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ල් මුතුව දසනිළුපු
ල් ආසියද කමහක
ල් ඉකළුසලෙළුනාම නිලො ල් “The voluptuary, having seen the blue-lotusEyed female, of pearly teeth, and of coral lips and palms, conceived for her an inordinate affection."
2. Example, shewing that the two words cub, which are permuted into one (see § 2.), are found split into two:
මු ද ලිඳ නි වි ස් ස ල්
දිලේවාපුසඳස සුවිම ල් “O illustrious chief, mayest thou crownLike, on the summit of the world; and with the rare wisdom with which thou art blessed, continually, until life'send, prosper like a spotless full-moon.”
a 3. Example, shewing that the affix 8.9 is removed from the root ome. (see § 7.)
බ ඳි මින් නිල් ස ර ල් ව ර ල
හිමින් සදලටනිනිකෙ ල හාඅඟනන් ද කමනෙක
කවුරුන්සිනවදකුණු ල “Who would not be disturbed in mind, at seeIng the lovely women, who having dressed their long jet-black hair, ever sport in the storied piazzas of the city!"
4. Example, shewing the post-position seos separated from the noun which it governs.
“The immeuse flags which continually wave upon lofty staffs in this city, represent gigantic cranes, * who, having snatched snakes by-means-of their talons, sport in the sky.”
5. It would be incorrect also to separate an inseparablc particle, such as gwo from the word which it governs: as
තු ම ර නී ශු ණ නෑ
ongoio a SG 9 “Kind and discreet friend! Since 'tis known that Death will come, let us through the miglit of God fervently hope for heavenly bliss.”
We should not forget to notice here, that it is highly incorrect and inelegant so to place a word in any part of a verse, that the poetical pause may fall in the middle of that word. Meeripenne, than whom few have ever been more scrupulously particular in this respect, has however occasionally fallen into this error. The following is an instance where the word oo 05g 'famous,' is divided into two, so that it conveys to the car the meaning of two words,- cxposed,' and 069 stranger.' Ss@gam aed 89...ned cod BƏGO
වා odwo@gocios...6598acogedoound 29 නුවර.සමිදි පා...ලෝකයමට වා
6 Oq 05...002stcoton “May his honor grow in great splendour like the moonand may the fame of that splendour reach the whole world: may the eye of his wisdom shinc forth as the light of a lamp of gems--and may he not be afflicted in mind even in a dream.”
* This word in the Singhalesc is E010. It is a fabulous animal the vehicle of Krishna. Mr. ('olebrooke in his Amaracòsha translates 60cm, the Sanscrit of the above term, thus : Variously described as a gigantic crane or vulture, or an caglc."-p. 5.
Note *-p. 80.
RHETORIC. The Singhalese are deficient in many branches of experimental science, and Natural Philosophy. They indulge a great deal more in “abstractions and ingenious theories,” than “experimental inquiries." Their chief delight is Poetry, and, what is most useful in the cultivation of that art, Grammar and Rhetoric. “ The Rhetorical works in Sanscrit,” says a late writer in the Calcutta Review," are many, but are little studied by the present race of Brahmin Pandits, who seldom aspiring to authorship, are content to learn a little Grammar, and to read a few of the poets, and of the works on the measures of verse called Chandas.” Not less unhappy is the fate which has of late befallen rhetorical studies in Ceylon. The native works on Rhetoric having been all destroyed in the several literary destructions which disgrace the page of history, the Singhalese are now indebted to a comparatively modern compilation, called the Swabha'salankùra, nearly the same as the Dandialankàra (or Kàvyàdarsha) in Sanscrit, and Swabodhálunkàra in Pali.
With a view therefore to present the reader with a specimen of this elegant art, we propose giving a few of the rhetorical tropes or figures known to the Singhalese. Amongst thesc, that which appertains to energy or vivacity has the first claim on our attention. On the subject of Energy or vivacity, there are ten rules, of which three are not treated of in the Singhalese, owing to the imperfection of the language arising from the absence of aspirate letters.
1. The first species called OeDg Matasilutu,or “energy produced by smoothness of expression,” cannot be exemplified in Singhalese from the want of aspirate letters to contrast
• Dandi is supposed to be the author of Dasa kumàra Charita, one of the standard works in Sanscrit Prose; see introduction to the same published by Professor Wilson, Ed. 1846.
with the unaspirated. But in order to give the reader an idea of what is here meant, we shall illustrate the subject with an example from the Sanscrit Dandialankàra: BIG BICIncreiem ECO “A garland of jasmines surrounded by sweets-loving bees."
2. Called owsi Pahan, or “energy by reason of clearness,” is produced by the use of ordinary and easy * expressions ; e. g. Bergewodge: Ogondolae. Donet“ The shadow in the moon illumines like the ray of an expanded blue lotus." It is, however, to be observed, that Pandits in the North (Calcutta) would express the above differently, thus; 839.gogogoc: oesoed obeddas? “ The moon with its legible mark illumines like a new-white expanded blue lotus.”
3. The next is called wo Samabewu or energy produced by an appropriate admixture of aspirate with nonaspirate sounds. ”—This cannot be exemplified in the Singhalese for the reason given at § 1. The propriety of this admixture in the Sanscrit is produced in one of three ways. 1st, by an abundance of non-aspirate sounds; 2dly, by an abundance of aspirate sounds; and 3dly, by an appropriate adınixture of the aspirate and non-aspirate sounds--e. g. First; omercio:6@: @928cwishes. “The breeze from the Malayà mountain which echoes the notes of the Indian cuckoo, nears me.” Secondly, ceo@OS DOSSIDO: 6.8051000mg SO2308 “ Cooled by the drops produced from the delightful water-fall.” † Thirdly, Decongonococco 88 Sogg@cwOJO U002: enodus 3.20.06 6102 - The great
* The term ordinary is here used in the same sense in which Dr. Whately uses it in his work on Rhetoric, p. 258.
+ Although this doctrine is not attended to by Pandits of the North of lodia, (vide Dandialankara); yet it will be perceived that the first and second examples, when put together, are harsh and discordant in sound, and deficient in energya defect, which arises from the non-observance of this rule. The Singhalese, who at the present day use a great admixture of Sanscrit, would greatly improve their style by observing the rule in the text.
@ 6306.. “ The gentle breeze from the Malayà mountain, which is impregnated with the scent of the sandal trees, and which has a tendency to try my resolution, is like unto the (sweet) breath of lovely women.”
4. Is called Sou Miyuru, or “sweet” * which in the absence of a corresponding term in English, we shall designate “the elegant.” It is defined to be such an appropriate choice of words and sounds in style, that Pandits are captivated with its charms, in the same manner as the honey-extracting bee is delighted with the sweets of flowers. e. g. [1. illustrative of a proper choice of sounds]—020 çoço egocec9263383 ne: 09085a.OOS wireçoard. virtues of royalty are perpetuated from the very period this Brahmin-loving king assumed the highest office of the state.” [2. illustrative of a proper choice of words.] mong saw.8 Ow=230 W30 OcaBotençant: Sg@&&0000709!“O woman! The rogue of a Cupid has left me away by withholding his love; but with thee it has been otherwise.” It is to be observed, upon the authority of the Rhetorician to whom we are indebted for this summary, that the above sentence, which employs terms more general than the subject rcquires, conduces in thc Singhalese to stimulate the attention, and to excite the imagination far more than when the same idea is expressed in a limited sense, as in the following sentence of common usc among the vulgar; B10Bw Os mod good origooo:8 “Wherefore, O woman, art thou not pleased with me, who lovest thee?” The first of the above two examples, which substitutes “general” for “specific terms, is less conducive to energy in English: in which language, "the only appropriate occasion for this generic language (as it may be called) is when we wish to avoid giving a vivid impression,—when our object is to soften what is offensive, disgusting or shocking; as when we speak
"Srect as music"-Mrs. Barbauld.