Imatges de pÓgina

From the above, probably, is derived the feminine pronoun @ 'that one' or 'she,' whence ou. And although ou in modern usage takes on Co in the plural number; we have yet no where met with the latter form in books. It is believed, however, that the plural forms of the above noun were anciently used for the feminine.

Nom. opu.


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on or us.
Ins. quest.
Aux. Quen somo.
Dat. Ora.
Ab. 008.
Gen. Ooo.

Loc. quo 0.8 From 9 and ou is produced on this', f.='she;' in like manner this’ m.='he,’is derived from o anda ; nogeçfrom

and s.; and oor 'that'm.='he,'from qo 'that' and on he. Oseo is also used in the third person to convey own' in the genitive, and ó self' in the other cases. It is perhaps not out of place to notice here, that what Mr. Lambrick calls the intensive a'is, like the English 'self,' used in conjunction with all the pronominal nouns. As in English also @ own or self, 'is emphatical, and implies a silent contrariety or opposition'as OG 63- OOS 02006 I dwell in my own house;" 20-50.000s I did this myself ;' Qon-Joe'go thy-self ;' @ga- og 83.It struck himself,' &c., &c.

nom, od 239 'this or that one'm.='he;' and nos, *this or that one' f.= she,' are said to be compounds of as this and my (for egy ) one.

Whether mi is the interrogative base to which Bopp ( § 390 et seq.) refers in the derivation of several words, or a compound of the words 65 and m'one ,' we are not able positively to state; but since their plural i cve, ego.5670 &c. ego, JBCO &c. 0696, G61006 &c. Se me, na

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CoD &c. (as in the following declension occur in different forms which could scarcely be believed to have sprung from any other word but en 'one,' we are inclined to the latter opinion. Singular.

Plural. Nom. om.

09. Ac. 52..

කලාව. Ins. කවි ය.

nosso@sas. Aur. 6.6 6.8. am?@Imo onomia. Dat. 08.

mice. Ab. 0.25ool

@ooos?. Gen. a wood.

Cod. Loc. m 8.

5236290908. The honorific é co!oed is also added to the 3rd persone, when by the addition of the euphonic expedient of interpolating an $?, we obtain col8.98 oed, colpingo and cotdoorged. In like manner we have by compounding the pronominal adjectives, 5 and 6 ə, povrino, qou toggodae, eodose ooi, goloistaed, &c.

Speaking of a euphonic cxpedient in the Singhalese, it may be remarked, that persons have often regarded coloca odred as a plural pronoun. The Rev. Mr. Selkirk, in his defence of the Cotta Version of the Scriptures, says, in reference to the of in ester otsed, 'un, however, in Singhalese e or @231, is beyond all doubt a plural pronoun, and is given as such in the native grammar noticed p. 10 ( Sidath Sangarawa).' So it is. But, it should be remembered, that in this instance éc.stoed is added to e, the singular pronoun, the of being merely interpolated for the sake of euphony. This is manifest from a similar use of several other compound pronouns given in the preceding paragraph.

The Relative pronoun In the Sanscrit is cę who, which, or what' (see Wilson's Gram. § 141); and “the base of which, says Bopp (see § 382), is, in Sanscrit and Zend, ya, feminine ya.” Now the Sin

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ghalese possesses its equivalent css : but, as in Murathec, it rather signifies in Singhalesc 'what,' or 'whatever,' thence 'any,'than 'who, which.' See Dr. Stephenson's Gram: p. 83; and also an example of this in the Introduction, p. lxxxi. යගමය විසුදවඳ re.

We have already seen, at p. 22, that the Singhalese language does not possess any relative pronouns. With reference to this peculiarity the following passage occurs in the Rev. Mr. Selkirk's Recollections of Ceylon, p. p. 134-5.

I Cor. XV. 1. osaç GWö

więc...@... 09.06... 097369...

ද කායක Moreover brethren I to you having proclaimed OS

Ecosina C003 ye having received


established කපට

codes. being good news

I make known. “In these sentences will be perceived the manner in which the Singhalese get over what we may consider a great defect in their language, but which, to those who are acquainted with it, is a beauty, viz. the want of the pronoun relative. This is obviated chiefly by the use of compound epithets and participles. Thus in the preceding, I Cor. XV. 1, there are three expressions in which the relative pronoun which occurs, viz., “The gospel, which I preached;' 'which ye received;' and 'wherein (in which)

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to you

ye stand.'

“Moreover, bretheren I declare unto you the Gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye received, and wherein ye stand.

“ The epithets used in the Singhalese for the first of these expressions are, ‘l-to-you-having-proclaimed;' for the second you-having-received;' for the third, ‘you-beingestablished;' all agreeing with the word gospel, which comes last.”

Even amongst Europeans the pronoun relative is frequently omitted in the same “manner in which the Singhalese get over it.” Thus, in the following selection from Pope's Messiah

'Tis He the obstructed paths of sound shall clear,

And bid new music charm the unfolding ear : who is understood after “'Tis he;” and in the 'following passage in Cowper:

But let eternal infamy pursue

The wretch, to naught but his ambition true, who is likewise understood after “wretch;” and yet there is no impropriety of style. Just so in the Singhalese. All the clauses which have a sort of government upon the noun, and which in English require the help of a relative pronoun in construction, are put in as so many adjectives, all qualifying the noun; vide § 40. This may frequently be resorted to in English. Thus, instead of “a pen with which one writes,” “a writing pen;” “a frog which croaks," “a croaking frog."

Thus also the Singhalese of i Cor. xv. 1, is “Moreover, brethren, the good tidings, declared by me to you-reccived by you—and conformed to by you—do I make known unto you." A European may easily understand the effect which such language produces in the Singhalese mind, if he would but regard each of the clauses within dashes as compound adjectives, qualifying the noun good-tidings: e. g.

“Moreover, brethren, by-me-to-you-declared, by-you-received and by-you-conformed-to, GOOD-TIDINGS,—to you do I make known.”

The relative pronoun, though found in the Sanscrit, is yet often understood as in English. Thus in Wilkins' Sanscrit Grammar, p. 620.

3 4 5 6 7 8 o2370.0074230302,450.4307 09:2303 @1000

11 10 wo yoo8738 0.0 0.0 52.60.

3 4 “He, who, on-all things perishing does-not-perish, is





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7 uperior to-that (which is) visible, and of-another nature,

13 invisible, eternal.”

This is likewise the case in Pali. Take for instance, the passage which we extracted at p. clxxi.

wo@os age0*13.6.gię o 0893

0,9 sr@sey D369094 ID:3:800906. “If men of the previous kalpa, or the inhabitants of the Brahama world, or persons (who] had not heard the sound of human speech, or Budhas spoke a language, it was Maghadi, the primitive language.”

In the above sentence the relative pronoun is avoided by a mode which is likewise adopted in the Singhalese. The student will find that mode on comparing the above literal translation with the following.

“The Maghali is the primitive language, which was spoken by Budhas, men of the previous kalpa, the inhabitants of the Brahama world, and persons who had not heard the sound of human speech."

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 83 like the cognate Sanscrit esa sva, ‘bis,' signifies also own,'and can be applied to all the three persons. (Bopp $ 405.) In this respect och is similar, but not equally expressive. no‘this,' and @a, co, 'that,' are demonstratives, having nice distinctions in their application. Mr. Lambrick says, “ As @ with its derivatives, is appropriated to represent a person or thing near to the speaker, so @w with its derivatives is appropriated to represent a person or thing near (opposite to) the person spoken to; and 00, with its derivatives, is appropriated to represent a person or thing at a distance from both the persons in conversation. The fourth ed, with its derivatives, is appropriated to represent a person or thing spoken of before.”—p. 21. Upon a comparison of a great majority of the Pronominal Adjectives in Sanscrit with

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