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William Pitt.

(Jan. future success; it turned all the avowedly religious, justifiable, and triumphs of England in the direction national, suddenly touched with a of the navy; it showed her that if fury which flamed out into public the time were to come when she devastation, and whose limits no must fight the battle of law and li- man could hope to define. Of all berty against combined Europe, the the violences of popular power, this navy was her strength, and in that exhibited the evil in the most direct, strength she might fight the battle. broad, and naked form. In other

When the war ceased, the naval instances there had been a popular vigilance of England was sustained leaders a cause, an oppression, an by the singular event of a naval coa- anarchy engendering license by its lition in Europe. Russia, rising in- habits, some bold prejudice ope. to power and jealousy together, rating on some glaring'iniquity of Sweden, almost her vassal, and Den. power. But the burning of London mark in terror of both, confederated, was due to the simple will of the in the well-known Armed Neutrality, mob, with no leader but a ridiculous to break down the power of the and half-witted religionist, no conBritish Empire. The principle, that ceivable oppression, no denial of “ free ships make free goods,” was justice, po rejected claim, nothing contradictory to all justice, for it to stimulate the multitude to the obviously sanctioned the supply of most borrible atrocities, but the a British enemy by a British ally; mere sense that it had the means. involving at once a contempt of all Armed with this sense, 40,000 of the diplomatic obligations, a detiance of rabble, not a thirtieth of the populacommon justice, and a burlesque of tion of London, held the capital in common sense. Holland, then the alarm for three days and nights, base and mercenary trafficker with marched through it like a conquer. all nations, in scorn of all treaties, ing army, plundered and burned at was an eager party to this general their will, threw the Court into terJew dealing with the principles of ror, the Government almost into disnational trade; and bitterly and soon solution, and shook all but the firmshe had reason to repent her sub- ness of the brave and manly Kivg. stitution of swindling for bonour. The tumult died away, as rapidly as The Armed Neutrality gave way be. it rose. But the lesson was of infore the firm countenance of the finite value. It was not forgotten English Cabinet, and the feeling of when the first gatherings of the Reits own treachery. But the effect volutionary clouds in France began on England bad been produced. to throw their shade on the shores of The navy was found to be the su- England. The sounds of the tempest preme national protector; the naval at a distance prepared the Steersman spirit of the nation was sustained in of the British Ship for the last ex. its unimpaired vigour, and when the tremities of the visitation. The clatrue necessity was at hand, the Eng- mours of conspiracy in England were lish fleet was found prepared in all instantly answered by the national points, of numbers, discipline, and voice of loyalty. The speciousness national favour, to begiu the con- of popular deliberation, regenerated test with a superiority of physical rights, and the new age of rabble and moral force, which never failed legislation, were specious no longer in a single instance during the rero. to the eye which had seen the rights lutionary struggle.

of the populace registered in the But, as if for the purpose of flames of the capital. The minister making the proposition complete in was called on by the national expeevery respect, England was to be rience to guard against the boundtaught a resistless lesson of the less calamity of a government with dangers of popular supremacy. The its throne in the streets, and its riots of 1780, upaccountable in their councils in the uproar of robbery origin, and trivial in their results, and massacre. Jacobinism protested yet displayed the terrors of popular its innocence ia vain. The names passion, in a degree qualified to im- of philosophy and philanthropy press the nation for ever. England figured largely at the head of the saw with astonishment a multitude memorial by which France pleaded which had assembled from motives her treacherous and sanguinary

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future success; it turned all the avowedly religious, justifiable, and triumphs of England in the direction national, suddenly touched with a of the navy; it showed her that if fury which flamed out into public the time were to come when she devastation, and whose limits no must fight the battle of law and li- man could hope to define. Of all berty against combined Europe, the the violences of popular power, this navy was her strength, and in that exhibited the evil in the most direct, strength she might fight the battle. broad, and naked form. In other

When the war ceased, the naval instances there had been a popular vigilance of England was sustained leader, a cause, an oppression, an by the singular event of a naval coa- anarchy engendering license by its lition in Europe. Russia, rising in- habits, some bold prejudice ope. to power and jealousy together, rating on some glaring iniquity of Sweden, almost her vassal, and Den power. But the burning of London mark in terror of both, confederated, was due to the simple will of the in the well-known Armed Neutrality, mob, with no leader but a ridiculous to break down the power of the and half-witted religionist, no con. British Empire. The principle, that ceivable oppression, no denial of " free ships make free goods," was justice, no rejected claim, nothing contradictory to all justice, for it to stimulate the multitude to the obviously sanctioned the supply of most horrible atrocities, but the a British enemy by a British ally; mere sense that it had the means. involving at once a contempt of all Armed with this sense, 40,000 of the diplomatic obligations, a deliance of rabble, not a thirtieth of the populacommon justice, and a burlesque of tion of London, held the capital in common sense. Holland, then the aların for three days and nights, base and mercenary trafficker with marched through it like a conquerall nations, in scorn of all treaties, ing army, plundered and burned at was an eager party to this general their will, threw the Court into terJew dealing with the principles of ror, the Government almost into disnational trade; and bitterly and soon solution, and shook all but the firmshe had reason to repent her sub- ness of the brave and manly King. stitution of swindling for bonour. The tumult died away, as rapidly as The Armed Neutrality gave way be- it rose. But the lesson was of infore the firm countenance of the finite value. It was not forgotten English Cabinet, and the feeling of when the first gatherings of the Re. its own treachery. But the effect volutionary clouds in France began on England bad been produced to throw their shade on the shores of The navy was found to be the su- Eogland. The sounds of the tempest preme national protector; the naval at a distance prepared the Steersman spirit of the nation was sustained in of the British Ship for the last ex. its unimpaired vigour, and when the tremities of the visitation. The clatrue necessity was at band, the Eng- mours of conspiracy in England were lish fleet was found prepared in all instantly answered by the national points, of numbers, discipline, and voice of loyalty. The speciousness national favour, to begin the con of popular deliberation, regenerated test with a superiority of physical rights, and the new age of rabble and moral force, which never failed legislation, were specious no longer in a single instance during the revo. to the eye which had seen the rights lutionary struggle.

of the populace registered in the But, as if for the purpose of flames of the capital. The minister making the proposition complete in was called on by the national expeevery respect, England was to be rience to guard against the boundtaught a resistless lesson of the less calamity of a government with dangers of popular supremacy. The its throne in the streets, and its riots of 1780, unaccountable in their councils in the uproar of robbery origin, and trivial in their results," and massacre. Jacobinism protested yet displayed the terrors of popular its innocence in vain. The names passion, in a degree qualified to im- of philosophy and philanthropy press the nation for ever. England figured largely at the head of the saw with astonishment a multitude memorial by which France pleaded which had assembled from motives her treacherous and sanguinary

cause before Europe. The English ledge. Oa ! minister was already warned, he bridge, bis lit looked to the body of the document, found to be and showed that it was a proclama. his age; he tion of democracy and treason. The ease, and cou universal answer, and the true one, half-a dozen to all the advocates of rabble autho. Thucydides, rity was,-"the Riots of 80.” The and condense national feeling, without which the peculiar difli highest activity of the Government circumstance must be ineffectual, unhesitatingly express desir sustained the wisdom of the minis. first book to ter. The warning had been written in college, f in characters which were not to be to his tutor t dimmed by political sophistry, nor lybius with! effaced by public folly. They had cuity of the once been characters of blood and tive might h ashes, they were now characters of for the forma light, and while every finger pointed clearness and to them on the wall of the tribu. prominent fe nal where the cause of revolution remember the was tried among us, no dexterity scribed Thuc could confuse the national judgment, the model of or avert the national decision, must believe

The kingly character essential to paring the fu the crisis was fully found in the the great lead steadiness, sincerity, and public spi- His unders rit of George III. The mivisterial develope itse in the illustrious subject of the pre- of his studies sent memoir.

clearness an William Pitt was the second son an exact gras of William first Earl of Chatham, light in the and of Lady Hester, only daughter the Greek an of Richard Grenville and Countess equal ability Temple. His elder brother, the ily made hic Earl of Chatham, still lives; his formed the u younger, James, died early, a captain studies, even in the navy. Of his two sisters, the of the exami elder, Lady Hester, was married to told by his ti Lord Malion in 1774; the second, fathom still Lady Harriet, to the Honourable pure mathema Edward James Eliot, eldest son of cluding wishi Lord Eliot, in 1785.

the bar, exp At the age of six years Mr Pitt's able to read o education began, under the care of him after se the Rev. G. Wilson, in Lord Chat. Even in the ham's house, a tuition which conti. of his emine nued till he was fourteen; but his for those sto health was so feeble, that for nearly him. He fre half this period he was unable to no portion of receive

any instruction. In 1773 he usefully em was sent to Pernbroke Hall, Cam. had been der bridge, his tutor still residing with not merely fi him, in consequence of the delicacy actual know] of bis health. But bis studies were

acquired, but solely directed by Prettymav, one of improvement the two public tutors, afterwards received from well known as the Bishop of Lin. tention and coln.

He was a There is a natural interest in pur. Essay; of wl suing the steps by which a mind analysis. B like William Pitt's advanced in know. lightly of the

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William Pitt.

[Jan.
tapbysicians in general. The details believe, be said with the strictest
of his chief literary tastes, given by truth, that no one erer read the
his tutor, are interesting. He tells Greek language, even after deroting
us, that in the alternate reading of his whole life to the study of it, with
classics and mathematics with him, greater facility than Mr Pitt at the
the rapidity of Pitt's comprehension age of twenty-one."
was most extraordinary, while bis Among his classical acquirements
memory retained every thing that it he did not forget the writers of his
had ever received. His reading own country. He read the poets
was extensive. There was scarce. with delight, and the historians and
ly a classical writer of Greek or La politicians with diligence and in-
tin which he and his pupil had not struction. He eren wrote verses,
read together; Pitt was a nice obe and at an early age had contributed
server of their various styles, and his part with his brothers and sisters
alive to all their characteristic ex- to a play in rhyme, which they acted
cellences. But he was also capable before their father and family circle.
of close and minute application. His favourite prose models were
When alone he would dwell for hours Middleton's Life of Cicero, and Bo-
upon some striking, passage of an lingbroke's political and historical
orator or historian, in marking their works. He read Barrow's Sermons
manner of arranging a narrative, or by the desire of his father, who pro-
explaining their motives of action. nounced them an admirable reper-
It was a favourite, and must have tory of language. In the university

been a most advantageous, employ. he attended with great interest to Dr · ment with him to compare opposite Halifax's lectures on civil law. speeches on the same subject; and For three years after his entrance examine how each speaker managed at college, his health bad continued his own side of the question, and to form a serious impediment to his obviated the reasonings of his op progress. In 1773, he was seized ponent. His chief studies on this with an illness which had nearly dehead were Livy, Thucydides, and prived the world of his abilities. He Sallust. On those occasions bis re- was so weak on his recovery, that marks were frequently committed to the journey to London occupied four paper, and furnished matter for fur- days. But this shock finally conther consideration. He was also in firmed his constitution. Exercise, the habit of copying eloquent sene attention to diet, and early hours, tences, or phrases of peculiar beauty, rapidly recruited him after a conwhich came in his way in the course finement of two months, and at of general reading. The Greek poets eighteen he had erery prospect of constituted a peculiar study, and he longevity. The incessant toils of even urged this fondness to the ex- public life alone seem to have shorttent of toiling through the obscuri. ened his bright and powerful career. ties of Lycophron. * The almost in- In college he was remarkable for tuitive quickness,” are his tutor's propriety of conduct. The son of expressions, “ with which he saw the ihe Earl of Chatham, the first and meaning of the most difficult pas- inost popular minister that England sages of the most difficult writers, had seen for a century, must have made an impression on my mind been a conspicuous object of attenwbich no time can efface. He pos- tion and temptation. But Pitt was sessed indeed this faculty in so ex- above the poor celebrity to be gained traordinary a degree, and bis applie by violations of order. It is well cation to Greek literature had ren- worth remembering that this youth, dered his knowledge of the language at the height of all that life could 80 correct and extensive, that I am offer, was to be seen attending the persuaded, if a play of Menander or public duties of his college with a Æschylus, or an ode of Pindar, had strictness which would be meritobeen suddenly found, he would have rious in the student whose conduct understood it as soon as any pro- was to be his fortune. fessed scholar. There unquestion

No man

more regularly ably have been persons who had far present morning and erening at greater skill in verbal criticism and chapel, and he was never known to in the laws of metre; but it may, I pass an evening out of the college

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taphysicians in general. The details believe, be said with the strictest of his chief literary tastes, given by truth, that no one ever read the his tutor, are interesting. He tells Greek language, even after devoting us, that in the alternate reading of his whole life to the study of it, with classics and mathematics with bim, greater facility than Mr Pitt at the the rapidity of Pitt's comprehension age of twenty one.” was most extraordinary, while his Among his classical acquirements memory retained every thing that it he did not forget the writers of his had ever received. His reading own country. He read the poets was extensive. There was scarce. with delight, and the historians and ly a classical writer of Greek or La politicians with diligence and intin which he and his pupil had not struction. He even wrote verses, read together; Pitt was a nice ob. and at an early age had contributed server of their various styles, and his part with his brothers and sisters alive to all their characteristic ex. to a play in rhyme, which they acted cellences. But he was also capable before their father and family circle. of close and minute application. His favourite prose models were When alone he would dwell for hours Middleton's Life of Cicero, and Boupon some striking, passage of an lingbroke's political and historical orator or historian, in marking their works. He read Barrow's Sermons manner of arranging a narrative, or by the desire of his father, who proexplaining their motives of action. nounced them an admirable reper. It was a favourite, and must have tory of language. In the university been a most advantageous, employ. he attended with great interest to Dr ment with him to compare opposite Halifax's lectures on civil law. speeches on the same subject; and For three years after his entrance examine how each speaker managed at college, his health bad continued his own side of the question, and to form a serious impediment to his obviated the reasonings of his op- progress. In 1773, he was seized ponent. His chief studies on this with an illness which had nearly dehead were Livy, Thucydides, and prived the world of his abilities. He Sallust. On those occasions bis re- was so weak on bis recovery, that marks were frequently committed to the journey to London occupied four paper, and furnished matter for fur- days. But this shock fically conther consideration. He was also in firmed his constitution. Exercise, the habit of copying eloquent sen- attention to diet, and early hours, tences, or phrases of peculiar beauty, rapidly recruited him after a conwhich came in his way in the course finement of two months, and at of general reading. The Greek poets eighteen he had every prospect of constituted a peculiar study, and he lovgevity. The incessant toils of even urged this fondness to the ex- public life alone seem to have shorttent of toiling through the obscuri- ened his bright and powerful career. ties of Lycophron. The almost in- In college he was remarkable for tuitive quickness," are his tutor's propriety of conduct. The son of expressions, “ with which he saw the ihe Earl of Chatham, the first and meaning of the most difficu't pas- most popular minister that England sages of the most difficult writers, bad seen for a century, must have made an impression on my mind been a conspicuous object of attenwhich no time can efface. He pos- tion and temptation. But Pitt was sessed indeed this faculty in so ex- above the poor celebrity to be gained traordinary a degree, and his applin by violations of order. It is well cation to Greek literature had ren- worth remembering that this youth, dered his knowledge of the language at the height of all that life could 80 correct and extensive, that I am offer, was to be seen attending the persuaded, if a play of Menander or public duties of his college with a Æschylus, or an ode of Pindar, had strictness which would be merito. been suddenly found, he would have rious in the student whose conduct understood it as soon as any pro. was to be his fortune. fessed scholar. There unquestion- No man was more regularly ably have been persons who had far present morning and evening at greater skill in verbal criticism and chapel, and he was never known to in the laws of metre; but it may, I pass an evening out of the college

walls. In this combination of pure habits with vigorous diligence, he passed seven years. “In the course of which time,” says his tutor, “ I never knew him to spend an idle day, nor did he ever fail to attend me at the appointed hour. At this early period there was the same firmness of principle, and rectitude of conduct,” which marked bis character to its close.

The strong interest which Lord Chatham took in his second son, the almost prophetic anticipation by which he saw his future eminence, is a matter of common knowledge ; but the fondness of his feelings towards this young representative of his genius and his fame was but little suspected in the haughty fabric and bold ambition of Chatham's mind. In passing on to the more public transactions of this stirring time, we may justly pause for a moment over those memorials of the heart of a mighty statesman. It ennobles our sense of human nature, to see that so much nerve and grandeur of mind is compatible with so much tenderness of affection. But the unquestionable truth is, that a Jarge portion of the supremacy of a leading genius must arise from the susceptibility of soul. Nations reluctantly own the sway of the most powerful intellect, when they cannot repose on the feelings of the man. Public assemblies revolt from all the splendours of eloquence, where they are not the emanations of natural sensibility. The orator may have the command of all the treasures of literature and language, but a single word from the heart carries off the prize from them all. He may stand before them like the golden image of the Assyrian king, and counsel their passivg and public idolatry; but the unfailing homage is to the invisible spirit of the pure, generous, and beneficentimpulses, the impress of the divinity within. Lord Chatham had made the moral education of his children a subject of personal interest from their birth. He constantly associated with them, conversed with them on all subjects of which their young minds were capable, treated them as companions, gave them all opportunities of expressing their opinions, and “ never passed a day of health without giving

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William Pitt.

(Jan. this luminary of oratory. Adieu, The gout bad now nearly sapped again and again, sweet boy, and if the constitution of the earl, and he you acquire health and strength was subject to violent pains, which every time I wish them to you, you almost precluded writing. But his will be a second Sampson, and what latest correspondence is full of the is more, will keep your hair." same fond and secure feelings for

The next letter is in a graver yet the progress of his son, whom he not less natural strain. It was written eridently regarded as the representon the young student's recovery from ative of his mind, if not as the direct bis dangerous illness.—“ October inheritor of his political power. A 30, 1773. With what ease of mind letter, within a few months of his and joy of heart I write to my loved death, thus begins:-" How can I William, since Mrs Wilson's com- employ my reviving pen so well as fortable letter of Monday. I do not by addressing a few lines to the hope mean to address you as a sick man. I and comfort of my life. My dear trust in Heaven that convalescent is William, - You will have pleasure to the only title I am to give you in the ser, under my own hand, that I ailing tribe..

But, though mend every day, and that I am all I indulge with inexpressible delight but well.” The letter then laughin the thought of your returniog ingly alludes to Lord Mahon's (the health, I capnot help being a little late Earl Stanhope's) experiments in pain lest you should make more for the extinction of fires. " On haste than good speed to get well. Friday, Lord Mahon's indefatigable Your mamma has been before me spirit is to exhibit another incendium in suggesting that most useful pro- to lord mayor, foreign ministers, and verb, reculer pour mieux sauter, use- all lovers of philosophy, and means ful to all, but to the ardent necessarij. to illuminate the horizon with a You may indeed, my sweet boy, little bonfire of twelve hundred fabetter than any one, practise this gots, and a double edifice. Had our sage dictum, without any risk of be- friend been born sooner, Nero and ing thrown out in the chase of learn the second Charles would never have ing. All you want, at present, is amused themselves with reducing to quiet. With this, if your ardour, ashes the two noblest cities in the aprotivsy, can be kept in till you are world. My hand begins to demand stronger, you will make noise enough. repose : So, with my best compli. How happy the task, my noble, . ments to Aristotle, Homer, Thucyamiable boy, to caution you only dides, and Xenophon, not forgetting against pursuing too much all those the Civilians and Law of Nations' liberal and praiseworthy things, to tribe, adieu, my dearest William. which less happy natures are per

“ Your ever most affectionate petually to be spurred and driven. * You have time to spare.

“Chatham." Consider, there is but the Encyclo- The Earl of Chatham died May pedia; and when you have master, 11, 1778, in his 70th year, followed ed that, what will remain ? You to the grave by the regrets of the will want, like Alexander, another empire; and going down to posteworld to conquer."

rity with the fame of the most comlu a subsequent letter, he thanks manding eloquence, the noblestrange “ his dearest William" for his affec- of political conception, and the most tionate anxiety for the result of a fit triumphant statesmanship of the of the gout, which had left the great most intellectual, ardent, and suc. earl an invalid ; or, as he describes cessful age of England. it bimself, “ left him behind in the The world of public life was now hospital, when his flying camp re- before Pitt, and to no man was this moved to Stowe. Gout has for the tempting and powerful career ever present subsided, and seems to in- more widely expanded. His great tend deferring his favours till Win. father's renown, the popular expectter, if Autumn will do its duty, and ation which had already begun to bless us with a course of steady gather round himself, and the strong weather, those days, which Madame inspiration of kindred genius, urged de Sevigné so beautifully paints as, him to the senate. All his studies * des jours filés d'or et de soie ?!" were thenceforth turned to Parlia

"Father,

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