Observe 4thly, that the particle 553 (except or but) also requires the accusative; as gedo88.00 momo899 88ę To whom is this stanza displeasing but the envious ?
Observe 5thly, that words expressive of motion towards a place govern the accusative; as ecema:stos Having (arrived near to) approached Budha.
The third, or Instrumental Case. 28. The person that does an act, either voluntarily or at the command of another is the agent; and the noun indicating the agent is in the Instrumental case. The terminations of this case are those proper to the accusative, with the exception of and ono; that is to say, in the Singular—, C, op, and 3, and in the Plural-col, on, on, of, and cod.
og (9) 900 medas, me 68 coestand-
we shall, wherever the coinciderces appear to be striking refer him to 'Sanscrit and Latin writers; and he will then easily find out their like in the Pali and Greek. “L. G.” in our anotations stand for The London Latin Grammar; “Wilk :" for Wilkins, and " Wils : for Wilson'. Sanscrit Grammar.
† Nonnulli annos vicenos ia disciplina permanent "-L. L. G. p. 87. See also Wils: 9 286 a.
" Fessum quies plarimum juvat "-L. L. G. p. 76. ☺ “Ipua Papbom sublimis abit”-ib. p. 88.
e-ogle) 33ęstasimeço. The custom of caste sanc
tioned ( or derreed) by the king.
Budha. 4-Sone (3) Coolos. The munu fircture done by a
ex-omaiorica (en) saç. Forgine the faults
committed by foole. 85-86 (codacoud. The habit assumed hy
kings is uirasing. 09.375--0701c( mm 8s) 000379asisçer. The senses witness
the object dlour by nieu.. 33-35 ali 990000395. What similitudes hare not
bern seen by poets? 03?--0013 I) aug og algeç 3 csepegoue SO2603
ne. The durt of an cye shot by women has split the
Rock of strength. Obserrr, that the postposition fee (by) governs the noun in the lustrumental case:-*:
00:35:5Cupid is burnt by Siru.
Observe also.that the particles (with, like auto. &c.)governs the lustrumental case, as in the following instances; eco SC029.836 Who is like unto Budha ? 298 é o é otro සමරසබර කරයි. . In the rainy season ('upil vrages rar ugainst single rommen."
The fourth, or Auxiliary ('axe, f 29. That which is directly an auxiliary of assistance to the act of the agent is in the ( 353 3 ) Auriliary case. The terminations peculiar to it are the following: , dos, nosod; each of which may however be deprived of its (os.@os) mute form by impregnating the last letter with the
* See Wils: p. 370. Wilk : $ 1254.
+ Nouns are put in the suxiliary case. when ihes denote the object noith which, or by
whereof any thing is done or intended. It answers to the ablative case in Latin, when it is preceded by the sign chy means of' or · with.' Nearly all European writers on Sanscrit Grammar have drain a distinction in the Ablative, when it signifies from a thing, and the same when it denotes by or with a thing, and also when it implies in, on, or upon a thing. The first they designate the AWate, the second
or the Instrumental, and the third
the Localive case. Indeed, this is a distinction, of which the necessity was to a certain extent felt even by western nations. “Quinctilian speaking of the Ablative, says, that in the sense of percussa hasta, stricken with a spear,' the Latin noun seems to require a seventh case: the name is unquestionably defective here; yet the sense is provided for in our (the Eng. lish) language, by the introduction of with or by, as signs of this case.” (London Latin Grammar n. p. 3.) It is however remarkable, that the Singhalese like the native Sanscrit and Pali Grammarians divide the Latin Ablative into four cases. It is this fourth (apart from the three to which we have already adverted) that we have rendered the Auxiliary case.' Its proper sign is • 'with’or • by means of.' The student will find that all the European writers on the Sanscrit, Pali, Murathee, and Tamil Grammars blend the Instrumental with the Auriliary case. This may be for weighty reasons ; but it is suggested, that is there was no real distinction in this respect thore would not be found a difference in the name. At all events, the Sidath' Sangerave shews that in the Singhalese at least, it is impracticable to treat of these two cases under one head-the Instrumental; although we should not omit to state at the same time, that a Pandit of the name of kirembe has jumbled them up in his Vibal' Jaldam, which see post Addenda. Since therefore these two cases are given by European writers under one and the same desigoation of the Instrumental Case ; their definition of that case may be divided as the same severally applies to the Instrumental and the Auxiliary cases, Dr. Wilkins at p. 623, defines the instruinental case thus : [The implement or Instrument with which) and the Agent by which or whom (an action is performed, are put in the....) third or implementive case.” Wilson, Yates, and Carey all agree in the above definition ; and it would seem, that even Rhenius's definition of the same case in the Tamil language (see his Grammar p. 17) assimilates with the above-“ (The third case is an Ablative and is) first Instrumental, by adding to the nominative as : மனிதனால by the mun, sauEN &c. and Secondly, social, by adding amor உடனே. as மனிதனோடு, மனிதனுடனே with the man ; நோவோடு.'' &c.) Thus we may safely adopt the words within brackets, as the true definition of what is by us rendered the Auxiliary case in the text. Indeed at one tiine we thought it would prove better and more intelligible to name the so-called Instrumental (eq), “ the Agent case,” its sign by implying agency; and to call Do on (the case omitted by Europeans, and to which we have given the appellation of the Auriliary), the Instrumental case. To such a distribution of appellations two objections presented themselves, and they were