Imatges de pÓgina


and quod the inflection; mg tortoise, derived from 20 US side, and 9 from oi to drink; * Sgee woman, derived from 3gou gentle or lovely, and deed eyes.

90 or are Primitives which are not derived from other words; e. g. nuo name of a bird (of the Falcon tribe); 0082 ant; Əcz & Mars. f

22. The use of the letter & must be learned according to the authority of Teachers, and with reference to the rules respecting qoçed, ooo, 8.8.1

Examples shewing the substitution of o for .. clean may be changed into us; Swe, spread or explain into 585;

විසදා විහිදා @ę result or salvation into 8&; & righteous or good person or pundit into gę; wroç sweeping into coç; więos known into wcęos; nola well or befitting into acos; aw@ good into 9001@; ea having kissed into 82; 882 fatigue into 888; egongol hearing into 98.38?; Cg garlic into Ogos; unos stone into 0037; we tree into one; ed sharp instrument into :Ć; wud a kind of paddy into conė; guc (rice) pounder into wood; god mother-in-law into egiad; sed cotton into &e; auch 8 faith into eacę

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. In the Singhalese, as in many primitive languages, names of objects are frequently descriptive. Thus, Dolega literally means, a side-drinker, from a belief that the tortoise drinks or sucks water through its side. Also queçono literally eye stream

signifies tears; Ççoç literally“ king of stars" is one of the many names for the moon; So literally

open ing from a sheath

means floroer;

0002 o} literally “big-face " is a term for owl; &c. &c. Thus also in the Sanscrit ogo, equivalent to Soi in the Singhalese, literally " honey drinker,” a bee; ac in Sanscrit, a bird, literally “ frequenter of the sky;” coed 8 an elephant, literally " the handy one;” 8 67009 leech, literally “water inhabitant;” &c. &c. Vide Townsend's Etymological researches.

+ If these words were derivatives, and would indicate the name of a bird inhabiting the rocks, which is not the case ; and God ant cannot have been derived from one oil and to drink; because "oil" is supposed to be poisonous to the ant,

2020 Mars be derived from vad bliss, because Mars stands for an unpropitious planet in astronomy.

• Vide & s. 10, 11, and 6 respectively.


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se; wre water course intocme: No sugar into 006; Bezou ginger into Bor; góc hog into you; I thread into ; ned shadow into aos; 623 stream or current into 003; 8 limit into 89; 0:3 lord into BLO; 2ot conforming or habituating (one's-self) into 898); "L@ all into ; all into : was hare into boos; 800 that-which-is-stitched into 808; Do thought into soa; ego small into go; wo union into 20; es war into S; 5w0 the act of shooting, or direction into ago; wcos mark or memorandum into wowod; out contentment into oost; uogos doctrine, or epistle, into wood; Bod sitting into 887; uod cover into est; @dossprinkle into 8 833; e: head into 8et; med grain into onet; en dry into 823; w able into bol 5; wu8 cluster into c.8; ew thin or quick into 8€; es horn into co2€; &c.



c. b. Examples shewing the interpolation of by the Rule respecting quoad &good for Ecco? Siddharte (a name); peed Ç66 for q:e850 eye-stream (literally), or tears, alia Wu for wuçn faith; oo çdo for węg holy writ; ooood for ouços royal abode; * Çoost for cat meditation ; 954. for gs power

දහන් of proceeding in the air; wooot for most mark; Orçool for @uçol middle; 9ccoed for a ça intention; @efore ashes.

Examples shewing the existence of the sound 20 in roots. gou dexterous, 60036 u boat, moc blunt, oc shun, we blowing, el conception, o@ sound, go fallen, 88 high, gc.

Note that the following are instances wherein the vowels are neither substituted for, nor are derived from, the letter 00: 98 of collyrium, quę drawing, gólo stuck, Qoros partial redness, q6 ascended, po light; 903new, to-day, straight, @ç humour, moisture; od goat, co tile, or grain (of rice), @D head, ale white, oo ashes, q2s 3 stringing,

* This word which is here rendered royal abode is interpreted by some "royal colonies ; " but we believe the last is incorrect ; since the Sanscrit word from which the above is derived also nieans royal aborle; vide Colebrooke's works vol. II. p. 949.

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qedded respiration, qe shun, Ber having approached, ce sword, go finish, erpire, end, @@ plunder.

Note also, that the following respectively result from a substitution of o for w, and by the incorporation of the preposition o-e. g. 69262 and qz6@ having begun; c9 and 2 facing ; 000:6 and owo walk; and que conformable to etiquette; 's.lay and 0:0$ @ withered, enclosed, bent; Beqnolo or quçnot repeating, preaching.

Note further, that we have, in the following instances, † the

as in

* Thus clot@ from ecoo 0; loca from goog; og from wsa; ape from onge; ceo from Wo; owo from op:026, coes@from t068 0.; pes from ep.2 303; GC from ego 3:00); Quesic from poinn; Gree or from & 3 5WICE) and qię Ou from it aIc.I.-In one case the co is sulstituted for , and in the other the is not a substitute, but is added to the root for the sake of euphony. The words in the text are derived from the Pali words above given; and it is remarkable that the Pali words themselves take o for the sake of euphony :- Thus o&o and the pretis op; the following English words which take a, ab or abs; e. g. avert from verto “to turn from ; absolve from so'ro “to loose; abstract from traho “to draw;” &c.

+ Grammarians have no-where stated that the B is changed into a or any other vowel sound. The writer of the Sidath'sangerawe, however, quotes two passages from books of authority (the first from Asakda, and the last from Mayoroosandaysey) to shew that we have the sanction of Pundits for such a use. Thus, the expression 6001 stands for o od red, and 901, hand, the latter being derived from medos Sanscril. Strictly speaking, therefore, it should be 60. and not 00). In the second ex. ample wole om, Sunset stands for pode 8), derived from qed on Sanscrit, or 900 Pali. Thus also frequently, in colloquial intercourse amongst the natives, some of the words which are changed for into , are also changed into other vowels ; e. g. 08:@ę, oc@ę, oc@ę-Więos; Leon, qię8.-, 60, 8-22, 8a, Re, igé, ec-@ol, Berol, 890:-gov, 29.01, 0901—0 ot, no?, pot-000, OND, OO &c. &c. For the derivation of the word Elu-See Introduction.

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authority of Scholars for a usage contrary to the above: e. g

ර ත ත දි ද ඉ හි ල් ව ස ස අ බ ර න් ර ස න් ද

w O MODECO Ou Sou @o&Qoy osteo Speak (thou); by fixing (thy) deep-coloured long eyes ; by moving thy neck, and protruding thy red hand through thy loose robes which are secured by a girdle.

ක ල ව න් බි ඟු ම හ ත ව න හි රු හත් ව ත
Great is the sable colour of bees after sunset.

End of the first Chapter. *

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* It is perhaps not out of place here, before we enter upon the second chapter, to notice, that in writing the Singhalese, care must be taken to use only those letters which are peculiar to it (vide Introduction), except indeed when words ire derived from the Sanscrit and the Pali, in which case it would be proper to use foreign letters. Thus, in the Viðgararna' mala, 8700 030.25 @2081083The lovely sound is felt as that of the Curlew, and Cuckoo ; '-Rag and are proper, be cause the words ago and Ə010) are either Sanscril or Pali words. But o as in @rodeo is incorrectly written for the 8 in cosecca; also mę in writing is a corruption of the word wolnoso, I shall go, &c. According to some teachers, in writing the Sanscrit and Pali in Singhalese characters, the symbols of the short vowels and incorporated with consonants, frequently assume the long sounds of ed, and . Thus, in the selection which we have made for our title page, "(0) evocard oo aw97873(903) 378 2289 oned o scoa cao”He who studies but one science knows it not precisely. A few other peculiarities in the Singhalese spelling will be found noticed elsewhere.

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On Permutation.



23. The combination of two letters, that is to say, the fusion of the initial letter of a word into the final of another is called wę, Permutation: in effecting which, the elision and

, substitution of letters must be learned br attention to the

of the learned.

Sou and qsad being combined produce 500sad, diamond instrument; &z and on, oso long-life: 3 and gogor, {Beg su day-splendour; moss and ¢, os gold sucing ; 26 and esc, auec bees-splendour; 8926 and ere,

896xĆ unsandy-spring; usę and e, comoon-like; සල

and 88, wade and there; eno and @o; ow2010 fallen-blovc; wa and 8.1, Wigg sound-echoing ; &c. In each of the above examples, the vowel sound inherent in the first of the two combining letters is taken away by the substitution of the second which is also a vowel: hence the combination is called-Permutation by the elision of the first vowel.

B. 0908 and cego being combined produce 676Ćge, hot-season ; and cedados, gedoes great heat; and 993, og three ills; oca and goo, o geoor waving

අසිපත, sword. This is called, Permutation by the elision of the second vowel.

od and qued being combined produce owled, fiveeyes: here, although no vowel sound is entirely taken away, yet the same is melted in the consonant (by the proper mark of the vowel). Hence this is called, Permutation of vowels.

d. Where in compounding words, an entirely new vowel sound is substituted for an existing one it is called

Permutation by substitution of vowels. Thus 200 and gou being compounded produce o nogoo great-renown (an appellation for Sira); eo and CO, 00:00036 great-rampart;

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