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never was treated as a wife, and to the world she had the appearance of a mistress. She lived sullenly on, in hope that in time he would own and receive her ; but the time did not come till the change of his manners and depravation of his mind made her tell him, when he offered to acknowledge her, that "it was too late.” She then gave up herself to sorrowful resentment, and died under the tyranny of him, by whom she was in the highest degree loved and honoured.
What were her claims to this eccentric tenderness, by which the laws of nature were violated to retain her, curiosity will enquire; but how shall it be gratified ? Swift was a lover; his testimony may be suspected. Delany and the Irish saw with Swift's eyes, and therefore add little confirmation. That she was virtuous, beautiful, and elegant, in a very high degree, such admiration from such a lover makes it very probable; but she had not much literature, for she could not spell her own language; and of her wit, so Joudly vaunted, the smart sayings which Swift himself has collected afford no splendid specimen.
The reader of Swift's " Letter to a Lady on her Marriage," may be allowed to doubt whether his opinion of female excellence ought implicitly to be admitted; for if his general thoughts of women be such as he exhibits, a very little sense in a lady would enrapture, and a very little virtue would astonish him. Stella's supremacy, therefore, was perhaps only local; she was great, because her associates were little.
In some Remarks lately published on the Life of Swift, his marriage is mentioned as fabulous, or doubtful; but, alas! poor Stella, as Dr. Madden told me, related her melancholy story to Dr. Sheridan, when he attended her as a clergyman to prepare hier for death; and Delany mentions it not with doubt, but only with regret. Swift never mentioned her without a sigh.
The rest of his life was spent in Ireland, in a country to which not even power almost despotic, nor flattery almost idolatrous, could reconcile him. He sometimes wished to visit England, but always found some reason to delay. He tells Pope, in the decline of life, that he hopes once more to see him; “but if not,” says he, “ we must part, as all human beings have
After the death of Stella, his benevolence was contracted, and his sererity exasperated; he drove his acquaintance from his table, and wondered why he was deserted. But he continued his attention to the publick, and wrote from time to time such directions, admonitions, or censures, as the exigency of affairs, in his opinion, made proper; and nothing fell from his pen in vain.
In a short poem on the Presbyterians, whom he always regarded with detestation, he bestowed one stricture upon Bettesworth, a lawyer eminent for his insolence to the clergy, which, from very considerable reputation, brought him into immediate and universal contempt. Bettesworth, enraged
at his disgrace and loss, went to Swift, and demanded whether he was the author of that poem? “Mr. Bettesworth, answered he, “ I was in my “youth acquainted with great lawyers, who, knowing my disposition to " satire, advised me, that if any scoundrel or blockhead whom I had lam“pooned should ask, “Are you the author of this paper ?' I should tell “ him that I was not the author; and therefore I tell you, Mr. Bettesworth, " that I am not the author of these lines."
Bettesworth was so little satisfied with this account, that he publickly professed his resolution of a violent and corporeal revenge; but the Inhabitants of St. Patrick's district embodied themselves in the Dean's defence. Bettesworth declared in Parliament, that Swift had deprived him of twelve bundred pounds a year.
Swift was popular awhile by another mode of beneficence. He set aside some hundreds to be lent in small sums to the poor, from five shillings, I think, to five pounds. He took no interest, and only required that, at repayment, a small fee should be given to the accomptant: but he required that the day of promised payment should be exactly kept. A severe and punctilious temper is ill qualified for transactions with the poor; the day was often broken, and the loan was not repaid. This might have been easily foreseen ; but for this Swift had no provision of patience or pity. He ordered his debtors to be sued. A severe creditor has no popular character; what then was likely to be said of him who employs the catchpoll under the appearance of charity? The clamour against him was loud, and the resentment of the populace outrageous ; he was therefore forced to drop his scheme, and own' the folly of expecting punctuality from the poor*.
His asperity continually increasing, condemned him to solitude ; and his resentment of solitude sharpened his asperity. He was not, however, totally deserted; some men of learning, and some women of elegance, often visited him; and he wrote from time to time either verse or prose; of his verses he willingly gave copies, and is supposed to have felt no discontent when he saw them printed. His favourite maxim was, “Vive la «
bagatelle ;" he thought trifles a necessary part of life, and perhaps found them necessary to hiniself. It seems impossible to him to be idle, and his disorders made it difficult or dangerous to be long seriously studious, or laboriously diligent. The love of age is always gaining upon age, and he had one temptation to petty amusements peculiar to himself; whatever he did, he was sure to hear applauded; and such was his predominance over all that approached, that all their applauses were probably sincere. He that is much flattered, soon learns to flatter himself : we are commonly taught
• This account is contradicted by Mr. Sheridan, who with great warnath asserts, from his owa knowledge, there was not one syllable of truth in this whole account iram the beginoing to the endo Şue Life of Swift, p. 457* E,
our duty by fear or shame, and how can they act upon the man who hears nothing but his own praises ?
As his years increased, his fits of giddines and deafness grew more frequent, and his deafness made conversation difficult : they grew likewise more severe, till in 1736, as he was writing a poeni called “ The Legion « Clab,” he was seized with a fit so painful, and so long continued, that he never after thought it proper to attempt any work of thought or labour.
He was always careful of his money, and was therfore no liberal entertainer; but was less frugal of his wine than of his meat. When his friends of either sex came to him, in expectation of a dinner, his custom was to give every one a shilling, that they might please themselves with their provision. At last his avarice grew too powerful for his kindness; he would refuse a bottle of wine, and in Ireland no man visits where he cannot drink.
Having thus excluded conversation, and desisted from study, he had neither business nor amusement ; for having, by some ridiculous resolution or mad vow, determined never to wear spectacles, he could make little use of books in his latter years: his ideas therefore, being neither renovated by discourse, nor increased by reading, wore gradually away, and left his mind vacant to the vexations of the hour, till at last his anger was heightened into madness.
He however permitted one book to be published, which had been the production of former years; “ Polite Conversation," which appeared in 1738. The “ Directions for Servants” was printed soon after his death. These two performances shew a mind incessantly attentive, and when it was not employed upon great things, busy with minute occurrences.
It is apparent that he must have had the habit of noting whatever he observed; for such a number of particulars could never have been assembled by the power of recollection.
He grew more violent; and his mental powers declined till (1741) it was found necessary that legal guardians should be appointed of his
person and fortune. He now lost distinction. His madness was compounded of rage and fatuity. The last face that he knew was that of Mis. Whiteway; and her he ceased to know in a little time. His meat was brought him cut into mouthfuls ; but he would never touch it while the servant staid, and at last, after it stood perhaps an hour, would eat it walking ; for he continued his old habit, and was on his feet ten hours a day.
Next year (1742) he had an inflammation in his left eye, which swelled it to the size of an egg, with boils in other parts: he was kept long waking with the pain, and was not easily restrained by five attendants from tearing out his eye.
The tumour at last subsided; and a short interval of reason ensuing, in which he knew his physician and his family, gave hopes of his recovery: but in a few days he sunk into lethargic stupidity, motionless, heedless, and speechless. But it is said, that, after a year of total silence, when his housekeeper, on the 30th of November, told him that the usual bonfires and illuminations were preparing to celebrate his birth-day, he answered, “ It is all folly; they had better let it alone.”
It is remembered that he afterwards spoke now and then, or gave some intimation of a meaning, but at last sunk into a perfect silence, which continued till about the end of October, 1744, when, in his seventy-eighth year, he expired without a struggle.
WHEN Swift is considered as an author, it is just to estimate his powers by their effects. In the reign of Queen Anne he turned the stream of popularity against the Whigs, and must be confessed to have dictated for a time the political opinions of the English nation. In the succeeding reign he delivered Ireland from plunder and oppression; and shewed that wit, confederated with truth, had such force as authority was unable to resist. He said truly of himself, that Ireland “was his debtor.” It was from the time when he began first to patronize the Irish, that they date their riches. and prosperity. He taught them first to know their own interest, their weight, and their strength, and gave them spirit to assert that equality with their fellow-subjects to which they have ever since been making vigorous advances, and to claim those rights which they have at last established. Nor can they be charged with ingratitude to their benefactor; for they reverenced him as a guardian, and obeyed him as a dictator.
In his works, he has given very different specimens both of sentiments and expression. His “ Tale of a Tub” has little resemblance to his other pieces. It exhibits a vehemence and rapidity of mind, a copiousness of images, and vivacity of diction, such as he afterwards never possessed or never exerted. It is of a mode so distinct and peculiar, that it must be considered by itself; what is true of that, is not true of any thing else which he has written.
In his other works is found an equable tenour of easy language, which rather trickles than flows. His delight was in simplicity. That he has in his works no metaphor, 'as has been said, is not true; but his few metaphors seem to be received rather by necessity than choice. He studied purity; and though perhaps all his strictures are not exact, yet it is not often that solecisms can be found; and whoever depends on his authority may generally conclude himself safe. His sentences are never too much dilated or contracted; and it will not be easy to find any embarrassment in the complication of clauses, any in consequence in his connectious, or abruptness in his transitions.
His style was well suited to his thoughts, which are never subtilised by nice disquisitions, decorated by sparkling conceits, elevated by ambitious sentences, or variegated by far-sought learning. He pays no court to the passions; he excites neither surprise nor adiniration; he always understands himself: and his readers always understand him: the peruser of Swift wants little previous knowledge: it will be sufficient that he is acquainted with common words and common things; he is neither required to mount elevations, nor to explore profundities; his passage is always on a level, along solid ground, without asperities, without obstruction.
This easy and safe conveyance of meaning it was Swift's desire to attain, and for having attained he deserves praise, though perhaps not the highest praise. For purposes merely didactic, when something is to be told that was not known before, it is the best mode, bat against that inattention by which known truths are suffered to lie neglected, it makes no provision; it instructs, but does not persuade.
By his political education he was associated with the Whigs, but he deserted them when they deserted their principles, yet without running into the contrary extreme; he continued throughout his life to retain the disposition which he assigns to the “ Church-of-England Man," of thinking commoniy with the Whigs of the State, and with the Tories of the Church.
He was a church.man rationally zealous; he desired the prosperity, and maintained the honour of the Clergy; of the Dissenters he did not wish to infringe the toleration, but he opposed their encroachments.
To his duty as Dean he was very attentive. He managed the revenues of his church with exact æconomy; and it is said by Delany, that more money was, under his direction, laid out in repairs than had ever been in the same time since its first erection. Of his choir he was eminently careful; and, though he neither loved nor understood music, took care that all the singers were well qualified, admitting none without the testimony of skilful judges.
In his church he restored the practice of weekly communion, and distributed the sacramental elements in the most solenn and devout manner with his own hand. He came to church every morning, preached commonly in his turn, and attended the evening anthem, that it might not be negligently performed.
He read the service “ rather with a strong nervous voice than in a grace“ ful manner; his voice was sharp and high-toned, rather than harmoo nious."
He entered upon the clerical state with hope to excel in preaching ; but complained, that, from the time of his political controversies, “ he could only preach pamphlets." This censure of himself, if judgment be made from those sermons which have been printed, was unreasonably severe.