Imatges de pÓgina
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In the ahove selection from Pradeepikawa," a book of the highest authority among the Singhalese for the depth of its learning, and the purity of its lançuage,

8.2 is used for the accusative plural 'you, without any difference of termination; and it is to be apprehended that -9, the plural termination in 165, and 3 (', which we now use, is the result of a modern refinement. Nor do we find a termination for ca in the plural number, except when compounded with an honorific or another noun. ea and ma are declined alike in both the numbers, and an in like manner in the singular.

@a, e, f 32. Thou.' Singular.

Plural. Nom. e@.

emer. Ac. ew or eaa.

cero or ecoé. Ins. C 3 os.

උඹ ඌවිසිත්. Aur. @o2.. e@@ó 6m52:2. Dit. @.. උබ

emeie. Ab. ఉంది..

e Baionos. Gen. 276.

C@ 39.02. Loc. c.8.


.. Besides the above we have at present various other terms for the second person; and a correct use of the same by foreigners is as difficult as t!at of “shall' and 'will' by the Singhalese. From 29 mis own' (see $ 40, anl ante selection from Pradeepikawa), which is frequently found as a possessive in the third person, and which, different from its original import, is now used for the second person, are derived nons, too, ooooo, oooot

• Lambrick's notes on Tò and Obawahanse, p. 46.

+ From co we obtained on, and the termination proper to the omme in the verb in the Imperative mood singular, is oda.

This should be ea36; but usage bas assigned a less lengthy form by suppressing the sound of O., and retaining the inflected vowel a one in noi.

add. ooo is used by superiors to their inferiors without conveying any disrespect. og ned by husbands towards their wives and vice versa; and also by some low caste people to the inferior classes of the Vellalas, by Upasampada priests towards their pupils, or Samanaras; and even by servants of a higher grade towards the young inembers of their master's families. Ozoi :2000, ongoio ostaed, ongotonstores are forms of the same word, each succeeding one conveying a degree of respect higher than that which preceded it. gangsgedeed is used towards each other by persons of an equal station in life amongst the highest class of the Singhalese, and amongst the Priesthood.

From @a and 3 are produced 32000 se and oz@ Oostored in prose, which loves a greater luxuriance of expression than poetry. In their use, they are confined to the highest personages, such as nobles, &c. The hono rific bostad in Singhalese, of which onestad andstoon ou are corruptions, bears a clear resemblance to the like honorifics in the cognate languages—9. Doi Sanscrit, and Dé 3.0. Pali, and means “Honor,'' Excellency.' As to the identity of the words, mēs, mē8.09 and Enstoed both in their significations, and in the use of them, there exists no reasonable doubt. * The interchange of sand o in the cognate languages of Sanscrit and Singhalese is well known (see p. lv.); and the addition of a co by the rule § 22 b. is frequent, especially where the Sanscrit has an aspirate letter. Thus eas Sanscrit, eges.of Singhalese, 'a name ;' @6 Sanscrit, çooo Singhalese, 'stream ;'Sanscrit, uçma Singhalese, ‘holy writ;'oogi Sanscrit, osa 3 Singhalese, “royal abode;' @2:33 Sanscrit, soosSinghalese, 'meditation;' 798 Sanscrit, 989 Singhalese, “power of proceeding in the air;' (compare the other words in § 22 b. together with

so aos, honorific term for goe¢, and which, like your Honor,'Vossignoria, &c., although used for the second, is a pronour of the third person.”-Wilson's Grammar, p. 85.

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those of like signification in the Sanscrit.) Enstoed t is declined as follows:

Enstad 'Honor,'' Excellency.'

Nom. one.

Oposlod@. Ac. Scoobned.

Engineer, or a. Ins. Estados.

වහන්සේලා විසින්. Aur. Doordado com nm. Omotaed@mo Soimia. Dat. Dostada.

emainedo. Ab. Emotne mot.

Dostoeden 08?. Gen. Orsoned cod.

Eosiodego. Loc. Owotneam968. erotiese 93008. Voc. écoles, or costs. The plural of this does not clearly appear; but we apprehend the nominative form may be used in the vocative also, with the addition of cous as soooo 613

The expression onor), derived from mango, • Hail your worship;' but literally, ' May there be long life! a form of salutation common amongst the Singhalese, is also employed in addressing persons of rank. It is used in the vocative alone, whilst @e@rgised is employed to express different other relations of the person addressed; as ons @9 Osteoorindo @oor ons &c. * Hail your worship, if you (obawahanse) require.'

There is another honorific of the highest import, and which, except in colloquial use, we do not find in any of our books. It is 0.78colo@l, sometimes written 02801923. It is derived from 20:8ccles, as we think from colmés one who bears the position of,'and was 'lord'. From es@13 we obtain 6:3, and from it eo8 or 88; as bonne (see ante, p.156.) Hence, it is believed, that is used

+ We believe that upon such proof, few, if any, could agree with the Rev. S. Lambrick in believing that "Deither booined

wahansay, nor Oedo saika” (the proper termination of the verb in reference to he honorific 200 sm) have any meaning at least to the more dinghalese scholar,"To r. Obawahanse.


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as an affix to names; as por esgeros; Soo) or Osored 0.03 ; - acs or erec , &c. From it also comes

; 0913007, a title of a lady holding a certain position in society. We must, however, not fail to notice that Mr. Clough derives the word CoinE3 from ç es offspring,''child.' without tracing it to the root from whence

whence ço: 025 itself is derived, viz. ç 'to bear.' Thence, people in translating the words 'Our Ladly the Queen,' both in rendering indictments, an: tne prayers in the Rubric into Singhalese, have been led to adopt ewogazowie gę od 0 octaed, the word & conveying daughter.' But, it is apprehended, that ço: nég, used for children,' is a term derived from ę. "to bear; and therefore, may be correctly

' applied in the present instance to both males and females. Thus, 25, * 10 J, may be used to persons of both sexes, without the distinction frequently attempted to be drawn in its application to a 'lord' and a lady.'

20.280.0 % is used by tie Roman Catholics in their addresses to the Deity, both in private and in their Church service; by the lower classes in their intercourse with the nobles of the land; and liv servants towards their masters. We are glad to find that this word in an abbreviated form, wig, is now applied to the children of the respectable classes, in place of that foreign importation Signor, which has been too commonly used in the Maritime provinces of this Island, with the exeption of Galle. Third person. In the Singhalese as in Sanscrit, there is

. not at present a single pronoun of the third person devoid of gender. Bopp says (see his Comp. Gram. II. p. p. 475-6.)

" The Sanscrit is deficient in a simple substantive pronoun of the third person, devoid of gender: that it however originally possessed such a pronoun is proved not only by the unanimous evidence of the European cognate languages, but especially by the circumstance that in Zend and hỏi (also sê according to § 55) and in Frakrit se, are used as the genitive and dative of the third person in all genders, and indeed in the direct sense, and in form analogous to the secondary form of the first and second person.” The SidathSangarawa gives us eu and me (see p. 22.) as the pronouns for the third person. How far they bear an affinity to se and ogs& in Sanscrit, except in signification, we cannot state. And whether which we have translated. He'(see $ 41,) is given as the generic term for all pronouns of the third person, and in that sense to convey other’as distinguishable from E'I’and on thou,' pronouns of the first and second persons, we shall not affirm. But it is apprehended tl at co ( 82 Sanscrit) is merely a pronominal adjective, like m; whence it is believed, we obtain @ and e. This is not only at. tested by the fact that in the Indo-European family of languages < () bears some affinity to he, oi, hoi, &c., but also

* ca iting s@.@ E 9 3300s-Leelawativus lady the Queen, &c. See selection from Sasadawa, anie p. clavii.

ál from the circumstance that its broader and more sonant vowel sound &, or ons 'she' (vide supra, selection from Pradeepikawa) is used by standard writers for the third person feminine, e. g. eo vone)'he' or ' that person,' m.; @ (50bé ) or ( 033923) ‘she' or that person'f. c which is now used for the third person m. is declined as follows:

k=•=. 'that' (person) or ‘He.' Singular.

Plural. Nom. C, or @

C°C or & Bc. • Ac.

6, 07, or @:9, @@. co, or @gst. Ins. G7083, or @guez color é 25.825? Aur. 69 or @s-m10 s1000. cod oregs 50 com.2. Dat. co, eno, or @go. Coto, or w20. Ab. comod, or @egon 8). 2.100.0', or & gotones. Gen. Oo, or @s.go:. cos oi, or a cotao. Loc. en or a web 8. er ein

Co or a 205-00708.

. Note that @_ is also changed into ng This one'm. 'He.' • oo is now used in the numinatwe plural; but this. it is appre honded, is incorrect.

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