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the Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but begotten :* the Holy Spirit is of the Father and of the Son, neither made, nor created, nor begotten,* but proceeding. So there is one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits. And in this Trinity none is before or after another; none is greater or less than another; but the whole three persons are co-eternal together, and co-equal. So that in all things, as is aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and the Trinity in Unity, is to be worshiped.t He therefore that will be saved, must thus think of the Trinity.
“Furthermore, it is necessary to everlasting salvation, that he also believe rightly the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. I For the right faith is, that we believe and confess, that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man; God of the substances of the Father, begotten before the worlds; and Man of the substance of his mother, born in the world ; perfect God, and perfect Man, of a reasonable soul, and human flesh || subsisting ; equal to the Father as touching his Godhead, and inferior to the Father as touching his manhood. Who although he be God and Man, yet he is not two, but one Christ; one, not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh,|| but by taking of the manhood into God ;g one altogether, not by confusionți of substance, but by unity of person. For as the reasonable soul and flesh || is one man, so God and man is one Christ. Who suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose again the third day from the dead, he ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, God Almighty, from whence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead : at whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies, and shall give account for their own works : and they that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that have done evil into everlasting fire.”
57. That all the contents of this Creed are true, if instead of a trinity of persons we understand a trinity of person, will be seen if we transcribe it again, with this trinity substituted for the former, as is done below. A trinity of person is this, THAT THE DIVINE OF THE LORD IS THE FATHER, THE DIVINE HUMAN THE SON, AND THE DIVINE PROCEEDING THE HOLY Spirit. When this trinity is understood, a man may then conceive one God in his thoughts, and also profess one God with his lips; otherwise he must needs conceive three gods in his thoughts, as must be evident to every one, and as was evident to Athanasius himself, which is the reason that he inserted in his creed these words : “ As we are compelled by the Christian verity to acknowledge every person by himself to be God and Lord; so are we forbidden by the Catholic religion to say there are three gods or three lords " which amounts to this, that, “ although it is allowable, by the Christian verity, to acknowledge, or think of, three gods and lords, yet it is not allowable, by the Catholic religion, to say that there is more than one." And yet it is acknowledgment and thought that conjoin man with the Lord and heaven, and not mere speech. Besides, no one can comprehend how the Godhead, which is allowed to be one, and is incapable of division, can be divided among three persons, every one of whom is God: whilst to make the three one in essence or substance, does not take away the idea of three gods, but only conveys that of unanimity between them.
* In these places the Latin is born.
† Some copies have, “three persons in one Godhead, and one God in three persons, is to be worshiped.” # Some copies have, “that he firmly believes that our Lord is very Man.”
Some copies have essence, others nature. || The Latin has body.
§ Some copies have he is one, yet not that the Godhead was transmuted into manhood, but the Godhead took up the Manhood to itself.”
** In some copies, commixtion.
$$ Some copies have, “He is altogether One, not that the two are natures commixed, but he is one person.”
58. To prove, however, that all the contents of that creed, even to the very words, are agreeable to the truth, provided a trinity of person be understood instead of a trinity of persons, it is here transcribed again with this alteration.
- Whosoever will be saved, it is necessary that he hold the Christian Faith; and the Christian Faith is, that we worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity, not confounding the trinity of person, nor separating the essence. The trinity of one person is what is called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Godhead of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, is all one, the glory and the majesty equal. Such as the Father is, such is the Son, and such is the Holy Spirit. The Father is uncreate, the Son uncreate, the Holy Spirit uncreate : the Father is infinite, the Son infinite, and the Holy Spirit infinite; and yet there are not three infinites, nor three uncreates, but one Uncreate, and one Infinite. So, likewise, the Father is almighty, the Son almighty, and the Holy Spirit almighty; and yet there are not three almighties, but one Almighty. So, the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God; and yet there are not three Gods, but one God. So, likewise, the Father is Lord, the Son is Lord, and the Holy Spirit is Lord ; and yet there are not three Lords, but one Lord. For as by the Christian verity we acknowledge a Trinity in one person, who is God and Lord: so by the Christian faith we can say
that there is one God and one Lord. The Father is made of none, neither created, nor born; the Son is of the Father alone, not made, nor created, but born; the Holy Spirit is of the Father and of the Son, not made, nor created, nor born, but proceeding. So there is one Father, not three Fathers ;
one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits. And in this Trinity none is greatest, or least, but they are altogether equal. So that in all things, as is beforesaid, the Unity in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity, is to be worshiped.
59. So far as to the doctrine of the trinity and unity of God : next is delivered the doctrine concerning the assumption of the Human by the Lord in the world, which is called the incarnation. What is said on this subject is also in each and every respect true, if we distinguish between what is understood of the Human from the mother, in which the Lord was when in a state of humiliation or exinanition,-as when he suffered temptations and the passion of the cross,—and what of the Human from the Father, in which he was when in the state of glorification or union. For the Lord assumed in the world a Human conceived of Jehovah, who is the Lord from eternity, and born of the Virgin Mary; hence he had both a Divine and a Human,-a Divine from his Divine from eternity, and a Human from the mother Mary in time: this Human he moreover put off, and put on a Divine Human. This is the Human which is called the Divine Human, and which is meant in the Word by the Son of God. When, therefore, what has been stated in the doctrine of the incarnation is understood of the maternal Human, in which he was when in the state of humiliation; and what follows of the Divine Human in which he was when in the state of glorification; the whole will be found to coincide with the truth. The following passages apply to the maternal Human, in which he was when in the state of humiliation : “ That Jesus Christ was God and Man, God of the substance of the Father, and Man of the substance of the mother, born in the world ; perfect God and perfect man, of a [rational] reasonable soul and human flesh subsisting ; equal to the Father as touching the Godhead, but inferior to the Father as touching the manhood.” Also, “That this manhood was not converted into the Godhead, nor commixed therewith ;” it being put off, and the Divine Human assumed in its place. The following passages apply to the Divine Human, in which he was when in the state of glorification, and is now to eternity : “Although our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, be God and Man, yet he is not two, but one Christ; yea, he is altogether one, for he is one person; for as the reasonable soul and body are one man, so God and Man are one Christ."
60. That God and Man, in the Lord, are, as stated in the above doctrine, not two, but one person, yea, altogether one, as the soul and body, appears clearly from many declarations of the Lord himself ;-as, that the Father and he are one; that all things of the Father are his, and all his the Father's ; --that he is in the Father, and the Father in him ;--that all things are given into his hand ;--that he has all power ;-that
he is the God of heaven and earth ;-that whosoever believeth in him hath eternal life : and also, from its being said of him ; —that he ascended into heaven, both as to his Divine and Human, and that, with respect to both, he sits on the right hand of God, which means that he is Almighty : not to repeat many passages of the Word, which are copiously quoted in the former part of this work, concerning his Divine Human. All which testify that God is ONE AS WELL IN PERSON AS IN ESSENCE; THAT IN HIM IS A TRINITY; AND THAT GOD IS THE LORD.
61. The reason why these truths relative to the Lord are now for the first time made publicly known, is, because it is foretold in the Revelation, chap. xxi. and xxii., that a New Church, in which this doctrine will hold the chief place, should be established by the Lord at the end of the former. This church is what is meant by the New Jerusalem there mentioned ; and none can enter into it, but such as acknowledge the Lord alone as the God of heaven and earth. This I am enabled further to declare, that the Lord alone is acknowledged in the universal heaven, and that whosoever is not in this acknowledgment cannot enter there. For heaven is heaven from the Lord ; and that acknowledgment, from love and faith, is what causes its inhabitants to be in the Lord, and the Lord in them; as the Lord himself teaches, “At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you” (John xiv. 20). And again : "Abide in me, and I in you: I am the vine, ye are the branches : he that abideth in me and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without me ye can do nothing : if a man abide not in me, he is cast forth” (xv. 4–6; xvii. 22, 23). The reason that this has not been previously seen from the Word is, because, if it had been previously seen, still it would not have been received, because the last judgment had not been as yet accomplished; and prior to that, the power of hell prevailed over the power of heaven : and, as man is in the midst between heaven and hell, had this doctrine been seen before, the devil, that is, hell, would have plucked it from the heart, and would, moreover, have profaned it. This state of predominance on the part of hell was altogether destroyed by the last judgment, which is now accomplished. Since this,-thus now-every one who desires it, may become enlightened and wise.*
* On this subject more may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 589— 596, and n. 597—603; also in the tract on the Last Judgment, n. 65–72, and n. 73, 74.
BY THE NEW JERUSALEM, MENTIONED IN THE REVELATION, IS
MEANT A NEW CHURCH.
62. In the Revelation, after a representation of the state of the Christian Church, such as it would be at its end, which is now arrived; and after those professing members of the church who are meant by the false prophet, the dragon, the harlot, and the beasts, are described as being cast into hell ;—thus, after the predictions relating to the accomplishment of the last judgment;—it is said, “I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away.—And I John saw the Holy City, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven.—And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them—their God.—And he that sat upon
the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write, for these words are true and faithful” (Rev. xxi. 1-3,5). By the new heaven and the new earth which John saw, after the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, is not meant a new starry and atmospherical heaven, such as appears before the bodily eyes, neither a new earth such as that on which men dwell; but new is to be understood of the church, both in the spiritual world and in the natural world. As a new (formation] of the church, both in the spiritual and natural worlds, was effected by the Lord when upon earth, a similar prediction,that a new heaven and a new earth should then exist,-is found in the prophets of the Old Testament, as in Isaiah lxv. 17; lxvi. 22; and elsewhere; which it is plain, therefore, cannot relate to the visible heaven, or the earth inhabited by men. spiritual world we mean the world which is the abode of angels and spirits; and by the natural world, that which is the abode of men.*
63. By the holy city, New Jerusalem, is meant this new church as to its doctrine ; wherefore it was seen descending out of heaven from God; for the doctrine of genuine truth can come from no other origin than from the Lord through heaven. And as the church in respect to doctrine is meant by the city, New Jerusalem, it is therefore said to be "prepared as a bride adorned for her husband” (verse 2); and afterwards, that "there came unto me one of the seven angels—and talked with me, saying, Come hither, I will shew thee the bride, the Lamb's wife. And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and shewed me that great city, the Holy Jerusalem, descending
* That a new formation of the church has lately been effected in the spiritual world, and that it will be followed by a new formation of the church in the natural world, is in some measure shewn in the tract on The Last Judgment, and more fully in The Continuation.