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and quod the inflection; miega tortoise, derived from souls side, and a from 8: to drink; * agere woman, derived from gou gentle or lovely, and oued eyes.

90 oor are Primitives which are not derived from other words; e. g. oud name of a bird (of the Falcon tribe); noda ant; Oced Mars.

22. The use of the letter w must be learned according to the authority of Teachers, and with reference to the rules respecting paçe, quo, 8.5.1

a. Examples shewing the substitution of for us. may be changed into ys; bus spread or explain into 889; 8ę result or salvation into 8€; gę righteous or good person or pundit into g. &; wrę sweeping into coç; wręso knovon into colę on; well or befitting into acI5; Ows@ good into 6009@; 82 having kissed into 82; 882 fatigue into 888@; gone ol hearing into son88'; ego garlic into gol; Unon stone into 00037; we tree into od; sharp instrument into sd; wud a kind of paddy into &; goe (rice) pounder into onod; gegd mother-in-law into gd; eac cotton into 82&; wię88 faith into eacę

- In the Singhalese, as in many primitive languages, names of objects are frequently descriptive. Thus, mor og literally means, a side-drinker, from a belief that the tortoise drinks or sucks water through its side. Also queço literally

eye stream

signifies tears; Çędę literally“ king of stars" is one of the many names for the moon;

මිනිමුතු literally “ opening from a sheath means forcer; 9000 ot literally “ big-face ” is a term for owl; &c. &c. Thus also in the Sanscrit ogo, equivalent to Soi in the Singhalese, literally“ honey drinker,” means a bee; 200 in Sanscrit, a bird, literally “ frequenter of the sky;" coed 8 an elephant, literally " the handy ode; ” O 705 leech, literally "water inbabitant;" &c. &c. Vide Townsend's Etymological researches.

+ If these words were derivatives, and would indicate the name of a bird inhabiting the rocks, which is not the case ; and God ant cannot have been derived from good oil and to drink ; because "oil" is supposed to be poisonous to the “ant,” por

can od Maro be derived from Oced bliss, because Mars stands for an unpropitious planet in astronomy.

1 Vide , s. 10, 11, and 6 respectively.

into

se; we water course intoase: wmb sugar into wao; Eupou ginger into Bor; ogác hog into you; thread

; God shadow into nes; 923 stream or current into 6003; 83 limit into 89; 4:3 lord into cle; 8920 conforming or habituating (one’s-self) into s@sd; @ all into BOLO; all into w; wooo hare into whə?; 82 03 that-which-is-stitched into Hood; my thought into 8; small into go; ww0 union into Eco; es war into 88; 5w0 the act of shooting, or direction into @go; w 2008) mark or memorandum into wooo; ous contentment into onsd; orgot doctrine, or epistle, into legal; essitting into 887; uod cover into wot; edong sprinkle into 8 osa; 8: head into Beł; opel grain into oned; & dry into 822; with able into col 53; sus cluster into coio; ew thin or quick into 88; we horn into cole; &c.

b. Examples shewing the interpolation of 2 by the Rule respecting ac. Banos for Beco? Siddharte (a name); peed çao for op:edco eye-stream (literally), or tears, elawu for touça faith; for węs holy writ; 6808) for o dços royal abode ; * cost for cat meditation ; 384 for 85 power of proceeding in the air; wovet for most mark; @rçoool for @lçot middle; opçcored for açed intention; @ed&fore ashes.

c. Examples shewing the existence of the sound in roots. gou dexterous, 610036 u boat, wie blunt, ne shun, we blowing, cole conception, na sound, 99 fallen, 288 high, &c.

Note that the following are instances wherein the vowels are neither substituted for, nor are derived from, the letter

: 988' collyrium, que drawing, blog stuck, pole partial redness, 90 ascended, 90 light; 900 new, to-day, straight, ac humour, moisture; od goat, co tile, or grain (of rice), @D head, see white, po ashes, als 3 stringing, quod respiration, ec shun, ons having approached, go sword, go finish, expire, end, @@ plunder.

* This word which is here rendered royal abode is interpreted by some “ royal colonies ;” but we believe the last is incorrect ; since the Sanscrit word from which the above is derived also nieans royal abode ; vide Colebrooke's works vol. II. p. 949.

Note also, that the following respectively result from a substitution of oo for w, and by the incorporation of the preposition o~e. g. Bob and ozola having begun; 62 and 22 facing ; 2040 and opes o walk; c.m@ and our conformable to etiquette; "5.24603 and 0:26 @ withered, enclosed, bent; bu çroto or azçnólo repeating, preaching.

Note further, that we have, in the following instances, the

as in

• Thus web from soos0; 92062 from ano ber; 89 from S2; pe from onga; 606 from 16; quo from 236, ces from w08 0.; opese from op.23 0.; CLIC from eo . oj; quafic from mains; Gree Ol from ej IWC) and olę 6c from pisaoc3 5.- In one case the co is sulstituted for os, and in the other the is not a substitute, but is added to the root for the sake of euphony. The words in the text are derived from the Pali words above given; and it is remarkable that the Pali words themselves take o for the sake of euphony :-Thus o&o and the pretix ops; the following English words which take a, ab or abs; e. g. avert from verto to tumu from ; absolve from so'ro “to loose ; ” abstract from traho “to draw ; ” &c.

+ Grammarians have no-where stated that the 20 is changed into a or any other vowel sound. The writer of the Sidath'sangerawe, however, quotes two passages from books of authority (the first from Asakda, and the last from Mayoroosandaysey) to shew that we have the sanction of Pundits for such

Thus, the expression 60981 stands for o od red, and 90, hand, the latter being derived from Dedos Sanscril. Strictly speaking, therefore, it should be 0.09 and not 80). In the second example woda o, Sunset stands for pode 8), derived from pedo Sanscrit, or po Pali. Thus also frequently, in colloquial intercourse amongst the natives, some of the words which are changed for into 80, are also changed into other vowels; e. g. 2ę, Oc@ç, po çmorços; Bol@on, Qięo.-wa, owa, @&-82, 82, ¢@-e, igé, cé-eol, Sexol, 990:-you, you, e960-008), no!, 98-00, 000, OD &c. &c. For the derivation of the word Elu-See Introduction.

a use.

authority of Scholars for a usage contrary to the above: e. g.

ර ත ත දි ඉ හිල් ව ස න තු ර ර ස න් ද ම්:

කි ය ව ක ර හ ර ල පෑ හැ බර දි ගෙ හු චන්ලා Speak (thou): by fixing (thy) deep-coloured long eyes ; by moving thy neck , and protruding thy red hand through thy loose robes which are secured by a girdle.

O o! ම හ ත ව න හි ර හ ත ව
Great is the sable colour of bees after sunset.

End of the first Chapter.

ක ල

* It is perhaps not out of place here, before we enter upon the second chapter, to notice, that in writing the Singhalese, care must be taken to use only those letters which are peculiar to it (vide Introduction), except indeed when words are derived from the Sanscrit and the Pali, in which case it would be proper to use foreign letters. Thus, in the Viògaratna' måla, 702 098.29 m@asso-The lovely sound is felt as that of the Curlew, and Cuckoo ; '-Ro and @s are proper, be} cause the words ou and Ogsm are either Sanscril or Pali words. But as in Grodeo is incorrectly written for the 8 io cosecco; also wą in a Resepeis a corruption of the word wainso, I shall go, &c. According to some teachers, in writing the Sanscrit and Pali in Singhalese characters, the symbols of the shore vowels, and @, incorporated with consonants, frequently assume the long sounds of ed, and . Thus, in the selection which we have made for our title page, "(0) cocaled opo aw9789510003) on 3 28) Soled o scamo"He who studies but one science knows it not precisely.-A few other peculiarities in the Singhalese spelling will be found noticed elsewhere.

CHAPTER II.

On Permutation.

23. The combination of two letters, that is to say, the fusion of the initial letter of a word into the final of another is called wę, Permutation: in effecting which, the elision and substitution of letters must be learned by attention to the usage of the learned. e. g.

Sgou and q59d being combined produce 51680d, diamond instrument; &o and op, oso long-life: {on and gogor, {ongsu day-splendour; mos3 and 5ė, noir gold swing; 286 and CEG, @Over bees-splendour; noneo and end, 80onc unsandy-spring; usę and 5, comoon-like; w@ and de, Woes and there; eno and @on; oono fallen-blour; w@ and 5.1, 2238.9 sound-echoing ; &c. In each of the above examples, the vowel sound inherent in the first of the two combining letters is taken away by the substitution of the second which is also a vowel: hence the combination is called-Permutation by the elision of the first vowel.

--3. 698 and ega being combined produce encoge, hot-season ; en and condi, geda@s? great heat; 8 and ago, go three ills; ocą and Boo, or geoor waving sword. This is called, Permutation by the elision of the second vowel.

c. oe and qced being combined produce owled, fiveeyes: here, although no vowel sound is entirely taken away, yet the same is melted in the consonant (by the proper mark of the vowel). Hence this is called, Permutation of vowels.

d. Where in compounding words, an entirely new vowel sound is substituted for an existing one it is called

Permutation by substitution of vowels. Thus @co and gou being compounded produce oncogou great-renown (an appellation for Sira); Os and CO, 0:00036 great-rampart; @@

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