Imatges de pÓgina
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The rules for the examination of young gentlemen entering into the public service of this Island, and which, as an earnest of what Sir George Anderson intends to do in the promotion of native literature, are given in His Excellency's Minute of the 27th of May 1852, demand our notice. It will be seen from the Minute itself, which we extract below, that it embraces subjects by no means easy to those who content themselves with a superficial knowledge of the Singhalese. No one, we believe, can pass a satisfactory examination, according to these rules, without being a thorough Singhalese scholar, or having an extensive practical knowledge of our language. It is however

It is however to be regretted that greater attention has not been paid in the selection of books. We notice an utter absence of any of our poets in the list of Singhalese books given in the Minute, whilst, it is remarkable, the Tamil list contains no less than five such, of which the two last are amongst the most difficult known to the Shen-Tamil. Those who critically understand Pansiapanas Jàtake may easily master Kusajatake, [1] Subàsite, [2] or Lòwedasangrabawa :[3] but why Dampiàwa was selected in preference to Amàwatura, [4] or Pradeepikawa, [5] or Pàjàwalia, [6] or Dalædàwangse, [7] we cannot imagine.

No Grammar is named in the list; and yet the student is expected not only to possess a “ knowledge of the Grammar of the language,” but also, to “ be able to parse in it.”

[1] A beautiful poem ; see our notice of it at p. ccvii.
[2] A poem by the same writer as the last
[3] See our notice of this work at p. cci.

[4] A book of legends in the Singhalese ;-See our remarks thereon, and selection therefrom at p. clvii.

[5] Another work by the same writer as the last, noticed by us at p. p. xxv. laix. clx.

[6] Also a book of legends principally relating to Gowtama Budha, noticed at p. clxxii. [?] A Singhalese history of the Tooth-relics of Budha, noticed at p. clxxxiii. Having thus briefly noticed the Programme of the Examination, we think it desirable to give our readers, especially those resident abroad, a brief account of the Singhalese books which are here enumerated:

1. Balapprabòdane (edition of 1847,) is a little work in two parts printed at the Wesleyan Mission Press, in English and Singhalese, for the Central School Commission. It contains easy lessons for students; but the style is not such as we would recommend to a person wishing to acquire a correct knowledge of the Singhalese. From it we select the following specimen:

එකදවසක් ලමයි දෙතුනක් වෑඩියෝඋනා කුනලඟසිටියායඉතින්බෑඩියෝ ඔවුන්ට කිසිවැරැද්දක් ශණාකලනුමුත් මැඩියෙක් උගේ ඔළුව ඉහලට ඔසවනකොටම ශනපුරලමයි උඔළුවට තලනවාය. එතගකාට මම සිකමැඩියෙක් මාගේ සනහව තවූ ලමයිනි මේකද ලාට සලලමවීනුත් අපටපෙලයම බව උඹලා හිතන්හා තකීවාය.

අසරනයිට රිදවටවත් ඔවුන්ට වේදනෞඋපදින්නාවූ ගදයකට හිනහවටවත් අපටයුතුත.

“Two or three boys stood one day at the side of a pond in which there were some frogs. Now though the poor frogs did them no barm, yet as soon as a frog put up his head these bad boys would pelt at it with stones. My dear boys, says one of the frogs, you do not think that though this may be sport to you it is death to us. We should not hurt the helpless, nor laugh at that which gives them pair.

2. Histories published by the School Commission. These are of a piece with the last, and are the following: “Elements of General History: first series-Ancient History; second seriesModern History.” Ed. 1851.

3. The Singhalese Regulations of Government, are accessible to the student. They are upon the whole written in an intelligible style. But we should be sorry were they to form the standard of style to be acquired by those stu

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dying the Singhalese. For obvious reasons we refrain from a critical notice of them.

4. Dampiàwa * is a translation made from the Pali into Singhalese by the late Pandit Don Thomasz Modliar; see notice of him at p. ccxlvii. It is written in an easy chaste style,

. and forms part of Budha's Sermons, treating of the tenets of Budhism. We select the following specimen therefrom.

සියළුලොවට නායකවූ බුදුරජානන්වහන්සින් ස්ය නාකරණලද දම්පියාගව ගාථාවලපෙනීතිබෙන අභිප්‍රාවල් මදස්ථහුඬසිහලකරණු ලැබේ.ඒගකන්දයත්, සමකපනාවලට සිතමුය සිතම උතුවන්ය,, ඒසේමය, සත්වගකගනක් පුරවූකලපුවූ මනා සතුටුවූ කැලඹුනාවූ සිතින් තව, ඇඟපෑතිකාට බො රුකීමද, පියවිස්වාසයන් තද කරණපිණි සකියනකේලාමද, ආයුධයකිඅැනපුවාසේ සිතරිදෙග්නනට කියන ඵරුවවන සද, තමන්ටවත් අනුන්ටවත් කිසි වැඩක් නැති ප්‍රධපබසද, ගමකී අකුසල් සතර මවනසේක්සිදුකරගන්....කරුණාවක් ගෑනිව ඉතාරෙදුවහෑලිමෙන් හිංසාපීඩාකිරීමෙන් සතුන් මැරීමද අනුසතකවස්තු බලාකාරයෙන්වත් හොරක මින්වත් පැහැර ගැනීමද අනුසතක සක්‍රීත්සමහහාර එකතුවිමද මෙකී අකුසල් තුනක සිදුකර

ගය අඉසුරු සම්පත් තමන්ට ඇත්නම් යහපතැසියනවල වලෝභකමද අනුනසින්වතියන නපුරුකල්පනාවද කු සම්භාත අකුසඹැත මව්පියෝස්තෘත මලෝස්තෘත පරg නෑත යහපත්මහණ බමුගන්නාත දානයෙහිඵලවි පාකඈතැයිකියා තමනුතාංගණ අනුන්ට කියාදෙමින් සදාකල් ලෝක්ෂඈතින්නේ නෑතිකොටගනාලඳ මිථ්‍යාදිෂ්ටි යද මෙකීපතුනසිරිසිදු කරගත්කමකයි සින් සිතින් මෙකිදසඅකුසල් නුවනමදකම නිසා සිදුකොට ගෙන නරකය තිරිසගයෝනිය ප්‍රතිලෝකය අසුරකා යයියන සතර අපායෙහිද

සතර අපායෙහිද මිනිලොවදුඃඛිතවලපදිමෙද, සෑරීරයෙහා සිදුවීමට පැමිණුනේය. කුමක් මමදයත්, සැලෙහිගයොදනලදුව හෑලඇදගෙන නාවු

There is also a Sannc or paraphrase into the Singhalese.
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The significations of the stanzas contained in Dampiyàwa, which was preached by Budha, the chief of the whole world is briefly translated into the Singhalese [as follows:] That is to say; the mind alone is the root of all thoughts, the mind alone is the chief (principle] of all thoughts. It is even so. If any being actuated by wicked, evil, displeasing, inflamed mind; shall speak falsehood by suppressing the truth; and shall back-bite with a view to commit a breach between affectionate friends, and shall make use of reproachful words which may be to one's feelings as hurtful as if (he had been) stabbed with an instrument, and shall give utterance to vain talk, which is neither profitable to himself nor to others; he shall commit these four sins by word. The killing of beings by bruising them very severely and mercilessly, and by oppressing or tormenting them; the taking away of property of other people either by force or theft; the illicit intercourse with other people's wives; are the three sins which are committed by body. But the three following sins are committed by the heart; viz. inordinate covetousness [i. e. desiring for one's self] the property and possessions of others; an evil wish for the death of others; and unbelief; i. e. belief in the non-existence of whatever exists in the world, by communing [with himself] and saying to others that there is no merit,no demerit—no present sworld] existence*-no after-world-neither are there parents (father mother) t-and good priests and Brahmins 1-nor does reward

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The words which we have literally rendered “no present existence, po after-world;" mean,“ that there is no transmigration of souls from this world into another et vice versa.

† “ Neither are there parents : " i. e. Unbelief in the merits arising from honouring and serving parents.

So likewise with reference to the expression [“ Neither are there) good priests and Brahmins," the words “ Unbelief in the merits arising from serving priests and rendering charities towards Brahmins” are understood.

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or profit result from the charitable gift of anything. Thus by reason of the want of wisdom, having committed the aforesaid ten sins by body, word, and thought, a person happens to endure pain (sorrow) both in mind and body, being born to trouble (sorrow) either in the Human-world, or in any of the four following infernal regions, * viz. Hell, Brute-creation, [Animal-kingdom] Existence of a Hobgoblin, or the world of Devils called Asura : f Exempli gratia: As the wheel of a waggon drawn by bullocks which are put into a waggon, follows their footsteps, so likewise sin closely, and without leaving him, follows the divers existences of the person who has committed the ten sins by means of his mind, body, and thought.

5. The Pansiapanasjàtake is the largest book extant in Singhalese. It contains, as its name imports, “the history of 550 Incarnations” of Gowtama. It was translated from the Pali about A. D. 1312—1347. (see a portion of its Introduction at p. clxxvi.) Its composition is good, neither too antiquated nor too modern. We would recommend its style for the adoption of the student; (see a selection from the work at p. clxxvii.) Its probable cost is from £7. 10s. to £15. It is, however, not easily procurable. I

6. The Tupàwansa is a Singhalese work, containing an account of the death of Budha, and of the manner in which his relics were disposed of. It is comparatively a small work, and may be procured at an expense of 78. 6d. Its style is unexceptionable ;-see a specimen at p. clxxv.

7. The Ràjawalia is a chronicle of “the succession of the kings” of Ceylon, extending to the arrival of the Dutch in the island, written at different periods in an easy and unlaboured style; (see a selection from this work at p. lxvi.) It is easily procurable, probably at an expense of 6s.

• See Woo qoc in Clough's Dictionary. + A detestable order of devils or spirits ; see 9930 in Clough's Dictionary.

See a brief account of this work in the Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. III. p. 111.

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