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CHAPTER X.

PORTUGAL.

State of the National Feeling - Revolutionary Junta formed at Oporlo- The

Army marches to CoimbraRegency attempts to conciliale Revolution at Lisbon-Union of the Juntas - Arrival of Lord Beresford--DiscussionsFinal Arrangement-Elections.

PORTUGAL had groaned still morenarch, could certainly, as she did in heavily than Spain under the extinc- Sicily, have insisted upon his granting tion of her ancient glory, and the op- to his subjects a form of a free constipressive yoke of absolute power. The tution. She never, on this head, howperiod when her navies rode triumphant ever, offered any thing beyond barren over distant oceans, and subjected the advice. Other discontents rankled in empires of the east and of the west, had the minds of the Portuguese. Since been succeeded by an era of degradation, the King appeared to have fixed his in which she with difficulty maintained permanent residence in Brazil, the Euher place among the secondary powers ropean part of the monarchy saw itof Europe. The diffusion of know- self reduced to the condition of a mere ledge and thought, and the great re- province, under what it was accustomvolutions of which she felt the influ- ed to view as a humble and tributary ence, went far to rouse the nation from appendage. The general command of its lethargy. In bestirring themselves the army, still retained by Marshal against the invasion of France, the Beresford, and the numbers of English Portuguese were animated by the de- officers holding commissions in it, seemsåre, not only of national independence, ed to fix upon them a stamp of foreign but of recovering the ancient freedom subjection. The patriotism, moreover, of their constitution. In this respect of the Portuguese troops was mightily they had not, we fear, much cause to inflamed by the almost total cessation congratulate themselves in the treat- of their pay, and by the privations of ment which they experienced from every kind which they endured in conBritain. The national junta, formed sequence of the financial embarrassupon the liberation of the country ments of the regency. from French dominion, was put down Under the combined influence of all by the British military force, and its these causes, the spark which fell from place supplied by a regency acting un- the Spanish revolution could not be der the sole authority of the King. long of bursting into a flame. Oporto, Britain, whose military force formed the centre of Portuguese commerce, the sole prop of the power of that mo- had naturally imbibed the greatest por

VOL. XIII. PART I.

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tion of the new ideas, and was the most The regency now found themselves
ripe for a change. The plan of raising reduced to an extremity, in which only
the standard of liberty had been se- the most ample concessions could af-
cretly formed by a number of the prin- ford a hope of maintaining their ground.
cipal officers of the army stationed They issued a decree for the convoca-
there, at the head of whom was Sepul- tion of the Cortes, though under the
veda, a young man of birth and talents, ancient form of the commons, nobles,
whose father had taken a distinguished and clergy, sitting in separate houses ;
part against the French in the late re. they undertook to solicit the King to
volution. On the night of the 23d send into Portugal a Prince of his
August, a meeting was held, and the house; they suspended the English
immediate execution of their design officers; they announced immediate
was resolved up. The officers going steps to be taken for discharging the
through their respective quarters, call- arrears of pay due to the troops. But
ed together the troops, and represented these measures were taken too late,
to them the degraded and enslaved and were too evidently prompted by
state of the nation, as well as their own the impending peril, and likely to pass
wants and privations. These evils could away along with it, to have any effect
be remedied only by the formation of in arresting the progress of revolution.
a constitutional order, such as they If the institutions now called for were
had seen so happily established in a too democratic, the old feudal Cortes
sister kingdom. The soldiery, with was founded upon forms of political
loud cries, assented, and swore fidelity society that had wholly passed away,
to the King, the Cortes, and the con- and could in no degree satisfy the na-
stitution. At day-break the event was tional wish. Notwithstanding, there,
first announced to the people by a ge- fore, all the promises and proclama.
neral discharge of artillery ; and the tions of the regency, and their attempts
whole had rather the appearance of a to under-rate the actual strength of
public festival, than of a great political the hostile party, the ferment in Lis.
and military revolution.

bon was continually increasing, and a
This great event, being reported in crisis evidently could not be far dis-
the north of Portugal, and the fortresses tant.
along the Minho, was followed by a A peculiar circumstance was likely
general declaration in favour of the new to hasten the dreaded convulsion. The
system. In the course of a short time the 15th September, as the era of the ex.
júnta found themselves at the head of pulsion of the French from Portugal,
upwards of 20,000 men. Of the troops had been ever since celebrated by a
ordered by the regency to march upon general field-day of the troops. So
Oporto, under the command of the serious, however, did the regency con-
Conde de Amarante and General Vit. sider the disposition now prevalent in
toria, the greater part joined the re- the army, that they ordered this cus-,
volutionists ; the rest dispersed, and tom to be discontinued, and the soldiers
sought safety within the Spanish fron- to remain in their barracks. The de-
tier. The army of the junta, therefore, termination, however, was already ta-
found no difficulty in advancing upon ken to celebrate this day by another
Coimbra, where it halted, hoping to species of deliverance. At four in the
attain its object, rather by the volun- afternoon, a regiment quitted their
tary concurrence of its brethren in quarters, and hastened to the great
arms, than by the painful alternative square, where they immediately began
of a civil war.

to call aloud, the Constitution, the

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King." This signal heard, all the dif- of La Junqueria. The junta, alarmed ferent regiments, including the militia, by this intelligence, which already prowere successively seen arriving on the duced some symptoms of counter.re. same spot, raising similar cries, which volution, sent immediate notice to Lord were soon echoed by the whole popu- Beresford, that such a change had now lation of Lisbon. Field-Marshal the taken place, as rendered his assumpMarquis de Rezende, and other high tion of the powers thus delegated en, officers, were carried away by the tor- tirely out of the question, and that he rent. The multitude, in their enthuc had no alternative but to proceed dia siasm, called for an old popular magis, rectly to England. The Marshal emtrate, named “the Judge of the peo- ployed successively threats and conciple," whose functions had long ceased, liation ; he at length solicited merely but whose name was still dear to them. permission to land for the adjustment Under his superintendance a junta was of his private affairs. Every overture formed, and notice was given to the being rejected, he finally urged, that troops from Oporto, that their bré. as Captain Maitland was under orders thren in Lisbon were ready in every to proceed to the Mediterranean, be respect to co-operate with them. Some was left without any means of conveydifference, however, arose between ance to England. The junta replied, the two juntas, each claiming the su- that if the packet-boat, which was periority: that of Lisbon, as being about to sail, could not answer this formed in the capital ; while that of purpose, they were ready to provide Oporto boasted of themselves as first him with another vessel. Marshal Beformed, as the authors of Spanish li- resford at length determined to sail in berty, and as generally recognized the packet-boat, and he even paid into throughout the provinces. After some the hands of the junta, the sum of discussion, the affair was adjusted by 106,952 piastres, which he had brought the two juntas being incorporated in- for the pay of the troops. On this to one, and being appointed to proceed transaction being brought under the jointly to arrange the mode of conve- view of the British government, they ning the Cortes.

very prudently declined giving any In this state of affairs a crisis occur. opinion, and referred it entirely to the red, which was the subject of some determination of the King of Portutemporary alarm. Marshal Beresford, gal. foreseeing, and hoping to avert the This external danger was succeeded present storm, had some time ago sail. ' by one arising within the bosom of the ed for Brazil, to represent to the King assembly itself. The difficulty was the necessity of taking measures to sa- about the mode of forming the electisfy the soldiers and people. It was tions. The Oporto members wished now announced, that he was returned, them to take place on the popular moand in the river, bringing money for del adopted in Spain; while the Listhe pay of the trcops, and ample bon part of the junta preferred the power to introduce such reforms into mode used in chusing the ancient Corthe government as might still the na- tes. The former opinion, being suptional discontent. He was invested · ported by the troops and people, preparticularly with the unlimited military vailed ; and decrees were issued to concommand, under the title of Marquis duct the elections on the Spanish moof Campo Mayor. His vessel, the Ven. del, at the rate of one deputy to 30,000 geur, commanded by Captain Mait- inhabitants. The electoral'assemblies land, anchored opposite to the palace were to be held on the 26th November, and the Cortes to meet on the 6th demission. It soon appeared that the January 1821. That body, when agó hasty step of the 11th November was sembled, was to fix the other particu. taken contrary to the general tenor of lars of the constitution.

· public opinion. After a good deal of This arrangement did not satisfy the interior fermentation, the principal mimore violent partizans of liberty, who litary officers assembled in council on called for nothing less than the entire the 17th, and resolved, that the memacceptance and immediate enforcement bers who had demitted, should be inof the Spanish constitution. With this vited to resume their functions; that view, on the 11th November, a great the elections should take place on the body of the troops, in concert, as was same footing as for the Spanish Cortes; supposed, with Silveira, Vice-President but that the new constitution should of the junta, appeared in arms. Under not be put in action till it was adoptthe in/uence of this assemblage, the ed, with the requisite modifications, by junta decided upon the immediate prom the Cortes of Portugal. These resoluclamation of the Spanish constitution, tions were immediately acted upon. at the same time making certain changes The members who had resigned, rein its own internal composition. The sumed their places. Silveira, in his oath was immediately taken by the turn, was obliged to resign, and on the troops, amid loud acclamations, and 20th, was ordered to quit Lisbon in the change was forthwith announced 24 hours. to the people.

This crisis put an end to the disturb. Although this last movement, amid ances which had agitated Lisbon. The the surprise of the moment, had taken elections were tranquilly proceeded in ; place with outward apparent harmony, but as the Cortes did not meet till the a considerable part of the military kept following year, we must of course rem aloof, and murmurs began soon to arise serve till the next volume our account in the public. Four members of the of its proceedings. junta, and 150 officers, gave in their ·

CHAPTER XI.

ITALY.

State of NaplesThe CarbonariInsurreclion at Nola-Rapidly spreads

King accepts the Spanish Constitution-Troubles in Sicily-Expedition of Pepe Convention at Palermo--Parliament meets-Its measures with regard to Sicily-Views and measures of Austria-Of Russia--Congress at Troppau-Invitation to the King of Naples-His departure for Laybach.

youp"

POPULAR revolutions have a natural vernment, stable, wise, and religious, is tendency to spread ; and there were assured to you. The people will be the Beveral countries, too closely connecta sovereign, and the monarch will only be ed with Spain, and too much united to the depositary of the laws, which shall her in political feeling, not to be liable be decreed by a constitution the most to imbibe the contagion. Italy was energetic and desirable." . He afterunited to her by many ancient ties; and wards added, “ Can you possibly amid the soft effeminacy into which doubt the promises of that father, whe, she had sunk, powerful stirrings of her born among you, has every thing in ancient spirit began to be felt. An in- common with dignant recollection of departed great- The Neapolitan people had thus a ness had become a leading feature in just right to expect from their King the mind of the modern Italians. The the gratification of their wishes for a works of her recent poets are filled representative government. But besides with the memory of her former glo- the natural tendency of Kings to fora ries, and lamentations over her present get such pledges, after they have serdownfall. The various revolutions ved their temporary purpose, a foreign through which the country had passed influence of a most powerful nature during the last twenty years ; even the was exerted in an opposite direction. temporary sway of France, though it Austria, which had been the immediate was only that of a military despotism, instrument in restoring the Neapolitan had tended to enlarge the sphere of family, and still held

military possestheir political ideas and information. sion of the country, claimed a right to Even before the return of the King, a bar the adoption of any step tending general call for a constitutional go to commit the tranquillity of her own vernment had been raised. This was Italian dominions. In conformity to recognized and sanctioned by Ferdi- these views, there was concluded at nand of Naples in his proclamation, is- Vienpa, on the 12th June, 1815, a sesued at Palermo on the 1st May, 1815. `cret convention, of the following teHe there told his subjects: "A go- nor :

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