Imatges de pÓgina


and eco, en@sos hanging-bellied; &c. are produced by the substitution of e, ®, and for 9, 9, and respectively.

In the following words o ora is substituted for the second letter in combination, which is 3. Thus gol and or produce qoladu manufacturer; Boland 0, 86061* painter; 08 and 26, sacerdotal duties; cand *, ç@ə carpentry or punishment; in and mo, 80.00 heat or fiery, &c. And in the following, the letters - and o are respectively substituted for @ and c. Thus, 2 and 8d, wd3e ornamented pillar or golden chair; wir and 0092, edge cores tortoise shell ; @ and once, edenico citron ; 600 and 90, Godoo.96 name of a ferry; and @ol, gol@ol white rice; as and wo sons, Qo'wo som Budha's feet, or Budha's protection. The above is called Permutation by the substitution of consonants.

f. The next is called, Permutation by reduplicating the first letter; eg? and a produce golo e manufacture; Dod and 200, Dolo cleverness; cool and mo, omolo. weaving; ost and mo, osis leaf-weaving; and be and e., bed W wondrous work.

9. Compounds produced by the removal of op and a, and by the substitution of o are called, Permutation by th: elision of consonants. Thus w and 6 of produce 0900 o forest river; eo and @, do@ the cyprus rotundus (a medicinal plant); 99 and Owe, Zowe split peas; 05.o andad, Andoo & Lotus flowers; q@ and Od,982 Mango flowers.

h. Where in the coalition of words , , or 6 is introduced without the omission of the letters compounded, this

According to the usage of the Singhalese language at the present day, some of these words are spelt differently; e. g.

Bosou is (requently but incorrectly written Bolo:or, or more properly Oslo.o.: also the word good which occurs at $ 23 g. is, at the present day, an unintelligible espression for o@ c-am nou is commonly written mud@noro; and 68.08ee is incorrectly spelt cordo od or doled.


is called Permutation by substitution. Thus 88 and god, produce 83 cod end; 3 and quam, (name of a place) e3 and 5, 292 like a scientific person; 9 and 200,82 two-fold; ou and con, Oregon form and without form; 23 and , thin body; ges and cold, gorovod tautology; og and @ę, Borsę sap-less.

i. Permutation by the reduplication of letters is where in the coalition of letters the first loses its inherent vowel sound, and the same becomes doubled in place of the second. Thus @ce and qabı, ardegou sandy-embankment; 60ed and 9, Ede fair-wife; o@od and est, o@ococo with or by-means-of-tender-leaves ; me and go, mcaco raft-like.

End of the second Chapter.*


* The above chapter headed est& treats of the Permutation of letters; whereas the fifth chapter (vide infra) is devoted to a consideration of cogn, combinations of words. In both, the Sanscrit Rules are nearly the same as those in the Singhalese; and that will be a sufficient reason for the introduction of the following paragraph from Mr. Wilson's Sanscrit Grammar, p. 7. “ Sandi - Combination of letters. Contrivances for avoiding the concurrence of harsh or incongruous sounds, or the unpleasing hiatus which arises from keeping sounds apart that are disposed to coalesce, are wanting in all languages. They are in general, however, rather poetical or prosodial than grammatical; such as the elision of a final e before an initial e in such a concurrence “ as the etherial height of heaven,” which it was formerly the fashion to write, as the measure demanded, "th' etherial;” to say nothing of the Synalepha, and ectblipsis of Latin verse, “Monster' horrend' inform' ingens,” &c. Other instances of a regard for euphony, however, do occur independent of prosody, and especially in Greek, in which many of the euphonic changes are analogous to those provided for in San. scrit. In no language has the subject, however, been so systematically investigated as in Sanscrit; and the changes to which letters are subject for the sake of euphony are numerous and carefully defined, forming that part of Sanscrit Grammar which is termed ws!8 Sandhi, 'a holding together' 'a junction; or wstao Sanhitá, an association,' 'a conjunction ; ' either being derived from the verb compounded of the preposition 60,.cum' and @dha, 'to have,' to hold.'”


On Gender. 24. All the distinctions of Gender which nouns undergo in the Sanscrit * do not prevail in the Singhalese, which has but two genders, viz. the masculine and the feminine. Words indicating the male sex are in the masculine gender; and all nouns indicative of the female sex are in the feminine gender. e. g.

Masculine @ Brahama, g3 God, 9990 demi-god, 886 man, 832 Nága or Snake, cold a fabulous animal, os footsoldiers, 8 w carriage, &c.

Feminineaç a Goddess, ose So female Nága, 20.00 93.8 female Goorooloo, wife, eigd mother-in-law.

Grammarians have generally considered the following as masculines :- ęc water, world, victory fięc leaf, water, flame, fire, burning; Qugou scholar or Pandit, teacher, love; 98 (generic name of certain disorders), cloud, food, work ;

• Professor F. Bopp, in his Comparative Grammar, p.p. 125-6, has the following pertinent remarks—“The Sanscrit, and the languages akin to it, which in this respect have still kept upon the old footing, distinguish, besides the two natural genders, another—the neuter, which the Indian Grammarians called kliva, i. e. eunuch; which appears to be a peculiarity of the Sanscrit, or most perfect family of languages. According to its original intention, this gender had to represent inanimate nature, but it has not every where confined itself to these old limits: the language imparts life to what is inanimate, and, on the other hand, (according to the view then taken,) impairs the personality of what is by nature animate. The feminine in Sanscrit, both in the base and in the case-terminations, loves a luxurious fullness of form; and where it is distinguished from the other genders in the base or in the termination, it marks this distinction by broader, and more sonant vowels.”

+ Most of these words admit of meanings other than those above given after each. Their synonimes are of the same gender with a few exceptions; as qd (synonimous with a masculine) and 203 (synonimous with 90 masculine) are feminine : so likewise 330 (synonimous with Ouos feminine) and 8:3g (with nead feminine) are in the masculine gender ; &c. &c.

quo sky, yarment; q8 instrument, sun-shine; por trees, tomtom or drum, birds, gladness; 6. sn war, sound, dancing-master; Onçosex, sign; no3 distempers, anger; os lust, colour (also the name of a heathen God in Oriental mythology); on houses, asterism, gluttony; Obu God, wind, desert (also God of that name); çoood meditation, * village; pos members of the body), matters; as heat, inside of a bower, thunder; moon, prosody, supreme person, message, joint or junction; 600 taste, mercury, ray, water; 010 gems ; 88 m followers or attendants, garments; 80@ impudence; 3 ; ascetic, mind; og feet, rays, traps, milk, trees, style or idiom; sic sea (also name of a heathen God); -. caustic, neck, faggots; o caste, rain, year, Bamboo; Out flesh, stone, beard; 0000 0 (species of the Lion); ao arm, cruelty; Dos speech, doctrines, arrows; go assemblage, sorrow; 5 of wealth, speaker, orator, eminent person ; w ring, chank, army; & lamps, islands, life; ee lofts, couches, touch; Swo country, senses; sed earth, trap, side; sed truth, corn, curse; ce son quality, goodness, hearing, 3.028 (an implement of husbandry) plough; wol being, seven, umbrella, good quality; 963 ear, sorrow; @o merit, upper part of the arm; Qge (Seat of Indra), also (a medicinal fruit) emblic myrobalan, sour; &c.

The following nouns are of the feminine gender: viz. og lightning, science; Ew woman, creeper; Depo rivers, a line; noc row, Pali (or Maghadah language); Bwo night, saffron; car light; ce faith, shame; Buon wisdom; od lust; sie sport; 35 ground; aagd girdle, sash; &c. †

When verbal appellatives, # or adjectives, or masculine terms are employed to convey a feminine signification, the termination & is very frequently used; e. g.

Vide Clough's Dictionary, Vol. 11. p. 168. Ço08).

# It is remarkable that all neuter nouns derived from the Sanscrit and the Maghadha languages into the Singhalese are of the masculine geoder ; and that masculine and feminine nouns when so derived retain their respective genders in the Singhalese language.

See note (*) at p. 11.


Feminine verbal appellatives—9000sts (a female ) whetter (from the verb whet); OOŚ (a female) creator; nos (a female) who-became-glad; zás (a female) who

escapes; &c.

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Note, that the above termination is changed into ® in the plural number; as nestasi whetters, ostao 3 creators.

b. Feminine adjectives-00&ce a fair (woman); 2088 a tender (female); cold a white (girl); &c. *

Masculine terms in a feminine sense; he dancing girl; 89 83 she-Nagah; ois lass; 118: female enemy; 208 Princess ; 9900 & female friend; Ocele old woman; &c.

Note, that other terminations are also used as in the following: 5-in ea E black (female); and Oua she-calf, or (female) inhabitant; 4-inggeus fawn-eyed (woman);ť opin mes actress; and e-in sos a mother (one who has had children): and note further, that in the formation of terminations it is necessary to be guided by usage. I

* It may here be observed, that adjectives are often used substantipely in the strict sense of the word, as in the examples in the text; and sometimes also in a compound form, as in the examples already given gentleeyed,” "blue-Lotus-eyed,” &c. &c.

t. This word is an elegant compound in the Singhalese as in many Eastern languages. It occurs in the Sanscrit. (Vide Extract from the Megha' Dula in the Introduction.) Sir William Jones in his Persiap Graminar (See bis works, Vol. II. p. 194,) gives us a Persian word of the same signification« Thus **

a fawn-eye, a Persian epithel, which answers to the Greek ELIKOPIS, seems very harsh in English, if we translate it fawn-eyed ; Lady Wortley Montague's translation (see her letters from Constantinople) slag-eyed, is not much better, and conveys a different idea from what the eastern poets mean to express by this epithet.”.

In the Singhalese there two peculiarities to which it is necessary chiefly to attend in fixing the gender of nouns ; Ist, the significations, and 9nd, the terminations. Contrary to both these tests, however, certain. nouns admit of gender; and it is this which renders an attention to usage necessary; since many substances which do not naturally admit of a distinction of sex are treated either as masculine or feminine, according to the notions which religious lings, national habits, or the ius of the


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