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and therefore her answer to him is without any arrangement The same excuse must suffice for the desultory observations we shall make upon this lady's publication.

The first sensation of disgust we experienced at Mrs. Trimmer's book, was from the patronizing and protecting air with which she speaks of some small part of Mr. Lancaster's plan. She seems to pose, because she has dedicated her mind to the subject, that her opinion must necessarily be valuable upon it; forgetting it to be barely possible that her application may have made her more wrong, instead of more right. If she can make out her case, that Mr. Lancaster is doing mischief in so important a point as that of national education, she has a right, in common with every one else, to lay her complaint before the public; but a right to publish praises must be earned by something more difficult than the writing sixpenny books for children. This may be very good; though we never reinember to have seen any one of them; but if they be no more remarkable for judgment and discretion than parts of the work before us, there are many thriving children quite capable of repaying the obligations they owe to their amiable instructress, and of teaching, with grateful retaliation, 'the old idea how to shoot.'

In remarking upon the work before us, we shall exactly follow the plan of the authoress, and prefix, as she does, the titles of those subjects on which her observations are made; doing her the justice to presume that her quotations are fairly taken from Mr. Lancaster's book.

of vice; if the associates of youth pour contempt on the liar; he will soon hide his head with shame, and most likely leave off the practice.'-(p. 24, 25.)

The objection which Mrs. Trimmer makes to this passage, is that it is exalting the fear of man above the fear of God. This observation is as mischievous as it is unfounded. Undoubtedly the fear of God ought to be the paramount principle from the very beginning of life, if it were possible to make it so; but it is a feeling which can only be built up by degrees. The awe and respect which a child entertains for its parent and instructor, is the first scaffolding upon which the sacred edifice of religion is reared. A child begins to pray, to act, and to abstain, not to please God, but to please the parent, who tells him that such is the will of God. The religious principle gains ground from the power of association and the improvement of reason; but without the fear of man, the desire of pleasing, and the dread of offending those with whom he lives, it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to cherish it at all in the minds of the children. If you tell (says Mr. Lancaster) a child not to swear, be cause it is forbidden by God, and he finds everybody whom he lives with addicted to that vice, the mere precept will soon be obliterated; which would acquire its just influence if aided by the effect of example.Mr. Lancaster does not say that the fear of man ever ought to be a stronger motive than the fear of God, or that, in a thoroughly formed character, it ever is he merely says, that the fear of man may be made the most powerful mean to raise up the fear of God; and nothing, in our opinion, can be more plain, more sensible, or better expressed, than his opinions upon these subjects. In corroboration of this sentiment, Mr. Lancaster tells the following story:

1. Mr. Lancaster's Preface.-Mrs. Trimmer here contends, in opposition to Mr. Lancaster, that ever since the establishment of the Protestant Church, the education of the poor has been a national concern in this country; and the only argument she produces in village near London, where he has a school of the class A benevolent friend of mine,' says he, who resides at a support of this extravagant assertion, is an appeal to called Sunday Schools, recommended several lads to me for the act of uniformity. If there are millions of Eng-education. He is a pious man, and these children had the lishmen who cannot spell their own names, or read a advantage of good precepts under his instruction in an emsign-post which bids them turn to the right or left, is inent degree, but had reduced them to very little practice. any answer to this deplorable ignorance to say, As they came to my school from some distance, they were there is an act of Parliament for public instruction? permitted to bring their dinners; and, in the interval beo show the very line and chapter where the King, with a number of lads under similar circumstances in a playtween morning and afternoon school hours, spent their time Lords, and Commons, in Parliament assembled, or-ground adjoining the school-room. In this play-round the lained the universality of reading and writing, when, boys usually enjoy an hour's recreation; tops, balls, races, enturies afterwards, the ploughman is no more capa or what best suits their inclination or the season of the ble of the one or the other than the beast which he year; but with this charge, "Let all be kept in innocence." drives? In point of fact, there is no Protestant coun- These lads thought themselves very happy at lay with ry in the world where the education of the poor has their new associates; but on a sudden they were seized and been so grossly and infamously neglected as in Eng-overcome by numbers, were brought into school just as and. Mr. Lancaster has the high merit of calling the him to the police office. Happening at that time to be people in the street would seize a pick-pocket, and bring public attention to this evil, and of calling it in the within, I inquired, "Well, boys, what is all this bustle best way, by new and active remedies; and this un- about?" Why, sir," was the general reply, "these lads candid and feeble lady, instead of using the influence have been swearing." This was announced with as much she has obtained over the anility of these realms, to emphasis and solemnity as a judge would use in passing oin that useful remonstrance which Mr. Lancaster has sentence upon a criminal. The culprits were, as may be begun, pretends to deny that the evil exists; and when nesses and proof of the facts, they received admonition as After the examination of witsupposed, in much terror. you ask where are the schools, rods, pedagogues, to the offence; and, on promise of better hehaviour, were primers, histories of Jack the Giant-killer, and all the dismissed. No more was ever heard of their swearing; yet asual apparatus for education, the only things he can it was observable, that they were better acquainted with produce is the act of uniformity and common prayer. the theory of Christianity, and could give a more rational 2. The Principles on which Mr. Lancaster's institu- answer to questions from the scripture, than several of the tion is conducted. Happily for mankind,' says Mr. boys who had thus treated them, on comparison, as constaLancaster, it is possible to combine precept and bles would do a thief. I call this,' adds Mr. Lancaster, practice together in the education of youth: that pub-practical religious instruction, and could, if needful, give many such anecdotes.'-(p. 26, 27.) lic spirit, or general opinion, which gives such strength to více, may be rendered serviceable to the cause of virtue; and in thus directing it, the whole secret, the beauty, and simplicity of national education consists. Suppose, for instance, it be required to train a youth to strict veracity. He has learned to read at school: ing cruel, and ends with being silly. Her first obserhe there reads the declaration of the Divine will re-vation is calculated to raise the posse comitatus against specting liars: he is there informed of the pernicious Mr. Lancaster, to get him stoned for impiety; and effects that practice produces on society at large; and then, when he produces the most forcible example of he is enjoined, for the fear of God, for the approbation the effect of opinion to encourage religious precept, of his friends, and for the good of his school-fellows, she says such a method of preventing wearing is too never to tell an untruth. This is a most excellent pre- rude for the gospel. True, modest, unobusive relicept; but let it be taught, and yet, if the contrary gion-charitable, forgiving, indulgent Christianity, is practice be treated with indifference by parents, the greatest ornament and the greatest blessing that teachers, or associates, it will either weaken or de- can dwell in the mind of man. But if there is one stroy all the good that can be derived from it: But if character more base, more infamous, and more shockthe parents or teachers tenderly nip the rising shootsing than another, it is him who, for the sake of some

All that Mrs. Trimmer has to observe against this very striking illustration of Mr. Lancaster's doctrine, is, that the monitors behaved to the swearers in a very rude and unchristianlike manner. She begins with be

paltry distinction in the world, is ever ready to accuse | needful a second time. It is also very seldom that a boy conspicuous persons of irreligion-to turn common in- deserves both a log and a shackle at the same time. Most former for the church-and to convert the most beau-boys are wise enough, when under one punishment, not to tiful feelings of the human heart to the destruction of transgress immediately, lest it should be doubled.'-(p. 47, 48.) the good and great, by fixing upon talents the indeli ble stigma of irreligion. It matters not how trifling This punishment is objected to on the part of Mrs and insignificant the acuser; cry out that the church Trimmer, because it inculcates a dislike to Jews, and is in danger, and your object is accomplished; lurk in an indifference to dying speeches! Toys, she says, the walk of hypocrisy, to accuse your enemy of the given as rewards, are worldly things; children are to crime of Atheism, and his ruin is quite certain; ac-be taught that there are eternal rewards in store for quitted or condemned, is the same thing; it is only them. It is very dangerous to give prints as rewards, sufficient that he be accused, in order that his destruc because prints may hereafter be the vehicle of indetion be accomplished. If we could satisfy ourselves cent ideas. It is, above all things, perilous to create that such were the real views of Mrs. Trimmer, and an order of merit in the borough school, because it that she were capable of such baseness, we would gives the boys an idea of the origin of nobility, have drawn blood from her at every line, and left her especially in times (we use Mrs. Trimmer's own in a state of martyrdom more piteous than that of St. words) which furnish instances of the extinction of a Uba. Let her attribute the milk and mildness she race of ancient nobility, in a neighbouring nation, and meets with in this review of her book, to the convic- the elevation of some of the lowest people to the tion we entertain, that she knew no better-that she highest stations. Boys accustomed to consider themselves really did understand Mr. Lancaster as she pretends to the nobles of the school, may in their future lives, form a understand him-and that if she had been aware of conceit of their own merits (unless they have very sound the extent of the mischief she was doing, she would principles), aspire to be nobles of the land, and to take have tossed the manuscript spelling book in which she place of the hereditary nobility. was engaged into the fire, rather than have done it.As a proof that we are in earnest in speaking of Mrs. Trimmer's simplicity, we must state the objection she makes to one of Mr. Lancaster's punishments When I meet,' says Mr. Lancaster, with a slovenly boy, I put a label upon his breast, I walk him round the school with a tin or paper crown upon his head.' mechanics. We did, in truth, imagine we had ob Surely,' says Mrs. Trimmer, (in reply to this,) 'sure-served, in some of their faces, a bold project for proly it should be remembered, that the Saviour of the curing better breeches for keeping out the blast of world was crowned with thorns, in derision, and that heaven, which howled through those garments in this is the reason why crowning is an improper punish-every direction, and of aspiring hereafter to greater ment for a slovenly boy,' !!! strength of seam, and more perfect continuity of cloth But for the safety of the titled orders we had no fear; nor did we once dream that the black rod which whipt these dirty little dukes, would one day be borne be fore them as the emblem of legislative dignity, and the sign of noble blood.

We think these extracts will sufficiently satisfy every reader of common sense, of the merits of this publication. For our part, when we saw these ragged and interesting little nobles, shining in their tin stars, we only thought it probable that the spirit of emulation would make them better ushers, tradesmen, and

Rewards and Punishments.-Mrs. Trimmer objects to the fear of ridicule being made an instrument of education, because it may be hereafter employed to shame a boy out of his religion. She might, for the same reason, object to the cultivation of the reason ing faculty, because a boy may hereafter be reasoned Order. The order Mr. Lancaster has displayed in out of his religion: she surely does not mean to say the school is quite astonishing. Every boy seems to that she would make boys insensible to ridicule, the be the cog of a wheel-the whole school a perfect mafear of which is one curb upon the follies and eccen-chine. This is so far from being a burden or con tricities of human nature. Such an object it would be straint to the boys, that Mr. Lancaster has made it impossible to effect, even if it were useful: Put an quite pleasant to them, by giving to it the air of mili hundred boys together, and the fear of being laughed tary arrangement; not foreseeing, as Mrs. Trimmer at will always be a strong influencing motive with foresees, that, in times of public dangers, this plan furevery individual among them. If a master can turn nishes the disaffected with the immediate means of this principle to his own use, and get boys to laugh at raising an army; for what have they to do but to send vice instead of the old plan of laughing at virtue, is he for all the children educated by Mr. Lancaster, from not doing a very new, à very difficult, and a very lau- the different corners of the kingdom into which they dable thing? to fall into the same order as they adopted in the are dispersed, to beg it as a particular favour of them spelling class twenty-five years ago; and the rest is all

matter of course

Jamque faces, et Saxa volant,

When Mr. Lancaster finds a little boy with a very dirty face, he sends for a little girl, and makes her wash off the dirt before the whole school: and she is directed to accompany her ablutions with a gentle box of the ear. To us, this punishment appears well adapted to the offence; and in this, and in most other instances of Mr. Lancaster's interference in scholas-written, is to prove that the church establishment is The main object, however, for which this book is tic discipline, we are struck with his good sense, and in danger, from the increase of Mr. Lancaster's instidelighted that arrangements apparently so trivial, tutions. Mr. Lancaster is, as we have before observed, really so important, should have fallen under the attention of so ingenious and so original a man. Mrs. Trimmer objects to this practice, that it destroys female modesty, and inculcates in that sex, an habit of giving boxes on the ear.

a Quaker. As a Quaker, he says, I cannot teach your creeds; but I pledge myself not to teach my own. I pledge myself (and if I deceive you, desert me, and give me up) to confine myself to those points of Christianity in which all Christians agree. To which Mrs. When a boy gets into a singing tone in reading,' says Trimmer replies, that, in the first place, he cannot do Mr. Lancaster, the best mode of cure that I have hitherto this; and, in the next place, if he did do it, it would found effectual is by the force of ridicule.-Decorate the not be enough. But why, we would ask, cannot Mr. offender with matches, ballads, (dying speeches if needful;) Lancaster effect his first object? The practical and and in this garb send him round the school, with some boys the feeling parts of religion are much more likely to before him crying matches, &c., exactly imitating the dismal tones with which such things are hawked about London attract the attention and provoke the questions of chilstreets, as will readily recur to the reader's memory. I be-dren, than its speculative doctrines. A child is not lieve many boys behave rudely to Jews more on account very likely to put any questions at all to a catechising of the manner in which they cry "old clothes," than be-master, and still less likely to lead him into subtle and cause they are Jews. I have always found excellent effects from treating boys, who sing or tone in their reading, in the profound disquisition. It appears to us not only prac manner described. It is sure to turn the laugh of the whole ticable, but very easy, to confine the religious instrucschool upon the delinquent; it provokes risibility, in spite tion of the poor, in the first years of life, to those genof every endeavour to check it, in all but the offender. I have eral feelings and principles which are suitable to the seldom known a boy thus punished once, for whom it was established church, and to every sect; afterwards, the

WORKS OF THE REV. SIDNEY SMITH.

discriminating tenets of each subdivision of Chris- their interests, it is worth while to conciliate Ireland, tians may be fixed upon this general basis. To say to avert the hostility, and to employ the strength of this is not enough, that a child should be made an An- the Catholic population. We plead the question as tisocinian, or an Antipelagian, in his tenderest years, the sincerest friends to the Establishment;—as wishmay be very just; but what prevents you from making to it all the prosperity and duration its warmest ing him so Mr. Lancaster, purposely and intention-advocates can desire,-but remembering always, what ally, to allay all jealousy, leaves him in a state as well these advocates seem to forget, that the Establishadapted for one creed as another. Begin; make your ment cannot be threatened by any danger so great as pupil a firm advocate for the peculiar doctrines of the the perdition of the kingdom in which it is estabEnglish church; dig round about him, on every side, a trench that shall guard him from every species of heresy. In spite of all this clamour you do nothing; you do not stir a single step; you educate alike the wineherd and his hog-and then, when a man of real genius and enterprise rises up, and says, Let me dedicate my life to this object; I will do every thing but that which must necessarily devolve upon you alone; you refuse to do your little, and compel him, by the cry of Infidel and Atheist, to leave you to your ancient repose, and not to drive you, by insidious comparisons, to any system of active utility. We deny, again and again, that Mr. Lancaster's instruction is any kind of impediment to the propagation of the doctrines of the church; and if Mr. Lancaster was to perish with his system to-morrow, these boys would positively be taught nothing; the doctrines which Mrs. We will, Trimmer considers to be prohibited would not rush in, but there would be an absolute vacuum. however, say this in favour of Mrs. Trimmer, that if every one who has joined in her clamour, had labored one-hundredth part as much as she has done in the cause of national education, the clamour would be much more rational, and much more consistent, than it now is. By living with a few people as active as herself, she is perhaps somehow or another persuaded that there is a national education going on in this country. But our principal argument is, that Mr. Lancaster's plan is at least better than the nothing which preceded it. The authoress herself seems to be a lady of respectable opinions, and very ordinary talents; defending what is right without judgment, and believing what is holy without charity.

24

lished.

We are truly glad to agree so entirely with Mr.
Parnell upon this great question; we admire his way
of thinking; and most cordially recommend his work
to the attention of the public. The general conclu-
sion which he attempts to prove is this-that reli-
gious sentiment, however perverted to bigotry or
fanaticism, has always a tendency to moderation;
that it seldom assumes any great portion of activity
or enthusiasm, except from novelty of opinion, or from
opposition, contumely, and persecution, when novelty
ceases; that a govemment has little to fear from any
religious sect, except while that sect is new. Give a
government only time, and, provided it has the good
sense to treat foliy with forbearance, it must ulti-
mately prevail. When, therefore, a sect is found,
after a lapse of years, to be ill disposed to the govem
ed its separation by marked distinctions, roused its
ment, we may be certain that government has widen-
resentment by contumely, or supported its enthusiasm
by persecution.

The particular conclusion Mr. Parnell attempts to prove is, that the Catholic religion in Ireland had sunk into torpor and inactivity, till government roused it with the lash: that even then, from the respect and attachment, which men are always inclined to show towards government, there still remained a large body of loyal Catholics; that these only decreased in number from the rapid increase of persecution; and that, after all, the effects which the resentment of the Roman Catholics had in creating rebellions had been very much exaggerated.

In support of these two conclusions, Mr. Pamell takes a survey of the history of Ireland, from the conquest under Henry, to the rebellion under Charles the First, passing very rapidly over the period which pre

upon the various rebellions which broke out in Ireland PARNELL AND IRELAND. (EDINBURGH RE- ceded the Reformation, and dwelling principally between the Reformation and the grand rebellion in VIEW, 1807.) of Ireland by Henry the Second, extended only to a Historical Apology for the Irish Catholics. By William Par- the reign of Charles the First. The celebrated conquest nell, Esquire. Fitzpatrick, Dublin, 1807. If ever a nation exhibited symptoms of downright very few counties in Leinster; nine-tenths of the whole madness, or utter stupidity, we conceive these symp-kingdom were left, as he found thern, under the domi was as strong in this, as in most other instances; toms may be easily recognized in the conduct of this nion of their native princes. The influence of example country upon the Catholic question. A man has a wound in his great toe, and a violent and perilous and great numbers of the English settlers who came fever at the same time; and he refuses to take the over under various adventurers, resigned their premedicines for the fever, because it will disconcert his tensions to superior civilization, cast off their lower toe! The mournful and folly-stricken blockhead for- garments, and lapsed into the nudity and barbargets that his toe cannot survive him;-that if he dies, ism of the Irish. The limit which divided the posthere can be no digital life apart from him; yet he sessions of the English settler from those of the lingers and fondles over this last part of his body, native Irish, was called the pale; and the expressions soothing it madly with little plasters, and anile fo- of inhabitants within pale, and without the pale, were mentations, while the neglected fever rages in his the terms by which the two nations were distinguish entrails, and burns away his whole life. If the com-ed. It is almost superfluous to state, that the most paratively little questions of Establishment are all bloody and pernicious warfare was carried on upon that this country is capable of discussing or regard the borers-somet mes for something-sometimes ing, for God's sake let us remember, that the foreign for nothing-most commonly for cows. The Irish, conquest, which destroys all, destroys this beloved over whom the sovereigns of England affected a sort toe also. Pass over freedom, industry, and science-- of nominal dominion, were entirely governed by their and look upon this great empire, by which we are own laws; and so very little connection had they about to be swallowed up, only as it affects the man. with the justice of the invading country, that it was ner of collecting tithes, and of reading the liturgy- as lawful to kill an Irishman, as it was to kill a where the defendant has pleaded that the deceased still, if all goes, these must go too; and even, for badger or a fox. The instances are innumerable, was an Irishman, and that therefore defendant had a right to kill him ;-and upon the proof of Hibernicism acquittal followed of course.

When the English army mustered in any great strength, the Irish chieftains would do exterior ho mage to the English Crown; and they very frequent ly, by this artifice, averted from their country the unsubdued, until the rebellion which took place in miseries of invasion: but they remained completely

*I do not retract one syllable (or one iota) of what I have said or written upon the Catholic question. What was wanted for Ireland was emancipation, time and justice, abolition of present wrongs; time for forgetting past wrongs, and that continued and even justice which would make such oblivion wise. It is now only difficult to tranquilize Ireland, before emancipation it was impossible. As to the danger from Catholic doctrines, I must leave such apprehensions to the respectable anility of these realms. I

will not meddle with it.

paltry distinction in the world, is ever ready to accuse I needful a second time. It is also very seldom that a boy conspicuous persons of irreligion—to tum common in. deserves both a log and a shackle at the same time. Most former for the church-and to convert the most beau. I boys are wise enough, when under one punishment, not to tiful feelings of the human heart to the destruction of transgress immediately, lest it should be doubled.?--(P. 47,

48.) the good and great, by fixing upon talents the indelible stigma of irreligion. It matters not how trifting

This punishment is objected to on the part of Mrs and insignificant the acuser; cry out that the church Trimmer, because it inculcates a dislike to Jews, and is in danger, and your object is accomplished; lurk in an indifference to dying speeches! Toys, she says, the walk of hypocrisy, to accuse your enemy of the given as rewards, are worldly things ; children are io crime of Atheism, and his ruin is quite certain ; ac be taught that there are etemal rewards in store for quitted or condemned, is the same thing; it is only them. It is very dangerous to give prints as rewards, sufficient that he be accused, in order that his destruc- because prints may hercafter be the vehicle of indezion be accomplished. If we could satisfy ourselves cent ideas. It is, above all things, perilous to create that such were the real views of Mrs. Trimmer, and an order of merit in the borough school, because it that she were capable of such baseness, we would gives the boys an idea of the origin of nobility, have drawn blood from her at every line, and left her especially in times (we use Mrs. Trimmer's own in a state of martyrdom more piteous than that of St. words) which furnish instances of the extinction of a Uba. Let her atiribute the milk and mildness she race of ancient nobility, in a neighbouring nation, and meets with in this review of her book, to the convic- the elevation of some of the lowest people to the tion we eatertain, that she knew no better-that she highest stations. Roys accustomed to consider themselves really did understand Mr. Lancaster as she pretends to the nobles of the school, may in their future lives, forma understand him—and that if she had been aware of conceit of their own merits (unless they

ve very sound the extent of the mischief she was doing, she would principles), aspire to be nobles of the land, and to take have tossed the manuscript spelling book in which she

place of the hereditary nobility.' was engaged into the fire, rather than have done it,

We think these extracts will sufficiently satisfy As a proof that we are in earnest in speaking of Mrs. every reader of common sense, of the merits of this Trimmer's simplicity, we must state the objection she publication. For our part, when we saw these ragged makes to one of Mr. Lancaster's punishments. and interesting little nobles, shining in their tin stars,

When I meet,' says Mr. Lancaster, with a slovenly we only thought it probable that the spirit of emula: boy, I put a label upon his breast, I walk him round tion would make them better ushers, tradesmen, and the school with a tin or paper crown upon his head.' mechanics. We did, in truth, imagine we had oh.

Surely,' says Mrs. Trimmer, (in reply to this,) 'sure: served, in some of their faces, a bold project for pro, ly it should be remembered, that the Saviour of the curing better breeches for keeping out ihe blast of uorld was crowned with thorns, in derision, and that heaven, which howled through those garments in this is the reason why crowning is an improper punish. every direction, and of aspiring hereafter to greater ment for a slovenly boy.' !!! Recards and Punishments.-Mrs. Trimmer objects. But for the safety of the titled orders we had no fear;

strength of seam, and more perfect continuity of cloth to the fear of ridicule being made an instrument of nor did we once dream that the black rod which whip: education, because it may be hereafter employed to these dirty little dukes, would one day be borne be, shame a boy out of his religion. She might, for the fore them as the emblem of legislative dignity, and same reason, object to the cultivation of the reason, the sign of noble blood. ing faculty, because a boy may hereafter be reasoned

Order.-The order Mr. Lancaster has displayed in out of his religion : she surely does not mean to say the school is quite astonishing. Every boy seems to that she would make boys insensible to ridicule, the be the cog of a wheel-the whole school a perfect mafear of which is one curð upon the follies and cccen-chine. This is so far from being a burden or con. tricities of human nature. Such an object it would be straint to the boys, that Mr. Lancaster has made it impossible to effect, even if it were useful : Put an quite pleasant to them, by giving to it the air of mili. hundred boys together, and the fear of being laughed tary arrangement; not foreseeing, as Mrs: Trimmer at will always be a strong influencing motive with foresees, that, in times of public dangers, this plan fur: every individual among them. If a master can turn nishes the disaffected with the immediate means of this principle to his own use, and get boys to laugh at raising an army; for what have they to do but to send vice instead of the old plan of laughing at virtue, is he for all the children educated by Mr. Lancaster, from not doing a very new, a very difficult, and a very lau. the different corners of the kingdom into which they dable thing? When Mr. Lancaster finds a little boy with a very to fall into the same order as they adopted in the

are dispersed, to beg it as a particular favour of them dirty face, he sends for a little girl, and makes her spelling class twenty-five years ago ; and the rest is all wash off the dirt before the whole school: and she is

matter of course directed to accompany her ablutions with a gentle box of the ear. To us, this punishinent appears well

Jamque faces, et Saza volant, adapted to the offence; and in this, and in most other

The main object, however, for which this book is instances of Mr. Lancaster's interference in scholastie discipline, we are struck with his good sense, and written, is to prove that the church establishment is delighted that arrangements apparently so trivial, (tutions. Mr. Lancaster is, as we have before observed,

in danger, from the increase of Mr. Lancaster's insti. really so important, should have fallen under the at: Lention of so ingenious and so original a man. Mrs.

a Quaker. As a Quaker, he says, I cannot teach your Trimmer objects to this practice, that it destroys creeds; but I pledge myself not to teach my own. temale modesty, and inculcates in that sex, an habit pledge myself (and if | deceive you, desert me, and

give me up) to confine myself to those points of Chrisof giving boses on the ear.

tianity in which all Christians agree. To which Mrs. . When a boy gets into a singing tone in reading,' says Trimmer replies, that, in the first place, he cannot do Mr. Lancaster, the best mode of cure that I have hitherto this; and, in the next place, if he did do it, it would found effectual is by the force of ridicule.-- Decorate the not be enough. But why, we would ask, canno: Mr. offender with matches, ballads, (dying speeches if needful;) Lancaster effect his first object? The practical and and in this garb send him round the

school, with some boy the feeling parts of religion are much more likely to before bim crying matches, &c., exactly imitating the dismal tones with which such things are hawked about London attract the attention and provoke the questions of chil. streets, as will readily recur to the reader's memory. I be- dren, than its speculative doctrines. · A child is not lieve many boys behave rudely to Jews more on account very likely to put any questions at all to a catechising of the manner in which they cry "old clothes,” than be- master, and still less likely to lead him into subtle and cause they are Jews. I have always found excellent effects from treating boys, who sing or tone in their reading, in the profound disquisition. It appears to us not only pracmanner described. It is sure to turn the laugh of the whole ticable, but very easy, to confine the religious instruc. school upon the delinquent; it provokes risibility, in spite tion of the poor, in the first years of life, to those gen. of every endeavour to check it, in all but the offender. I have eral feelings and principles which are suitable to the seidon known a boy thus punishod once, for whom it was established church, and to every sect; afterwards, the

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discriminating tenets of each subdivision of Chris. I their interests, it is worth while to conciliate Ireland, tians may be fixed upon this general basis. To say to avert the hostility, and to employ the strength of this is not enough, that a child should be made an Ad the Catholic population. We plead the question as tisocinian, or an Antipelagian, in his tenderest years, the sincerest friends to the Establishment ;-as wishmay be very just; but what prevents you from making to it all the prosperity and duration its warmest ing him so ! "Mr. Lancaster, purposely and intention. advocates can desire, - but remembering always, what ally, to aliay all jealousy, leaves him in a state as well these advocates seem to forget, that the Establishadapted for one creed as another. Begin; make your ment cannot be threatened by any danger so great as pupil a firm advocate for the peculiar doctrines of the the perdition of the kingdom in which it is estabEnglish church; dig round about him, on every side, lished. a trench that shall guard him from every species of We are truly glad to agree so entirely with Mr. heresy. In spite of all this clamour you do nothing; Parnell upon this great question ; we admire his way you do not stir a single step; you educate alike the of thinking; and most cordially recommend his work &wineherd and his hog—and then, when a man of real to the aliention of the public. The general corclugenius and enterprise rises up, and says, Let me dedi. sion which he attempts to prove is this ;—that relicate my life to this object ; I will do every thing but gious sentiment, however perverted to bigotry or that which must necessarily devolve upon you alone ; fanatieism, has always a tendency to modcration ; you refuse to do your little, and compel him, by the that it seldom assumes any great portion of activity cry of Infidel and Atheist, to leave you to your an. or enthusiasm, except from novelty of opinion, or frem cient repose, and not to drive you, by insidious com- opposition, contumely, and persecution, when novelty parisons, to any system of active utility. We deny, ceases ; that a govemment has little to fear from any again and again, that Mr. Lancaster's instruction is religious sect, except while that sect is new. Give a any kind of impediment to the propagation of the doc- government only line, and, provided it has the good trines of the church; and if Mr. Lancaster was to per- sense to treat foliy with forbearance, it must ulti. ish with his system to-morrow, these boys would pos. mately prevail. When, therefore, a sect is found, itively be taught nothing ; the doctrines which Mrs. after a lapse of years, to be ill disposed to the govern Trimmer considers to be prohibited would not rush in, ment, we may be certain that governinent has widenbut there would be an absolute vacuum. We will, ed its separation by marked distinctions, roused its however, say this in favour of Mrs. Trimmer, that is resentment by contumely, or supported its enthusiasm every one who has joined in her clamour, had la- by persecution. bored one-hundredth part as much as she has done in The particular conclusion Mr. Parnell attempts to the cause of national education, the clamour would be prove is, that the Catholic religion in Ireland had much more rational, and much more consistent, than sunk into torpor and inactivity, till government roused it now is. By living with a few people as active as it with the lash: that even then, from the respect and herself, she is perhaps soinehow or another persuaded attachment, which men are always inclined to show that there is a national education going on in this coun- towards government, there still remained a large try. But our principal argument is, that Mr. Lancas. body of loyal Catholics; that these only decreased in ter's plan is at least better than the nothing which pre- number from the rapid increase of persecution; and ceded it. The authoress herself seems to be a lady of that, after all, the effects which the resentment of the respectable opinions, and very ordinary talents ; de. Roman Catholics had in creating rebellions had been fending what is right without judgment, and believing very much exaggerated. what is holy without charity.

In support of these two conclusions, Mr. Parnell takes a survey of the history of Ireland, from the conquest under Henry, to the rebellion under Charles the

First, passing very rapidly over the period which prePARNELL AND IRELAND.* (EDINOURGH RE- ceded the Reformation, and dwelling principally VIEW, 1807.)

upon the various rebellions which broke out in Ireland

between the Reformation and the grand rebellion in Historical Apology for the Irish Catholics. By William Par- the reign of Charles the Firsi. The celebrated conquest neli, Esquire. Fitzpatrick, Dublin, 1807.

of Ireland by Henry the Second, extended only to a madness, or utter stupidity, we conceive these symp: nion of their native princes. The intuence of example If ever a nation exhibited symptoms of doutright very few counties in Leinster; nine-ienths of the whole

kingdom were left, as he found them, under the domic toms may be easily recognized in the conduct of this country upon the Catholic question. A man has a was as strong in this, as in most other instances ; wound' in his great toe, and a violent and perilous and great numbers of the English settlers who came fever at the same time; and he refuses to take the over under various adventurers, resigned their premedicines for the fever, because it will disconcert his tensions to superior civilization, cast off their lower toe ! The mournful and folly-strichen blockhead for. garments, and lapsed into the nudity and barbar. gets that his toe cannot survive him ;-that if he dies, ism of the Irish, The limit which divided ihe pos. there can be no digital life apart from him; yet he sessions of the English settler from those of the lingers and fondles over this last part of his body, native Irish, was called the pale; and the expressions soothing it madly with little plasters, and anile 10 of inhabitants within fale, and uithout the pale, were montations, while the veglected fever rages in his the terms by which the two nations were distinguish. entrals, and burns away his whole life. If the com- ed. It is almost superfluous to state, that the most paratively little questions of Establishment are all bloody and pernicious warfare was carried on upon that this country is capable of discussing or regard- the borders-sometimes for something-sometines ing, for God's sake let'lis remember, thai the foreign for nothing-most commonly for cows. The Irislu, conquest, which destroys all, destroys this belored over whoin the sovereigns of England affected a sori toe also.' Pass over freedom, industry, and science-- of nominal dominion, were entirely governed by their and look upon this great empire, by which we are own laws; and so very little connection had they about to be swallowed up, only as it affects the man with the justice of the invad ng country, that it was ner of collecting tithes, and of reading the liturgy

as lawful to kill an Irishiman, as it was to kill a still, if all goes, these must go 100; and even, for badger, or a fox. The instances are innumerable,

where the defendant has pleaded that the deceased * I do not retract one syllable (or one iota) of what I have was an Irishman, and that therefore defendant had a said or written upon the Catholic question. What was right to kill him and upon the proof of Hibernicism wanted for Ireland was emancipation, time and justice, acquittal followed of course. abolition of present wrongs; time for forgetting part When the English army mustered in any grcat wrongs, and that continued and even justice which would strength, the Irish chieftains would do exterior ho. make such oblivion wise. It is now only difficult to tren mage to the English Crown ; and they very frequentquilize Ireland, before emancipation it was impossible. As to the danger from Catholic doctrines, I must leave such ly, by this artifice, averted from their country the apprehensions to the respectable anility of these realmas. I miseries of invasion : but they remained completely will not meddle with it.

| unsubdued, until the rebellion which took place in

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