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respectable as well as an highly agreeable man in pri- beliere, blown over. You have so strong an army in vate life ; but you may as well feed me with decayed Ireland, and the Irish are become so much more cubpotatoes as console me for the miseries of Ireland' byl ning from the last insurrection, that you inay perhaps the resources of his sense and his discrelion. It is be tolerably secure from the efforts which the French only the public situation which this gentleman holds may make to throw a body of troops into Ireland ? which entitles me or induces me to say so much and do you consider that event to be difficult and im. about him. He is a fly in amber ; nobody cares about probable? From Brest Harbour to Cape St. Vincent, the fly; the only question is, How the devil did it get you have above three thousand miles of hostile seathere? Nor do I attack him from the love of glory, coast, and twelve or fourteen harbours quite capable but from the love of utility, as a burgomaster hunts of containing a sufficient force for the powerful inva. a rat in a Dutch dyke, for fear it should flood a pro- sion of Ireland. The nearest of these harbours is not vince.
two days' sail from the southern coast of Ireland, The friends of the Catholic question are, I observe, with a fair leading wind; and the farthest not ten. extremely embarrassed in arguing when they come Five ships of the line, for so very short a passage, might to the loyalty of the Irish Catholics. As for me, I carry tive or six thousand troops with cannon and shall go straight forward to my object, and state what ammunition ; and Ireland presents to their attack a I have no manner of doubt, from an intimate know. southern coast of more than 500 miles, abounding in ledge of Ireland, to be the plain truth. Of the great deep bays, admirable harbours, and disaffected inhab. Roman Catholic proprietors, and of the Catholic pre- itants. "Your blockading ships may be forced to come lates, there may be a few, and but a few, who would home for provisions and repairs, or they may be blown follow the fortunes of England at all events; there is off in a gale of wind and compelled to bear away for another set of men who, thoroughly detesting this their own coast ;-and you will observe, that the very country, have too much property and too much char- same wind which locks you up in the British Channel, acter to lose, not to wait for some very favourable when you are got there, is evidently favourable for event before they show themselves; but the great the invasion of Ireland. And yet this is called gor. mass of Catholic population, upon the slightest appear. ernment, and the people huzza Mr. Perceval for con. ance of a French torce in that country, would rise upon tinuing to expose his country day after day to such you to a man. It is the most mistaken policy to con. tremendous perils as these ; cursing the men who ceal the plain truth. There is no loyalty among the would have given up a question in theology to have Catholics; they detest you as their worst oppressors, saved us from such a risk. The British Empire at and they will continue to detest you till you remove this moment is in the state of a peach-blossom-if the the cause of their hatred. It is in your power in six wind blows gently from one quarter, it survives, if tumonths' time to produce a total revolution of opinions riously from the other, it perishes. A stiff breeze among this people ; and in some future letter I will may set in from the north, the Rochefort squadron show you that this is clearly the case. At present, will be taken, and the minister will be the most holy see what a dreadful state Ireland is in. The common ot' men ; f it comes from some other point, Ireland is toast among the low Irish is, the feast of the passover. gone, we curse ourselves as a set of monastic madSome allusion to Bonaparte, in a play lately acted in men, and call out for the unavailing satisfaction of Dublin, produced thunders of applause from the pit Mr. Perceval's head. Such a state of political exis. and the galleries ; anu a politician should not be inat. tence is scarcely credible: it is the action of a mad tentive to the public feelings expressed in theatres. young fool standing upon one foot, and peeping down Mr. Perceval thinks he has disarmed the Irish ; he ihe crater of Mount Aina, not the conduct of a wise has no more disarmed the Irish than he has resigned and sober people deciding upon their best and dearest a shilling of his own public emoluments. An Irish interests: and in the name, the much injured name, ot peasant fills the barrel of his gun full of tow dipped Heaven, what is it all for that we expose ourselves to in oil, butters up the lock, buries it in a bog, and al. these dangers ? Is it that we may sell more muslin? lows the Orange bloodhound to ransack his cottage al Is it that we may acquire more territory? Is it that pleasure. Be just and be kind to the Irish, and you will we may strengthen what we have already acquired? indeed disarm them; rescue them from ihe degraded No: nothing of all this ; but that one set of Irishmen servitude in which they are held by an handful of their may torture another set of Irishmen-that Sir Phelim own countrymen, and you will add four millions of O’Callagan may continue to whip Sir Toby M'Tackle, brave and affectionate men to your strength. Nightly his nexi door neighbour, and continue to ravish his visits, Protestant inspectors, licenses to posses à pis- Catholic daughters; and these are the measures which tol or a knife and fork, the odious vigour of the evan. the honest and consistent secretary supports ; and this gelical Perceval-acts of Parliament, drawn up by is the secretary whose genius in the estimation of some English attorney, to save you from the hatred of Brother Abraham, is to extinguish the genuis of Bo. four million people-the guarding yourselves from uni. naparte. Pompey was killed by a slave, Goliath smit. versal disaffection by a police; a confidence in the ten by a stripling, Pyrrhus died by the hand of a wo. little cunning of Bow Street, when you might rest your man ; tremble, thou great Gaul, from whose head an security upon the eternal basis of the best feelings ; armed Minerva leaps forth in the hour of danger; this is the meanness and madness to which nations tremble, thou scourge of God, a pleasant man is come are reduced when they lose sight of the first elements out against thee, and thou shalt be laid low by a joker of justice, without which a country can be no more of jokes, and he shall talk his pleasant talk against secure than it can be healthy without air. I sicken at thee, and thou shalt be no more! such policy and such men. The fact is, the ministers You tell ine, in spite of all this parade of sea.coasi, know nothing about the present state of Ireland ; Mr. Bonaparte has neither ships nor sailors : but this is a Perceval sees a few clergymen, Lord Castlereagh a mistake. He has not ships nor sailors to contest the few general officers, who take care, of course, to re. empire of the seas with Great Britain, but there report what is pleasant rather than what is true. As mains quite sufficient of the navies of France, Spain, for the joyous and lepid consul, he jokes upon neutral Holland and Denmark, for these short excursions and flags and feuds, jokes upon Irish rebels, jokes upon invasions. Do you think, too, that Bonaparte does not northern, and southern foes, and gives himself no add to this navy every year ? Do you suppose, with trouble upon any subject ; nor is the mediocrity of the all Europe at his feet, that he can find any difficulty idolatrous deputy of the slightest use. Dissolved in in obtaining timber, and that money will not procure grins, he reads no memorials upon the state of Ireland, for him any quantity of naval stores he may want? listens to no reports, asks no questions, and is the The mere machine, ihe empty ship, he can build as • Bourn from whom no traveller returns.'
well, and as quickly, as you can; and though he may
not find enough of practised sailors to man large fighi. The danger of an immediate insurrection is now, I ing fleets--it is not possible to conceive that he can
want sailors for such purposes as I have stated. He No man who is not intimately acquainted with the Irish, can tell to what a curious extent this concealment of arms is * I know too much, however, of the state of Ireland not carried. I have stated the exact mode in which it is done.' to speak tremblingly about this. I hope to God I am riglie
is at present the despotic monarch of above twenty | ning, but that he rides up and down Pall Mall glorious
LETTER VIII. fleets have sailed in and out of harbour in spite of
NOTHING can be more erroneous than to suppose that every vigilance used to prevent it. I shall only men. Ireland is no bigger than the Isle of Wight, or of more tion those cases where Ireland is concerned. In December, 1796, seven ships of the line and ten trans- almost inclined to believe, from the general supineness
consequence than Guernsey or Jersey; and yet I am ports reached Bantry Bay from Brest, without having which prevails here respecting the dangerous state of seen an English ship in their passage. It blew a storm that country, that such is the rank which it holds continues to be an independent kingdom. You will in our statistical tables. I have been writing to you a observe that at the very time the French feet sailed great deal about Ireland, and perhaps it may be of out of Brest barbour, Admiral Colpoys was cruising
some use to state to you concisely the nature and re. off there with a powerful squadron, and still, from the sources of the country which has been the subject of particular circumstance of the weather, found it in our long and strange correspondence. There were possible to prevent the French from coming out in 1791,
101, 132* houses, which Mr. Newenham shows
returned, as I have before observed, to the hearth tax, During the time that Admiral Colpoys was cruising off from unquestionable documents to be nearly 80,000 Brest, Admiral Richery, with six ships of the line, below the real number of houses in that country. passed him, and got safe into the harbour very moment when the French squadron was lying in There are 27,457 square miles in Ireland, and more
than five millions of people. Bantry Bay, Lord Bridport with his fleet was locked up by a foul wind in the Channel, and for several days houses in England and Wales amounted to 1,574,902,
By the last survey, it appears that the inhabited could not stir to the assistance of Ireland. Admiral and the population to 9,343,578, which gives an average Colpoys, totally unable to find the French fleet, came of 5; to each house, in a country where the density of home. Lord Bridport, at the change of the wind, population is certainly less considerable than in Irecruised for them in vain, and they got safe back to land. It is commonly supposed that two-fifths of the Brest, without having seen a single one of these float. ing bulwarks, the possession of which we believe will army and navy are Irishmen, at periods when politi.
cal disaffection does not avert the Catholics from the enable us with impunity to set justice and common service. The current value of Irish exports in 1807 sense at defiance. "Such is the miserable and precari: was 9,314,8541. 178. 7d. ; a state of commerce about ous state of an anemocracy, of a people who put their equal to the commerce of England in the middle of August, 1798, three forty-gun frigates landed 1,100 inward and cleared outward in the trade of Ireland, in men under Humbert, making the passage from Ro 1807, amounted to 1,567,430 tons. The quantity of chelle to Killala, without seeing any English ship. home spirits exported amounted to 10,284 gallons in In October of the same year, four French frigates an. 1796, and to 936,800 gallons in 1804. Of the exports, chored in Killala Bay with 2,000 troops; and though which I have stated,
provisions amounted to four mil. they did not land their troops, they retumed to France lions, and linen to about four millions and a halt. eight stout frigates, and a brig, all full of troops and two years ending in January, 1804, 691,274 barrels of stores, reached the coast of Ireland, and were fortu. barley, oats and wheat ; and by weight 910,848 cwts. nately, in sight of land, destroyed, after an obstinate of flour, oatmeal, barley, oats and wheat. The amount engagement, by Sir John Warren.
of butter exported in 1804, from Ireland, was worth, if you despise the little troop which, in these nume in money, 1,704,6801. sterling. The importation of rous experiments, did make good its landing, take with ale and beer from the immense manufactures now you, if you please, this précis of its exploits: eleven carrying on of these articles, was diminished to 3209 hundred men, commanded by a soldier raised from the barrels, in the year 1804, from 111,920 barrels, which ranks, put to route a select army of 6,000 men, com.
was the average importation per annum, taking from manded by General Lake, seized their ordnance, am three years ending in 1792 ; and at present there is an munition, and stores, advanced 150 miles into a country containing an armed force of 150,000 men, and at export trade of porter, -00, an average of the three
years, ending March, 1783, there were imported into last surrendered to the viceroy, an experienced gene Ireland, of cotton wool, 3326 cwts. of cotton yam, ral, gravely and cautiously advancing at the head of 5405 lbs.; but on an average of three years, ending all' his chívalry and of an immense army to oppose January, 1803, there were imported, of the first article, him. You must excuse these details about Ireland, 13,159 cwts., and of the latter, 628,406 lbs. It is im. but it appears to me to be of all other subjects the most important. If we conciliate Ireland, we can de possible to conceive any manufacture more flourish. nothing a miss; if we do not, we can do nothing well. ing. The export of linen has increased in Ireland from If Ireland was friendly, we might equally set at defi. yards, the amount in 1805. The tillage of Ireland has
17,776,862 yards, the average in 1770, to 43,534,971 ance the talents of Bonaparte and the blunders of his more than trebled within the last twenty-one years. rival, Mr. Canning; we could then support the ruinous The importation of coals has increased from 230,000 and silly bustle of our useless expedítions, and the tons in 1783, to 417,030 in 1804 ; of tobacco, from almost incredible ignorance of our commercial orders 3,459,861 lbs. in 1783, to 6,611,543 in 1804 ; of tea, in council. Let the present administration give up but from 1,703,855 lbs. in 1783, to 3,358,256, in 1804 ; of this one point, and there is nothing which I would not consent to grant them. Mr. Perceval shall have full Ireland now supports a funded debt of above 64 mil.
sugar, from 143,117 cwts. in 1782, to 309,076, in 1804. liberty to insult the tomb of Mr. Fox, and to torment lions, and it is computed that more than three millions every eminent dissenter in Great Britain ; Lord Cam of money are annually remitted to Irish absentees resi. den shall have large boxes of plums; Mr. Rose receive permission to prefix to his name the appellative of virtuous; and to the Viscount Castlereagh* a round rebellion. It lasted two months : of his majerty's Irish forces
* The checks to population were very trifling from the sem of ready money shall be well and truly paid into there perished about 1,600; of the rebels, 11,000 were killed in his hands. Lastly, what remains to Mr. George Can. the field, and 2,000 hanged or exported; 400 loyal persons
* This is a very unjust imputation on Lord Castlereagh. + In England 49,450.
dent in this country. In Mr. Foster's report, of 100 pleasantry even to the sedulous housewife and the nofolio pages, presented to the House of Commons in tal dean. There is always a copious supply of Lord the year 1806, the total expenditure of Ireland is Sidmouths in the world; nor is there one single stated at 9,760,0131. Ireland has increased about two source of human happiness against which they have thirds in its population within twenty-five years, and not uttered the most lugubrious predictions. Turnpike yet, and in about the same space of time, its exports roads, navigable canals, inoculation, hops, tobacco, of beef, bullocks, cows, pork, swine, butter, wheat, the Reformation, the Revolution—there are always a barley, and oats, collectively taken, have doubled; set of worthy and moderately gifted men, who bawl and this in spite of two years' famine, and the pre- out death and ruin upon every valuable change which sence of an immense army, that is always at hand to the varying aspect of human affairs absolutely and im, guard the most valuable appanage of our empire from periously requires. I have often thought thai it would joining our most inveterate enemies. Ireland has the be extremely useful to make a collection of the ha. greatest possible facilities for carrying on commerce tred and abuse that all those changes have experiwith the whole of Europe. It contains, within a cir- enced, which are now admitted to be marked improvecuit of 750 miles, 66 secure harbours, and presents a ments in our condition. Such an history might make western frontier against Great Britain, reaching from folly a little more modest, and suspicious of its own the Firth of Clyde north to the Bristol Channel south, decisions. and varying in distance from 20 to 100 miles ; so that Ireland, you say, since the union, is to be considered the subjugation of Ireland would compel us to guard as a part of the whole kingdom ; and therefore, how. with ships and soldiers a new line of coast, certainly ever Catholics may predominate in that particular amounting, with all its sinuosities, to more than 700 spot, yet, taking the whole empire together, they are miles—an addition of polemics, in our present state of to be considered as a much more insignificant quota of hostility with all the world, which must highly gratify the population. Consider them in what light you the vigorists, and give them an ample opportunity of please, as part of the whole, or by themselves, or in displaying that foolish energy upon which their claims what manner may be most consentaneous to the devi. to distinction are founded. Such is the country which ces of your holy mind—I say in a very few words, if the right reverend the chancellor of the exchequer you do not relieve these people from the civil incapaciwould drive into the arms of France, and for the con- iies to which they are exposed, you will lose them; or ciliation of which we are requested to wait, as if it you must employ great sirength and much treasure in were one of those sinecure places which were given to watching over them. In the present state of the world, Mr. Perceval snarling at the breast, and which cannot you can afford to do neither the one nor the other. be abolished till his decease.
Having stated this, I shall leave you to be ruined, Puff. How sincerely and fervently have I often wished endorf in hand, (as Mr. Secretary Canning says,) and that the Emperor of the French had thought as Mr. to lose Ireland, just as you have found out what proSpencer Perceval does upon the subject of govern. portion the aggrieved people should bear to the whole ment; that he had entertained doubts and scruples population, before their calamities meet with redress. upon the propriety of admitting the Protestants to an As for your parallel cases, I am no more afraid of de. equality of rights with the Catholics, and that he had ciding upon them than I am upon their prototype. If leit in the middle of his empire these vigorous seeds ever any one heresy should so far spread itself over of hatred and disaffection : but the world was never the principality of Wales that the established church yet
conquered by a blockhead. One of the very first were left in a minority of one to four ; if you bad submeasures we saw him recurring to was the complete jected these heretics to very severe civil priva. establishment of religious liberty; if his subjects tions; if the consequence of such privations were fought and paid as he pleased, he allowed them to be an universal state of disaffection among that caseous lieve as they pleased; the moment I saw this, my best and wrathful people ; and if, at the same time, you hopes were lost. I perceived in a moment the kind of were at war with all the world, how can you doubt for man we had to do with. I was well aware of the a moment that I would instantly restore them to a miserable ignorance and folly of this country upon the state of the most complete civil liberty? What matsubject of toleration; and every year has been adding ters it under what name you put the same case ? Com. to the success of that game which it was clear he had mon sense is not changed by appellations. I have said the will and the ability to play against us.
how I would act to Ireland, and I would act so to all You say Bonaparte is not in earnest upon the sub- the world. ject of religion, and that this is the cause of his tole- I admit that, to a certain degree, the government rant spirit: but is it possible you can intend to give will lose the affections of the Orangemen by emanci. us such dreadful and unamiable notions of religion ?-pating the Catholics ; must less, however, at present Are we to understand that the moment a man is sin ihan three years past. The few people, who have ill. cere he is narrow-minded; that persecution is the child treated the whole crew, live in constant terror that the of belief; and that a desire to leave all men in the quiet oppressed people will rise upon them and carry the and unpunished exercise of their own creed can only ship into Brest :-they begin to find that it is a very exist in the mind of an infidel? Thank God! I know tiresome thing to sleep every night with cocked pistols many men whose principles are as firm as they are ex. under their pillows, and to breakfast, dine, and sup panded, who cling tenaciously to their own modifica with druwn hangers. They suspect that the privilege tion of the Christian faith, without the slightest dispo- of beating and kicking the rest of the sailors is hard. sition to force that modification upon other people. - ly worth all this anxiety, and that if the ship does ever If Bonaparte is liberal in subjects of religion because fall into the hands of the disaffected, all the cruelties he has no religion, is this a reason why we should be which they have experienced will be thoroughly reilliberal because we are Christians ? ff he owes this membered and amply repaid. To a short period of excellent quality to a vice, is that any reason why we disaffection among the Orangemen, I confess I should may not owe it to a virtue? Toleration is a great not much object : my love of poetical justice does good, and a good to be imitated, let it come from carry me as far as that: one summer's whipping, only whom it will. If a sceptic is tolerant, it only shows one; the thumb-screw for a short season ; a little that he is not foolish in practice as well as erroneous light easy torturing between Lady-day and Michael. in theory. If a religious man is tolerant, it evinces mas; a short specimen of Mr. Perceval's rigour. I that he is religious from thought and inquiry, because have malice enough to ask this slight atonement for he exhibits in his conduct one of the most beautiful the groans and shrieks of the poor Catholics, unheard and important consequences of a religious mind,-an by any human tribunal, but registered by the angel of inviolable charity to all the honest varieties of human God against their Protestant and enlightened oppres. opinion.
Lord Sidmouth, and all the anti-Catholic people, lit- Besides, if you who count ten so often can count five, tle foresee that they will hereafter be the sport of the you must perceive that it is better to have four friends antiquarian ; that their prophecies of ruin and destruc- and one enemy than four enemies and one friend ; and tion from Catholic emancipation will be clapped into the more violent the hatred of the Orangemen, the the notes of some quaint history, and be matter of more certain the reconciliation of the Catholics. The
disaffection of the Orangemen will be the Irish rain. I have no doubt that the Orange deputy-sheriff thinks bow; when I see it, I shall be sure that the storm is it would be a most unpardonable breach of his duty if
he did not summon a Protestant panel. I can easily If those incapacities, from which the Catholics ask | believe that the Protestant panel "may conduct them. to be relieved, were to the mass of them only a mere selves very conscientiously in hanging the gentleman feeling of pride, and if the question were respecting of the crucifix; but I blame the law which does not the attainment of privileges which could be of impor- guard the Catholic against the probable tenour of tance only to the highest of the sect, I should still say, those feelings which must unconsciously influence the that the pride of the inass was very naturally wounded judgments of mankind. I detest that state of society by the degradation of their superiors. Indignity to which extends unequal degrees of protection to differ. George Rose would be felt by the smallest nummary ent creeds and persuasions; and I cannot describe to gentleman in the king's employ; and Mr. John Ban- you the contempt I feel for a man who, calling himnister could not be indifferent to any thing which hap. self a statesman, defends a system which fills the pened to Mr. Canning. But the truth is, it is a most heart of every Irishman with treason, and makes his egregious mistake to suppose that the Catholics are allegiance prudence, not choice. contending merely for the fringes and feathers of their I request to know if the vestry taxes, in Ireland,
are chiefs. I will give you a list, in my next letter, of a mere matter of romantic feeling, which can affect those privations which are represented to be of no con- only the Earl of Fingal ? In a parish where there sequence to any body but Lord Fingal, and some are four thousand Catholics and fitty Protestants, the twenty or thirty of the principal persons of their sect. Protestants may meet together in a vestry meeting, at In the mean time, adieu, and be wise.
which no Catholic has the right to vote, and tax all the lands in the parish 18. 6d. per acre, or in the pound, I forget which, for the repairs of the church—and how
has the necessity of these repairs been ascertained ? LETTER IX.
A Protestant plumber has discovered that it wants
new leading; a Protestant carpenter is convinced the DEAR ABRAHAM,
timbers are not sound, and a glazier, who bates holy No Catholic can be chief governor or governor of water, (as an accoucheur hates celibacy because he this kingdom, chancellor or keeper of the great seal, gets nothing by it,) is employed to put in new sashes. lord high-treasurer, chief of any of the courts of jus. The grand juries in Ireland are the great scene of tice, chancellor of the exchequer, puisne judge, judge jobbing. They have a power of making a county rate in the admiralty, master of the rolls, secretary of to a considerable extent for roads, bridges, and other state, keeper of the privy seal, vice-treasurer or his objects of general accommodation. You suffer the deputy, teller or cashier of exchequer, auditor or road to be brought through my park, and I will have general, governor or custos rotulorùm of counties, the bridge constructed in a situation where it will chief governor's secretary, privy councillor, king's make a beautiful object to your house. You do my counsel, serjeant, attorney, solícitor-general, master in job, and I will do yours. These are the sweet and chancery, provost or fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, interesting subjects which occasionally, occupy Milepostmaster-general, master and lieutenant-general of sian gentlemen while they are attendant upon this ordnance, commander-in-chief, general on the staff, grand' inquest of justice. But there is a religion, it sheriff, sub-sheriff, mayor, bailiff, recorder, burgess, seems, even in jobs; and it will be highly gratifying or any other officer in a city, or a corporacion. No to Mr. Perceval to learn that no man in Ireland who be. Catholic can be guardian to a Protestant, and no priest | lieves in seven sacraments can carry a public road, or guardian at all ; no Catholic can be a gamekeeper, or bridge, one yard out of the direction most beneficial to have for sale, or otherwise, any arms or warlike the public, and that nobody can cheat that public who stores; no Catholic can present to a living, unless he does not 'expound the Scriptures in the purest and chooses to turn Jew in order to obtain that privilege; most orthodox manner. This will give pleasure to the pecuniary qualification of Catholic jurors is made Mr. Perceval: but, from his unfaimess upon these tohigher than ihat of Protestants, and no relaxation of pics, I appeal to the justice and proper feelings of Mr. the ancient rigorous code is permitted, unless to those Huskisson. I ask him it the human mind can experiwho shall take an oath prescribed by 13 & 14 Geo. III. ence a more dreadful sensation than to see its own Now if this is not picking the plums out of the pudding, jobs refused, and the jobs of another religion perpetuand leaving the mere batter to the Catholics, I know ally succeeding? I ask him his opinion of a jobless not what it is. If it were merely the privy council, it faith, of a creed which dooms a man through life to a would be (I allow) nothing but a point of honour for lean and plunderless integrity. He knows that human which the mass of Catholics were contending, the nature cannot and will not bear it ; and if we were to honour of being chief mourners or pall-bearers to the paint a political Tartarus, it would be an endless country; but surely no man will contend that every series of snug expectations and cruel disappointments. barrister may speculate upon the possibility of being These are a few of many dreadful inconveniences a puisne judge ; and that every shopkeeper must not which the Catholics of all ranks suffer from the laws feel himself injured by his exclusion from borough by which they are at present oppressed. Besides, look offices.
ai human nature :-what is the history of all profesOne of the greatest practical evils which the Catho- sions ? Joel is to be brought up to the bar: has Mrs. lics suffer in Ireland, is their exclusion from the offi- Plymley the slightest doubt of his being chancellor ? ces of sheriff and deputy sheriff. Nobody who is un-Do not his two shrivelled aunts live in the certainty of acquainted with Ireland, can conceive the obstacles seeing him in that situation, and of cutting out with which this opposes to the fair administration of jus their own hands his equity habiliments? And I could tice. The formation of juries is now entirely in the name a certain minister of the Gospel who does not, hands of the Protestants; the lives, liberties, and pro- in the bottom of his heart, much differ from these perties of the Catholics in the hands of the juries ; opinions. Do you think that the tathers and mothers and this is the arrangement for the administration of of the holy Catholic Church are not as absurd as Projustice in a country where religious prejudices are in- testant papas and mammas? The probability I adHamed to the greatest degree of animosity! In this mit to be, in each particular case, that the sweet little country, if a man is a foreigner, if he sells slippers, blockhead will in tact never get a brief;—but I will and sealing wax and artificial flowers, we are tender venture to say, there is not a parent from the Giant's of human life, that we take care half the number of Causeway to Bantry Bay who does not conceive that persons who are to decide upon his fate should be his child is the unfortunate victim of the exclusion, mea of similar prejudices and feelings with himself and that nothing short of positive law could prevent but a poor Catholic in Ireland may be tried by twelve his own dear pre-eminent Paddy from rising to the Percevals, and destroyed according to the manner of highest honours of the state. So with the army, and that gentleman in the name of the Lord, and with all Parliament; in fact, few are excluded; but, in imagithe insulting forms of justice. I do not go the length nation, all : you keep twenty or thirty Catholics out, of saying that deliberate and wilful injustice is done. and you lose the affections of four millions; and, let
me tell you, that recent circumstances have by noin a kind of apoplectic fit, when he was paying a means tended to diminish in the minds of men that morning visit in the house of an acquaintance. The hope of elevation beyond their own rank which is so confusion was, of course, very great, and messengers congenial to our nature; from pleading for John Roe were despatched, in every direction, to find a surgeon, to taxing John Bull, from jesting for Mr. Pitt and who, upon his arrival, declared that his excellency writing in the Anti-Jacobin, to managing the affairs must be immediately blooded, and prepared himself of Europe these are leaps which seem to justify the forthwith to perform the operation; the barbarous fondest dreams of mothers and ot aunts.
servants of the embassy, who were there in great I do not say that the disabilities to which the Ca. numbers, no sooner saw the surgeon prepared to tholics are exposed, amount to such intolerable gric. wound the arm of their master with a sharp shining vances, that the strength and industry of a nation are instrument, than they drew their swords, put them. overwhelmed by them: the increasing prosperity of selves in an attitude of defence, and swore in pure Ireland fully demonstrates the contrary But I repeat Sclavonic, “that they would murder any man who atagain, what I have often stated in the course of our tempted to do hin the slightest injury'; he had been correspondence, that your laws against the Catholics a very good master to them, and they would not desert are exactly in that state in which you have neither him in his misfortunes, or suffer his blood to be shed the benefits of rigour nor of liberality; every law while he was off his guard, and incapable of defending which prevented the Catholics from gaining strength himself. By good fortune, the secretary arrived about and wealth is repealed; every law which can irritate this period of the dispute, and his excelleucy, relieved remains : if you were determined to insult the Catho- from superfluous blood and perilous affection, was, lics, you should have kept them weak; if you resolved after much difficulty. restored to life. to give them strength, you should have ceused to in. There is an argument brought forward with some suli them: at present your conduct is pure unadulte. appearance of plausibility in the House of Commons, rated folly.
which certainly merits an answer. You know that Lord Hawkesbury says, we heard nothing about the the Catholics now vote for members of Parliament in Catholics till we began to mitigate the laws against Ireland, and that they outnumber the Protestants in a them; when we relieved them in part from this op- very great proportion"; if you allow Catholics to sit in pression they began to be disaffected. This is very Parliament, religion will be found to influence votes true ; but it proves just what I have said, that you more than property, the greater part of the hundred have either done too much, or too little ; and as there Irish members who are returned to Parliament will be lives nut, I hope, upon earth, so depraved a courrier Catholics. Add to these the Catholic members who that he would load the Catholics with their ancient are returned in England, and you will have a phalanx chains, what absurdity it is then not to render their of heretical strength which every minister will be dispositions friendly, when you leave their arms and compelled to respect, and occasionally to conciliate legs free!
by concessions incompatible with the interests of the You know, and many Englishmen know, what pass- Protestant Church. The fact is, however, that you es in China; but nobody knows or cares what passes are, at this moment subjected to every danger of ihis in Ireland. At the beginning of the present reign, no kind which you can possibly apprehend hereafter. If Catholic could realize property, or carry on any busi- the spiritual
' interests of the voters are more powerful ness; they were absolutely annihilated, and had no than their temporal interests, they can bind down their more agency in the country than so many trees. They representatives to support any measures favourable to were like Lord Mulgrave's eloquence, and Lord Cam. the Catholic religion, and they can change the objects den's wit ; the legislative bodies did not know of their of their choice till they have found Protestant memexistence. For these twenty-five years last past, the bers (as they easily may do) perfectly obedient to Catholics have been engaged in commerce; within their wishes.' If the superior possessions of the Prothat period the commerce of Ireland has doubled : testants prevent the Catholics from uniting for a comthere are four Catholics at work for one Protestant, and mon polítical object, then the danger you fear cannot eight Catholics at work for one Episcopalian; of exist; if zeal, on the contrary, gets the better of acres, course, the proportion which Catholic wealth bears to than the danger at present exists, from the right of Protestant wealth is every year altering rapidly in fa. voting already given to the Catholics, and it will not vour of the Catholics. I have already told you what their be increased by allowing them to sit in Parliament. purchases of land were the last year ; since that period There are, as nearly as I can recollect, thirty seats in I have been at some pains to find out the actual state Ireland for cities and counties, where the Protestants of the Catholic wealth; it is impossible, upon such a are the most puinerous, and where the members resubject, to arrive at complete accuracy; but I have turned must of course be Protestants. In the other good reason to believe that there are at present iwo seventy representations, the wealth of the Protestant thousand Catholics in Ireland, possessing an income is opposed to the number of the Catholics; and if all from 5001. upwards, many of these with incomes of the seventy members returned were of the Catholic one, two, thrce, and four ihousand, and some amount. persuasion, they must still plot the destruction of our ing to fitteen and twenty thousand per annum: and religion in the midst of 588 Protestants. Such terrors this is the kingdom, and these the people, for whose would disgrace a cook-maid, or a toothless auntconciliation we are to wait heaven kuows when, and when they fall from the lips of bearded and senatorial Lord Hawkesbury why! As for me, I never think of men, they are nauseous, antiperistaltic, and emetical. the situation of Ireland, without feeling the same ne. How can you for a moment doubt of the rapid ef. cessity for immediate interference as I should do if I fects which would be produced by the emancipation? saw blood flowing from a great artery. I rush towards in the first place, to my certain knowledge, the Catho. it with the instinctive rapidity of a man desirous of lics have long siuce expressed to his majesty's minispreventing death, and have no other feeling but that ters their perfect readiness to vest in his majesty, either in a few seconds the patient may be no more. uith the consent of the pope, or without it, if it cannol
I could not help smiling in the times of no-popery, be obtained, the nomination of the Catholic prelacy. to witness the loyal indignation of many persons at The Catholic prelacy in Ireland consis of twenty-six the attempt made by the last ministry to do something bishops, and the warden of Galway, a dignitary ev. for the relief of Ireland. The general cry in the coun- joying Catholic jurisdiction. The number of Roman try was, that they would not see their beloved mo. Catholic priests in Ireland exceeds one thousand. The narch used ill in his old age, and that they would expenses of his peculiar worship are, to a substantial stand by him to the last drop of their blood. I respect farmer or mechanic, five shillings per annum; to a la. good feelings, however erroneous be the occasions on bourer (where he is not entirely excused) one shilling which they display themselves; and, therefore, I saw per annum ; this includes the contribution of the whole in all this as much to admire as to blame. It was a family, and for this the priest is bound to attend them species of affection, however, which reminded me very when sick, and to confess them when they apply to forcibly of the attachment displayed by the servants him; he is also to keep his chapel in order, io cele
, of the Russian ambassador, at the beginning of the brate divine service, and to preach on Sundays and last century. His excellency happened to fall down holydays. In the northern district a priest gains from