Imatges de pÓgina

Certain (pro-)nouns and adjectives are common to both genders; as thou, O I, e that, aw this, * oo fascinating, çox long, wo all, Ovos young, og tender, were lovely, 20 € white, cold, &c.

Verbal appellatives are put in either gender according to their respective significations; † but participial nouns are (usually) in the masculine gender; as we a going, oog a coming, @roo a seeing, (vision).

The following admit of no gender, that is to say, Adverbs as ol 8 always, s@ę for pog@ę adjacently, 88ae voluntarily, &c; Indeclinable Particles-as, Seed, 90, 96 350, cos, 293, 88., wc, w, a, 305, we, 0, 0, 0, 0:8, 38, w; and Prepositionsas, po, C, 88,-, o, , &, &c. [8]

language respectively conveys to the minds of differeut writers. Thus, the moon, which is regarded by many Europeans as a feminine noun, is masculine in several languages of the East, especially in those to which the Indian System of Astronomy is known. Again the sun, though a masculine noun according to many European and Eastern nations, is nevertheless a feminine noun in the Arabic Grammar (vide Richardson's, London, 1801. p. 23.)—“The poet Molanabbi, in allusion to the sun being of the feminine gender, and the moon of the masculine, says

* Neither is the feminine name a disgrace to the sun,

Nor the masculine an honor to the moon.”This, it is believed, is a difference which arises from the System of Indian Astronomy being no part of the Arab's faith.

• Mr. Lambrick in his Singhalese Grammar, p. 21, says that “the demonstratives form a distinguishing singularity of the Singhalese language." We may also remark, that the genius of the Singhalese language admits of no relative Pronouns,-by no means a discreditable peculiarity. Perhaps also the personal pronouns, or rather personal nouns, may not prove to be an unprofitable subject to consider bere. But owing to the length to which some of the notes under this chapter have already extended, we shall postpone a consideration of them to a future opportunity.-vide Appendix C. + e. g: Oostoso Creator, sto Creatress; muotong

eater, m/63 female eater; @stool drinker, n@sottó

female drinker, &c. [8] Some of these particles cannot correctly be rendered into the English, except when they occur in a sentence, or compounded with other words ; and their significations vary according to the sense of the words with which these particles are compounded.-vide Appendix C.

Note that adverbs (8 mangel) are so called by reason of the verbs being distinguished by a qualification; as Oood well, or at ease. *

The following are some of the indeclinable particles: 800 (a particle equal to ary in primary, thus 58498 supreme, and in like manner) Hool, o, Oceas, ag.8, 28, 858, 597), noon, o, , , , , Olon, S, 66090), w Ged, goed, moned, 60, 99, 99, &c. [9]

The twenty prepositions | (in the Singhalese) are the following: 10-as in separated from, disjoined, away; 2 06 as in subjugated or defeated; 3 qə as in one progressing shadow; 4 w as in waç con-joint; 5 903 as in qorços

* e. g. @gedeg be well ; goed coastmos Perform the journey well (i. e, in health).

+ Some of these particles, it will be perceived, are Conjunctions. [9] Vide Appendix C.

| Nothing is more difficult than accurately to trace the above inseparable prepositions (many of which are affixes) to their primary meaning; since they scarcely convey any definite meaning when taken by themselves, and, when compounded with other words, extend through a variety of modifications according to usage. These trenly prepositions, of which there is an equal number both in the Sanscrit and the Pali, are compounded with verbs and pouns; and the words thus compounded convey either the meanings indicated by their conjoint elements, or some signification altogether different from those which, from their composition, they might naturally be expected to indicate. We have said that the Sanscrit and the Pal have each of them, twenty inseparable prepositions. It is so; although it must be remarked that Professor Wilson in his excellent Grammar (see p. 97,) says, that "the Upasargas are twenty-one in number:” and he includes potong which he defines thus; "coming within a space or interval; 2 inner, within, inter, unter ; 3. potonaueso, disappearance qotogr8 pervading or inner soul.” This does not, however, occur as a preposition in any of the following works; Carey's, Wilkin's, Yales', and a native Sanscrit Grammar in our possession, The Mugdhabodha by Vapadeva, all of whom are agreed in the number and the identity of “the twenty prepositions”-“noboce odoo 62,80093 8;" these are the twenly, named (Gi or ) prepositionsMugdhabodha, p. 4.-Nor indeed does the Pali language contain more than twenty prepositions.--See Balawalara, p. 70. Also a comparative tabular view of the twenty prepositions in Appendix C.

re-informed; 6 *) as in sasę substance-less, or 6.00 in-dubitable; 7 9 as in si ç evil-faith (having the same force as un in unbelief); 8 8 as in Send like unto; 9 m (the reverse of a negation) as in aço love; 10 mę as in opęco con-densed (whence the signification chapter); 1l og as in ali 8 verygood-eyed person; 12 c as in celo up-risen; 13 q@ as in qarwed approach, nearness; 14 38 as in 88@of completion; 15 co as in eno mediocrity or cowo living near to; qo as in coeod or owo separated from (hence the word equivalent to ablative); 17 oed as in ou o experienced, or OL-009.09 from tree to tree; 18 88 as in eee@ regaining; 19 009 whence g 83 remaining (or @6.005 abundant) 9223passed away; and 20 8 as in 88 m covered.

End of the third Chapter. *


"The masculine term has (in the English) a general meaning, expressing both male and female ; and is always employed when the office, occupation, or profession, &c. and not the sex, of the individual is chiefly to be expressed; and the feminine term is used in those cases only in which discrimination of sex is indispensable. This may be illus. trated by the following examples :-|| 1 say, The puets of this age are distinguished more by correctness of taste than sublimity of conception, I clearly include in the term 'poets' both male and female writers of poetry.

If I say, she is the best poetess in this country, I assign her the superiority over those only of her own If I say She is the best poet in this country, I pronounce her superior to all other writers of poetry both male and female,

When distinction of sex is necessary for the sake of perspicuity, or where the ser rather than the general idea implied by the term, is the primary object, the feminine noun must be employed to express the female."- Crombie. In this respect, the use of the masculine term in the Singhalese is the same as in Englislı, e. g. Osocoto sięgowO0998?? 8-When the daughter of king Madu had gone to the wilderness, Wessantra gave away his children. vide infra § 33. Here Doros rendered by us “children” is a masculine noun in the plural number, having reference to Jaliye the son, and Krishpejena the daughter, of king Wessantra in one of the incarnations of Budha. The object of the writer being, not to express the sex of the children in question, but to convey the general fact that the king parted with his own royal offspring, a masculine term is correctly used to include both male and female.


On Declensions. 25. Nouns are of two kinds wspol, and mool. In all declensions one of these two kinds of words frequently occur, without any alteration of terminations in order to distinguish the cases.

a. Examples of doof (or words ending in vowel sounds); ÇB60 (0)* king of doctrines; çocés () demi-god; 98 (8) Budha; an8 (8) lion of Sakkiye race; 2661g (c) enemy of Māre; 2 (69) evil spirit; and (3) cause; ac3 () giant.

b. Examples of ozol, or words that end in mute consonants, (i. e. consonants deprived of their inherent vowel sounds); gooi (os) Siddharte (name of Budha when a Prince), &c.

Observe that the above are nouns of the masculine gender. C. Examples of feminine nouns ending in vowel sounds; so (o) night; @ms (on) river; 88 (8) beauty; 8 (8) blank verse; 98 () science; & (c) daughter; od () stroke; nes () effulgence.

d. Examples of feminine nouns ending in consonants deprived of their inherent vowel sounds;—003 (83) woman, &c. I

The Singhalese letters within parentheses indicate either the inherent vowels, or the case terminations.

+ Examples of words ending in the short vowels and are omitted in the test, perhaps because they are frequently common in quantity; es in @@godfor 603(®)aco.giant armies See note (*) p. 16.

1 The Rev. Sam, Lambrick in his Singhalese Grammar, p. 113, says, that “there is a general correspondence in the two languages (English and Singhalese) as to the use of the definites and indefinites.” So there is. Bot the Student should bear in mind, that this correspondence arises (pot from the use of any articles equivalent to a, an, or the, but) by inflecting the noun with a particle equivalent to 'one,' to express the indefinite, and using the simple noun to imply the definile : thus 6 o orgot two [660 od is here written for oo, Oda, or one King ) a King conquered enemies; Gagóvons [BG day-chics

, term for D

The first, or Nominatire Case. 26. A noun that is not comprehended in any of the last eight cases is the leados) † erpressed agent: and is in the first case. The singular nouns in this case terminate in eo and on; and the plural in and a


Sun] The Sun has destroyed darkness. A plural noun is frequently used indefinitely, and to convey a collective idea; thus ocolosis oigos owo [aças aos 83 a two, equal to the English expressions. "a couple," or“ many a flower born &c."] A couple of peuple conquered Enemies. In the plural number, the crude noun with its case termination conveys a definite idea to the mind; thus, & Bes qgozduong [prigg Suns, i. e. the Suns] The Suns have destr>yed darkness. Where, however, the substance spoken of is indefinite from the very expression used, the noun is put without the inflexion 6 Thus, if we are asked, "what it is that cieeps there?' we answer, 'It is a polonga.' lu such an expression the gedius of the Singhalese permits us to give the generic term for the Polonga, without determining it to be one of the genus: for that circumstance is already koown from the very wording of the question. Indeed a contrary use would be as ridiculous as to distinguish the pronouns of the first and second person with a gender. It is this peculiarity that has induced Mr. Lambrick to say, that in "speakivg of any individual in a genus the English use the indefinite, and the Singhalese the definite." This is no! exactly so. The Singhalese only conveys the genus without determining one single thing of the kind; for to single out, as in the above example. would be uppecessary. But, where it is necessary, there would be no impropriety in the espression edgosinot noenost le is a Polonga lhat proceeds yonder. (Here whilst the genus is indicated, it is limited to one of the kind as in English.]

* In the text the Nominative is called the first case: and the student should have a regard to the order in wbich the nine cases in the Singhalese are treated ; since native Grammarians in speaking of the cases mention the number, as the first or second case, rather than the appellations given to them.

+ Vide infra § 59 and notes ; also Bala’ratara, p. 195.

1 The text evidently means, that when a noun, which is neither in the instrumental case, nor in the accusative, conveys the signification of an Agent, it is in the first case, i. e. the Nominative. It therefore follows from this rule, that when the Nominative is the subject of the verb it is in the Active Voice; and that when the object is the subject of the verb, it is in the passive ; or in the words of Dr. Looth, (vide his Grammar, p. 49,) "hen the agent takes the lead in the sentence, the

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